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The ways of Israel]


(hedged up. tiplied her silver and gold, which they CHAP. II.

prepared for Baal. [Omit in Family Reading to Ver. 6.] 9 Therefore will I return, and take SAY ye unto your brethren, Ammi; and away my corn in the time thereof

, and to your sister, Ru-hamah. with your mother, plead : for she is not my, wine in the season thereof, and my wife, neither am í her husband : let her will recover my wool and my far therefore put away her whoredums out of given to cover her nakedness. her sight, and her adulteries from between 10 And now will I discover her her breasts; 3 Lest 1 strip her naked, lewdness in the sight of her lorers

, and set her as in the day that she was born, and make her as a wilderness, and and none shall deliver her out of min set her like a dry land, and slay her with hand. thirst. 4 And I will not have mercy 11 I will also cause all her mirth to upon her children ; for they be the children

cease; her feast days, her new moons, of whoredoms. 5 For their mother bath played the harlot: she that conceived them and her sabbaths, and all her solema hath done shamefully : for she said, I will feasts. gn after my lovers, that give me my bread 12 And I will destroy her rines eni and my water, my wool my flax, mine her fig trees, whereof she hath said, oil and my drink.

These are my rewards that my lovers

have given me : and I will make 6 Therefore, behold, I will hedge them a forest, and the beasts of the up thy way with thorns, and make a field shall eat them. wall, that she shall not find her paths. 13 And I will visit upon her the

7 And she shall follow after her days of Baalim, wherein she burned lovers, but she shall not overtake incense to them, and she decked her them; and she shall seek them, but self with her ear-rings and her jewe's shall not find them : then shall she and she went after her lovers, and say, I will go and return to my first forgat me, saith the Lord. husband; for then was it better with

14 Therefore, behold, I will allare me than now.

her, and bring her into the wilderness. 8 For she did not know that I gave and speak comfortably unto her. her corn, and wine, and oil, and mul

15 And I will give her her pine

EXPOSITION—Chap. I. Continued. by calling in the Gentiles, and by uniting rejected them from his visible church, is Israel and Judah under one head, the Mes. should in the end appear that they Fet siah, in the latter days, when they shall not “ as water spilt on the earth, whics again become“ God's people," and again cannot be gathered up again," (S210 “ find mercy.” (chap. ii. 1.)

xix. 14); but as seed scattered over a field Bp. Horsley finds, in the names of the which, though long concealed, shall & Prophet's three children, the different cha- length spring forth again:"-"for grea: sba racters in Israel; but we conceive the

be the day of Jezreel :" that is, abundar i meaning to be, that though God scattered shall be the harvest of their returi. – his people over all the earth, and for a time (Compare ver. 10 with Ron. is. 27, -23.)

NOTES. CHAP. II. Ver. 1. Say ye, &c. - Thongh we Ver. 8. And multiplied, &c. -- that is, eben 6 have omitted a few verses bere, as elsewhere, it is gave them gold and silver, they made, er der not from an idea of their being really indelicate in their idols with it. themselves, though unhappily translated; but be

Ver. 13. The days of Baalim—that is, whether cause we consider them (as they stand improper in a worshipped Baal. mixed circle.

-Ammi--Marg." My people.” Ver, 14. Speak comfortably-Heb. * Sprat:3 ? Ruhamah-" Having obtained mercy."

heart." Ver. 2. She is not my wife -- that is,“ Israel has forfeited all claims to my protection ;" yet her chil.

Ver. 15. The ralley of Achor, &c. - This

a common proverbial expression. dren are directed to plead and to remonstrate with Achor, though a scene of trouble and disties, 3 her, in the hope of pardon, notwithstanding she had

door of hope to the Israelites weder Jesus,...: attributed to her idols all the blessings of Jehovah's from this time Joshua drove on his conazes 3 providerce,

uninterrupted success." Bp. Horslev. Ver.3. Lest I strip her.-See Notes on Isa, iii. 17; Ver 16. Ishi-that is, “My husband Jer. xii. 26.

