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WILLIAM PITT...

..Page 551

SIR JAMES MACKINTOSH

..Page 821

His early ill health and inability to attend a public school, His birth near Inverness, Scotland, 821 ; precocity and

551 ; his remarkable proficiency at home, ib.; goes to early love of reading, ib.; distinction at school, ib.; per.

Cambridge at fourteen, ib., his ambition from boyhood suades bis school-fellows to practice extemporaneous

to be an orator, ib. ; his training with that view at col. speaking, .; goes to the university, ib.; early attach-

lege, 552; his mode of studying the classics, ib. ; his em. ment to metaphysical inquiries, ib.; intimacy and union

inence in the mathematics, ib. ; his severe discipline in of studies with Robert Hall, 821-22; studies medicine at

logic, 553; in mental science and political economy, ib.; Edinburgh, 822; removes to London, and supports him.

his early social habits, 554; comparison between him self by writing for the periodical press, ib.; publishes

and Lord Chatham, 555; his call to the bar, ib. ; his his Vindiciæ Galliciæ in answer to Burke on the French

election to Parliament, 556; remarkable success of his Revolution, ib. ; studies law, and is called to the bar,

maiden speech, ib. ; joins the Whigs, ib.; his sarcasın 823; delivers his lectures on the Law of Nature and Na-

on Lords North and Germaine, 557; comes in with Lord tions, ib.; beautiful character of Grotius in his Intro-

Shelburne as Chancellor of the Exchequer at the age ductory Lecture, 823-24; success as an advocate, 824;

of twenty-three, ib., his brilliant speech against Mr. his speech in defense of Peltier when prosecuted for a

Fox and the Coalitionists, 558; his felicitous quotation libel op Bonaparte, ib. ; encomiums of Lord Erskine and

from Horace, 561 ; is driven out with Lord Shelburne Robert Hall on this speech, 825; is appointed Recorder

by the Coalition, ib.; attacks Mr. Fox's East India Bill, of Bombay, and raised to the honors of knighthood, ib.;

562; made Prime Minister at twenty-four, 563; Mr. spends eight years in India, and returns with a broken

Fox'e efforts to drive him out, ib.; his energetic resist- constitution, ib.; enters Parliament, ib.; becomes Pro-
ance, 564; extraordinary scene in the House, 565; his fessor of Law and General Politics in Haileybury Col.
keen rebuke of General Conway, ib.; his ultimate tri. lege, 826; his literary labors, ib. ; his character as a par-
umph, 568; his East India Bill, ih.; motion for reform liamentary orator, ib.; his death, ib.
in Parliament, 569; plan of paying the public debt, 570; SPEECH in behalf of Peltier

827
his admirable speech against the Slave Trade, ib.; war CHARACTER of Charles J. Fox...

850
with France, 571 ; eloquent speech when his proposals
of peace were rejected by the French, 575; speech of

GEORGE CANNING....

851
great compass and power when he refused to treat
with Bonaparte, 576; resigns at the end of seventeen

His birth in London, 851 ; descended from an Irish fam-
years, ib. ; returns to power, 577 ; his death, ib.; per.

ily of distinction, ib.; premature death of his father, ib. ;
sonal appearance and characteristics of his eloquence,

dependent condition of his mother, who goes on to the

577-e.

stage for her support, ib.; his early proficiency at school,

SPEECH on the Abolition of the Slave Trade ........ 579

ib.; his love of English literature, ib.; is removed to

Eton, ib.; induces his companions to establish a paper

SPEECH on the Rapture of Negotiations with France. 593 called the Microcosm, ib.; takes the lead in a debating
SPEECH on Refusing to Negotiate with Bonaparte

society, 852; leaves Eton with its highest honors, and

enters the University of Oxford, ib. ; when freshman,

LORD ERSKINE..

629 gains the Chancellor's prize for Latin composition, ib.;

His birth at Edinburgh, 629; early education at Edin-

high standing at Oxford, ib.; influence of competition,

ib. ; leaves the university and commences the study of
burgh and St. Andrews, ib.; his remarkable versatility
of mind and liveliness of feeling, ib. ; goes to sea at

the law, ib.; is invited by Mr. Pitt to become his polit-

ical adherent, ib.; elected to Parliament, ib. ; his early
fourteen as a midshipman, ib.; enters the army as an

character as a speaker, 853 ; unites in establishing the
ensign at eighteen, 630; marries at twenty, ib.; his

Anti Jacobin Review, ib.; author of the most striking
studies in English literature, ib.; deterinines to study

poetical effusions in the work, ib.; the Needy Knife-
law, 631; his call to the bar, ib. ; his first retainer and
remarkable success, ib.; his instantaneous overflow of

grinder, 853-4; made Under Secretary of State, and aft-
businese, 632; case of Lord George Gordon, ib.; enters

erward Treasurer of the Navy by Mr. Pitt, 854 ; becomes
Parliament and supports Fox, ib.; goes out with the

Secretary of Foreign Affairs under the Duke of Port-
Coalition ministry, 633 ; State Trials, ib.; made Lord

land, ib.; fights a duel with Lord Castlereagh, and goes

out of office, ib. ; is chosen member of Parliament for
Chancellor under the Grenville ministry, 634; his re.
tirement and death, ib.; personal appearance and char.