“ My lord,” or master they should regard bis ** 598

Her idolatries reproved,] CHAP. III. [but pardon promised.. yards from thence, and the valley of 20 I will even betroth thee unto me Achor for a door of hope : and she in faithfulness: and thou shalt know shall sing there, as in the days of her the Lord. youth, and as in the day when she 21 And it shall come to pass in that came up ont of the land of Egypt. day, I will hear, saith the LORD, I will

16 And it shall be at that day, hear the heavens, and they shall hear saith the Lord, that thou shalt call the earth ; me Ishi; and shall call me no more 22 And the earth shall hear the Baali.

corn, and the wine, and the oil; and 17 For I will take away the names they shall hear Jezreel. of Baalim out of her mouth, and they 23 And I will sow her unto me in shall no more be remembered by their the earth ; and I will have mercy upon name.

her that had not obtained mercy; and 18 And in that day will I make a I will say to them which were not my covenant for them with the beasts of people, Thou art my people; and they the field, and with the fowls of heaven, shall say, Thou art my God. (B) and with the creeping things of the ground : and I will break the bow and the sword and the battle out of the

CHAP. III. earth, and will make them to lie down THEN said the Lord unto me, Go sately.

yet, love a woman beloved of her 19 And I will betroth thee unto me friend, yet an adulteress, according to for ever; yea, I will betroth thee unto the love of the Lord toward the chilme in righteousness, and in judgment, dren of Israel, who look to other gods, and in lovingkindness, and in mercies. and love flagons of wine.


safely to their own land ; leading them as (B) Israel's idolatries reproved, and pardon through the desert of old, till they should promised. — The Prophet having contem- enter the valley of Achor, which was as it plated the reconciliation which was to take were) the door of hope to the land of promise. place in the future age, exhorts his people (See Note.) He further engages to deal to speak and to act as became those who with them as a tender husband, and not as obtained mercy of God, and to remoustrate a severe master, äs were the idols which strongly against the conduct of their mo- they worshipped. The rest of the chapter ther (Samaria), whose captivity is threat promises then security from every evil, ened on account of her forsaking the Lord, with the possession of every blessing under and ascribing her prosperity to idols. As a new covenant of mercy; and that in terms alı amplification of this threatening, the full of beauty and consolation. Heaven Prophet enumerates a series of afflictions and earth, and whatever they contain; all which were to befall her, till she should be nature is represented, in obedience to the brought to a sense of her duty to God, and God of Nature, as combining to make the of her fully in seeking after idols, and people of God happy; so that if they only falsely ascribing to them the blessings of breathe a wish, one part of nature echoes providence. After these corrections, how- it to another, and all join in harmony to ever, God promises to conduct his people transmit their wish to the ear of God.

the pioral.

NOTES. friend, and not a tyrant, as they had been used to Ver. 22. Shall hear the corn, &c.-" These two peak' of him. “ The very name, though capable verses beautifully represent inanimate objects as of a good sense, should be avoided by them, because speaking, and a chain of second causes as depending it was also the name of false gods, Newcome. on the first, the Lord of all Shall hear Jezreel Ver. 17. Baalim signities “Lords,” or masters, in the people whom God will sow again in bis land.

Seech. i. 11, and verse following." Horsley. Ver. 18. A coronant with the beasts.-See Job v. Ver. 23. I will say unto them, &c.--Dr. Booth23,Break the box:-Isa. ii. 4.

royd makes this passage clearer by preserving the Ver. 21. I will hrar (or answer) the heavens- original names: "I will have mercy on Loruha. ** Asking (as it were) to pour down iain on the earth ; mah ; and I will say to Lo-ammi (Vot my peopir), and they shall hear the earth when it supplicated Thou art my people, and they shall say, Thou art for rain : this and the next verse implies that they our God," lrad bad unfruitful seasons." Boothroyd.

Israel's desolate state,]


[and future hopes

, 2 So I bought her to me for fifteen

CHAP. IV. pieces of silver, and for an homer of barley, and an half homer of barley : HE

EAR the word of the LORD, se 3 And I said unto her, Thou shalt children of Israel: for the Lord abide for me many days; thou shalt hath a controversy with the inhabinot play the harlot, and thou shalt not tants of the land, because there is no be for another man: so will I also be truth, nor mercy, nor knowledge of for thee.

God in the land. 4 For the children of Israel shall 2 By swearing, and lying, and killabide many days without a king, and ing, and stealing, and committing without a prince, and without a sacri- adultery, they break out, and blood fice, and without an image, and with toucheth blood. out an ephod, and without teraphim : 3 Therefore shall the land mour,

5 Afterward shall the children of and every one that dwelleth therein Israel return, and seek the LORD shall languish, with the beasts of the their God, and David their king; and field, and with the fowls of heaven; shall fear the LORD and his goodness yea, the fishes of the sea also shall be in the latter days. (C)

taken away.


This parable seems to be intended to (C) The desolate state of Israel, and represent God's love to, and redemption their future hopes.-Commentators are not (or purchase) of, his people Israel: and agreed in what light to consider the woman the Prophet is commanded to love her, as bere named; some suppose her to be the the Lord does his people, that is, gratuiwife Hosea had been directed to marry in tously, and without any merit on their part; the first chapter, and who had proved false slaves by nature, but redeemed by grace. to him : but surely she could have no claim This woman we may suppose to have been to a dowry. Others suppose her to have been married, and dismissed for her unworthy & temporary wife, such things being com- conduct, on which account she had beci mon among the heathen ; but they certainly separaterl, without any of the ornaments or were not tolerated by the law of Moses. privileges of a wife; so should Israel, while We therefore consider the fact to be, that living in impenitence, remain long with the Prophet purchased this woman, being out those privileges, civil or religious, a female slave, as a concubine, or second- which they formerly enjoyed wbile action ary wife : and it is very remarkable (as Mi. in obedience to his laws; without prince or chaelis observes), that he paid the legal priest, sacrifice or oracle, or God. In the and established price of a female slave, latter days, however, it is promised they namely, “ thirty shekels, half in money, shall return and seek the Lord and his and half in grain." But this is never men. anointed ; and fear God and his goodness : tioned as the price of a harlot, vor could that is, fear as well to abuse bis goodness, be. (See Michuelis's Comm. on Moses, as to provoke his anger. vol. i. p. 451.)

NOTES. CHAP. III. Ver. 1. Beloved of her friend (or hus. sacrifice before thee, and find mercy.” — du inese and), yet an adulteress-false to her marriage vows. -Hebrew, The LXX and other versions read, “A woman that

"A standing statue, or pillar." See Ise.

xix. 19. — Without an ephod, and withoat terapia, loveth evil, an adulteress."

without means of inquiring the will of God. Ver. 2. Flagons of wine-Heb.“ Grapes." The most ancient method of making wine was, by press.

Ver. 5. David-that is, ** Messiah.” See Ezek.

Xxxiv, 23. ing the juice of the grapes into a cup, Gen. xl. Il; CHAP. IV. Ver. 1. A controversy. The whole see Note there. But some think that here the word

Jewish religion (says Mr. Robinson) was stand refers to dried grapes, or, &c. See Note on Cant. ii.

Jehovah's controversy." Jer. sxv.31. They eat. 5.- So I bought her, &c.-namely, as a concubine.

troverted all his precepts : be controverted all their See Deut. xxi. 11-14.

their actions. Ver. 4. The children of Israel shall abide many Ver. 2. Blood touchetk blood that is, aerders days, &c.-This is given as the mystical import of succeed each other without intermission, the preceding verse ; and that this was the fact, our translators refer to the Song of the Three Children in

Ver. 4. As they that strive with the priest. If the the furnace (ver. 15). “ Neither is there at this

people strove with the Lord, it can be no Fender time a prince, or prophet, or leader, or burnt offer

that they strove with the priests, dispating not esix ing, or sacrifice, or oblation, or incense, or place to

the dues of the priests, but the sacrifices demanded

by God, 600

stroy thy mother.

Judah warned]

CHAP. IV. [by the fate of Israel. 4 Yet let no man strive, nor reprove caused them to err, and they have i another: for thy people are as they gone a whoring from under their that strive with the priest.

God. 5 Therefore shalt thou fall in the 13 They sacrifice upon the tops of :: day, and the prophet also shall fall the mountains, and burn incense upon with thee in the night, and I will de- the hills, under oaks and poplars and

elms, because the shadow thereof is 6 My people are destroyed for lack good : therefore your daughters shall of knowledge; because thou hast reject- commit whoredom and your spouses ed knowledge, I will also reject thee, shall commit adultery. that thou shalt be no priest to me: 14 I will not punish your daughters seeing thou hast forgotten the law of when they commit whoredoni, nor thy God, I will also forget thy chil. your spouses when they commit aduldren.

tery : for themselves are separated with 7 As they were increased, so they whores, and they sacrifice with harsinned against me: therefore will Í lots: therefore the people that doth not change their glory into shame.

understand shall fall. 8 They eat up the sin of my people, 15 Though thou, Israel, play the and they set their heart on their ini- harlot, yet let not Judah offend; and quity.

come not ye unto Gilgal, neither go ye 9 And there shall be, like people, up to Beth-aven, nor sware, The Lord like priest: and I will punish them liveth. for their ways, and reward them their 16 For Israel slideth back as a doings.

backsliding heifer : now the LORD 10 For they shall eat, and not have will feed them as a lamb in a large nough: they shall commit whoredom, place. and shall not increase: because they 17 Ephraim is joined to idols : let have left off to take heed to the him alone. ORD.