Liverpool, 855; goes as embassador extraordinary to

Lisbon, ib. ; appointed Governor General of India, ib.;
acter of his eloquence, 635-6.

is appointed Secretary of Foreign Affairs, ib.; his strong

SPEECH in behalf of Lord George Gordon..

637 stand against the invasion of Spain by France, ib.; his

SPEECH on the Rights of Juries

655

celebrated speech on giving aid to Portugal when in.

SPEECH in behalf of Stockdale

683 vaded from Spain, 856; is made Prime Minister, ib. ;

SPEECR in behalf of Frost ..

698 his health soon after fails him, ib. ; his death, ib.; sketch

SPEECH in behalf of Bingham

708 of his character by Sir James Mackintosh, 856-8.

SPEECH in behalf of Hardy

713

SPEECH on the Fall of Bonaparte

859

SPEECH against Williams for the publication of Paine's

SPEECH on Radical Reform

865

Age of Reason

761

SPEECH delivered at Plymouth..

873

SPEECH in bebalf of Hadfield.

766

Speech on Affording Aid to Portugal

EFEECH in behalf of Markham.

778

EXTRACTS

883

JOHN PHILPOT CURRAN.

785 LORD BROUGHAM..

886

His birth and parentage, 785; the farnily, though in low Descended from one of the most ancient families of West-

circumstances, remarkable for intellectual vigor, ib.; his moreland, England, 886 ; born at Edinburgh, ib.; edu.

early love of sport and wild adventure, ib.; is sent to cated at the High School under Dr. Adam, ib.; rapidity

school and to the university by a clergyman of the of his mind from early life, ib.; enters the University

Deighborhood, ib., distinguished for his classical attain- of Edinburgh, ib.; distinguished for his mathematical

ments and love of metaphysical inquiry, 786; studies attainments, ib.; early election to the Royal Society of

law in London, ib. ; his unwearied efforts to remove his Edinburgh, ib.; studies law, ib. ; his training in extem-

defects and gain fluency as a public speaker, ib.; settles poraneous debate, ib.; publishes his work on Colonial

in Dublin and rives to early distinction, ib.; forms the Policy, ib,; removes to London and commences the

Society of the Monks of the Screw, ib.; his celebra- practice of the law, 887; is a regular contributor to the

ted address to Lord Avonmore respecting that Society, Edinburgh Review, ib.; becomes a member of Parlia-

787; enters the Irish House of Commons, ib. ; his bold. ment, ib.; subjects of his published speeches, ib.; char.

nes and eloquence during the State Trials, 787-8; acter of his oratory, 888; comparison between him and

Robert Emmett and Sarah Curran, 788; is appointed Mr. Canning, ib.; his attack upon Canning in 1823, when

Master of the Rolls, ib.; his misfortunes and decline the latter gave him the lie, 889, 890.

of bealth, 788-9; resigns his office, 789; his death, SPEECH on the Army Estimates...

891

ib.; his characteristic excellences and faults as an or-

SPEECH in behalf of Williams.

896

ator, i

SPEECH on the Invasion of Spain by France.. ..... 904

SPEECH in behalf of Rowan..

790 SPEECH on Parliamentary Reform...

914

BPerch in behalf of Finnerty ..

805 INAUGURAL DISCOURSE, when inducted as Lord Rector

SPEECH against the Marquess of Headfort. ..... 814

of the University of Glasgow.....

.. 875

.. 937

SELECT BRITISH ELOQUENCE.

SIR JOHN ELIOT.

John Eliot was descended from a family of great respectability in Cornwall, and was born on the 20th of April, 1590. After enjoying the best advantages for educa. tion which England could afford, and spending some years in foreign travel, he was elected to Parliament at the age of thirty-three, and became one of the most prominent members in the House of Commons under Charles I.

The House embraced at this time, some of the ablest and most learned men of the age, such as Sir Edward Coke, John Hampden, Selden, St. John, Pym, &c. Among these, Sir John Eliot stood pre-eminent for the force and fervor of his eloquence. The general style of speaking at that day was weighty, grave, and sententious, but tinctured with the pedantry of the preceding reign, and destitute of that warmth of feeling which is essential to the character of a great orator. Eliot, Wentworth, and a few others were exceptions; and Eliot especially spoke at times with all the enthusiasm and vehemence of the early days of Greece and Rome.

Hence he was appointed one of the managers of the House when the Duke of Buckingham was impeached in 1626, and had the part assigned him of making the closing argument against the Duke before the House of Lords. This he did with such energy and effect as to awaken the keenest resentment of the Court; so that two days after he was called out of the House, as if to receive a message from the King, and was instantly seized and hurried, off by water to the Tower. The Commons, on hearing of this breach of privilege, were thrown into violent commotion. The cry “ Rise!" “Rise!" was heard from every part of the hall. They did immediately adjourn, and met again only to record their resolution, “ Not to do any more business until they were righted in their privileges.” This decisive measure brought the government to a stand, and reduced them to the humiliating necessity of releasing Sir John Eliot, and also Sir Dudley Diggs, another of the managers who had been arrested on the same occasion. Eliot and his companion returned in triumph to the House, which voted that “they had not exceeded the commission intrusted to them."

In consequence of this defeat, and the backwardness of the Commons to grant the supplies demanded, Charles soon after dissolved Parliament, and determined to raise money by "forced loans." Great numbers resisted this imposition, and among them Eliot and Hampden, who, with seventy-six others of the gentry, were thrown into prison for refusing to surrender their property to the Crown ; while hundreds of inferior rank were impressed into the army or navy by way of punishment. The King found, however, that with all this violence he could not raise the necessary supplies, and was compelled to call another Parliament within eight months. Eliot, Hampden, and many others who had been lying under arrest, were elected members of the new House of Commons while thus confined in prison, and were released only a few days before the meeting of Parliament.

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These violent invasions of the rights of property and person, naturally came up for consideration at an early period of the session. The Commons, as the result of their discussions, framed, on the 27th of May, 1628, that second Great Charter of the liberties of England, the PETITION OF Right; so called because drawn up, in the humble spirit of the day, in the form of a petition to the King, but having, when ratified by his concurrence, all the authority of a fundamental law of the kingdom. This document was prepared by Sir Edward Coke at the age of eighty-three, and was one of the last public acts of that distinguished lawyer. It provided, that no loan or tax might be levied but by consent of Parliament; that no man might be imprisoned but by legal process; that soldiers might not be quartered on people contrary to their wills; and that no commissions be granted for executing martial law. On the 2d of June, Charles returned an evasive answer, in which he endeavored to satisfy the Commons without giving a legal and binding assent to the petition. The next day, Sir John Eliot made the following speech. It breathes throughout, that spirit of affection and reverence for the King's person which was still felt by both houses of Parliament. It does not dwell, therefore, on those recent acts of arbitrary power in which the King might be supposed to have reluctantly concurred; and the fact is a striking one, that Eliot does not even allude to his late cruel imprisonment, a decisive proof that he was not actuated by a spirit of personal resentment. The entire speech was directed against the royal Favorite, the Duke of Buckingham. Its object was, to expose his flagrant misconduct during the preceding ten years, under the reign of James as well as Charles; and to show that through his duplicity, incompetency, and rash counsels, the honor of the kingdom had been betrayed, its allies sacrificed, its treasures wasted, and those necessities of the King created which gave rise to the arbitrary acts referred to in the Petition of Right. The facts which Eliot adduces in proof, are very briefly mentioned, or barely alluded to, because they were fresh in the minds of all, and had created a burning sense of wrong and dishonor throughout the whole kingdom. They will be explained in brief notes appended to the speech ; but, to feel their full force, the reader must go back to the history of the times, and place himself in the midst of the scene.

There is in this speech, a union of dignity and fervor which is highly characteristic of the man. “His mind,” says Lord Nugent, “was deeply imbued with a love of philosophy and a confidence in religion which gave a lofty tone to his eloquence." His fervor, acting on a clear and powerful understanding, gives him a simplicity, directness, and continuity of thought, a rapidity of progress, and a vehemence of appeal, which will remind the reader of the style of Demosthenes. His whole soul is occupied with the subject. He seizes upon the strong points of his case with such absorbing interest, that all those secondary and collateral trains of thought with which a speaker like Burke, amplifies and adorns the discussion, are rejected as unworthy of the stern severity of the occasion. The eloquence lies wholly in the thought; and the entire bareness of the expression, the absence of all ornament, adds to the effect, because there is nothing interposed to break the force of the blow. The antique air of the style heightens the interest of the speech ; and will recommend it particularly to those who have learned to relish the varied construc. tion and racy English of our early writers.

SPEECH

OF SIR JOHN ELIOT ON THE PETITION OF RIGHT, DELIVERED IN THE HOUSE OF COMMONS,

JUNE 3, 1628.

Me. SPEAKER,—We sit here as the great | authority of books? Look on the collections of Council of the King, and in that capacity, it is the Committee for Religion; there is too clear an our duty to take into consideration the state and evidence. See there the commission procured affairs of the kingdom, and when there is occa- for composition with the papists of the North ! sion, to give a true representation of them by Mark the proceedings thereupon, and you will way of counsel and advice, with what we con- find them to little less amounting than a toleraceive necessary or expedient to be done. tion in effect : the slight payments, and the easi.

In this consideration, I confess many a sad ness of them, will likewise show the favor that thought hath affrighted me, and that not only in is intended. Will you have proofs of men ? Witrespect of our dangers from abroad (which yet I ness the hopes, witness the presumptions, witknow are great, as they have been often prest ness the reports of all the papists generally. Oband dilated to us), but in respect of our disor- serve the dispositions of commanders, the trust ders here at home, which do enforce those dan- of officers, the confidence in secretaries to emgers, and by which they are occasioned. For Iployments in this kingdom, in Ireland, and elsebelieve I shall make it clear to you, that both at where. These will all show that it hath too first, the cause of these dangers were our disor- great a certainty. And to this add but the ders, and our disorders now are yet our greatest incontrovertible evidence of that All-powerful dangers—that not so much the potency of our Hand, which we have felt so sorely, that gave enemies as the weakness of ourselves, doth threat- it full assurance; for as the heavens oppose en us: so that the saying of one of the Fathers themselves to our impiety, so it is we that first may be assumed by us, non tam potentià sua opposed the heavens. guam negligentiâ nostrâ," " not so much by their II. For the second, our want of councils, that power as by our neglect.” Our want of true great disorder in a state under which there can devotion to heaven-our insincerity and doub- not be stability. If effects may show their causes ling in religion—our want of councils—our pre- fas they are often a perfect demonstration of cipitate actions—the insufficiency or unfaithful- them), our misfortunes, our disasters, serve to ness of our generals abroad—the ignorance or prove our deficiencies in council, and the consecorruption of our ministers at home--the impov- quences they draw with them. If reason be alerishing of the sovereign—the oppression and lowed in this dark age, the judgment of dependdepression of the subject-the exhausting of our encies and foresight of contingencies in affairs, treasures - the waste of our provisions-con- do confirm my position. For, if we view oursumption of our ships—destruction of our men selves at home, are we in strength, are we in -lhese make the advantage to our enemies, not reputation, equal to our ancestors ? If we view the reputation of their arms; and if in these ourselves abroad, are our friends as many ? are there be not reformation, we need no foes abroad : our enemies no more? Do our friends retain Time itself will ruin us.

their safety and possessions? Do not our eneTo show this more fully, I believe you will mies enlarge themselves, and gain from them all hold it necessary that what I say, should not and us? To what council owe we the loss of seem an aspersion on the state or imputation on the Palatinate, where we sacrificed both our honthe government, as I have known such motions or and our men sent thither, stopping those greatmisinterpreted. But far is this from me to pro- er powers appointed for the service, by which it pose, who have none but clear thoughts of the might have been defended ? What council gave excellency of the King; nor can I have other ends but the advancement of his Majesty's glory.

1 The gun-powder plot for blowing up both housI shall desire a little of your patience extraordi- ligion at a single stroke, was still fresh in the minds

es of Parliament, and extirpating the Protestant renary, as I lay open the particulars, which I shall of all. It is not, therefore, surprising, at a period do with what brevity I may, answerable to the when correct views of religious liberty were as yet importance of the cause and the necessity now unknown in England, that any remissness in exupon us; yet with such respect and observation ecuting the laws against Catholics, was regarded to the time, as I hope it shall not be thought with great jealousy by Eliot and his friends, espetroublesome.

cially as the mother of Buckingham was of that com1. For the first

, then, our insincerity and doub- munion. ling in religion, is the greatest and most danger-“the beautiful Elizabeth," sister of Charles I., had

2 Frederick V., the Elector Palatine, who married ous disorder of all others. This hath never been been attacked on religious grounds by a union of unpanished; and of this we have many strong Catholic states in Germany, with Austria at their examples of all states and in all times to awe us. head, stripped of the Pa ate, and driven as an What testimony doth it want? Will you have l exile into Holland. with his wife and child. All

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