18 Their drink is sour: they have 11 Whoredom and wine and new committed whoredom continually: her Fine take away the heart.

rulers with shame do love, Give ye. 12 My people ask counsel at their 19 The wind hath bound her up in ocks, and their staff declareth unto her wings, and they shall be ashamed em: for the spirit of whoredoms hath because of their sacrifices. (D)


their enormous guilt, and in consequence (D) Judah warned by the calamities of thereof, threatens them with heavy national ael.—The Prophet charged Israel with judgments, particularly a grievous famine.

NOTES, €r. 8. They set their heart on-" They list up Bp. Newcome and Dr. Boothroyd follow our marginal soul to "their iniquity.

reading, which is interrogative, "Shall I not ?" &c. 21.9. I will punish-Heb.“ Visit upon them." Ver. 15. Gilgal, Beth-aren, &c. - places reer. 12. My people ask counsel of their stocks- markable for idolatry, in which the Lord would not

is, their idols, See Jer, ii. 27. They also used have his name mentioned. See chap. v. 8; X. 4, 5. ration by staves, or rods, much in the same Ver. 16. A large place-the open desert, unscreenas they did by arrows. See Note on Ezek. xxi. ed and unprotected.

-Froin under-Boothroyd gives the true sense Ver. 18. Their drink is sour-Heb. “ Is gone;" is passage : “They have gone astray from their i. e. turned acid: so Horsley. But Newcome and

i. e. hare rerolied from their allegiance to Boothroyd read, " He (i. e. Ephraim, or Israel) is See 2 Chron. xxi.8.

gone alter their wine;"> i.. of the idol temples.r. 13. Therefore your daughter shall, &c. - Their rulers with shame do love, Gire ye. - See come, Horsley, and Boothroyd, all render this Prov. xxx. 15; xxxi. 4; Isa. v. ll. But Newcome e in the present tense, “they commit," &c. renders it, “Her rulers have loved fornication con

14, I will not punish, &c.--that is, because tinually; they have loved shame.a ve committed spiritual adultery against me,

Ver. 19. The wind hath bound, &c.—Bp. Horsley ore will I screen your own wives from punish- considers this as “ an admirable image of a people for proving false to you; especially as they torn by a conqueror from their native land, scattered been corrupted by visiting your idol temples, in exile to the four quarters of the world, and hence

every species ot' licentiousness is practised. forward living without any settled residence of their s the sense given to the passage by Bp. Horsley. own."

Farther judgments]


(threntened. CHAP. V.

7 They have dealt treacherously

against the Lond: for they have beHEAR ye this, o priests ; and gotten strange children : now shall a

hearken, ye house of Israel; and month devour them with their por give ye ear, O house of the king; for tions. judgment is toward you, because ye 8 Blow ye the cornet in Gibeah, have been a snare on Mizpah, and a and the trumpet in Ramah: ery net spread upon Tabor.

aloud at Beth-aven, after thee, O 2 And the revolters are profound to Benjamin. make slaughter, though I have been a 9 Ephraim shall be desolate in the rebuker of them all.

day of rebuke: among the tribes of 3 I know Ephraim, and Israel is Israel have I made known that which not hid from me: for now, O Ephraim, shall surely be. thou committest whoredom, and Israel 10 The princes of Judah were like is defiled.

them that remove the bound : thete4 They will not frame their doings fore I will pour out my wrath upon to turn unto their God: for the spirit them like water. of whoredoms is in the midst of them, 11 Ephraim is oppressed and and they have not known the Lord. broken in judgment, because he will

5 And the pride of Israel doth tes- ingly walked after the commandment. tity to his face: therefore shall Israel 12 Therefore will I be unto Epband Ephraim fall in their iniquity; raim as a moth, and to the house of Judah also shall fall with them.

Judah as rottenness. 6 They shall go with their flocks 13 When Ephraim saw his sick. and with their herds to seek the ness, and Judah saw his wound, then Lord; but they shall not find him ; went Ephraim to the Assyrian, and

hath withdrawn himself from sent to king Jareb: yet could he de them.

heal you, nor cure you of your wound.


EXPOSITION—Chap. IV. Continued. Notwithstanding this warning, however, he dah admonished to beware of those sins, complains that there are no tendencies to which left her rebellious sister Israel hep reformation, no mutual exhortations to re- less and desolate, as a deserted and exposed pentance. For this reason the Prophet lamb. Mr. Preb. Towusend supposes this again denounces the fall of the city and chapter was written during the interte: people. God himself is then introduced in num between the reigns of Jeroboam and person, complaining of their ignorance and Zechariah, when the people were overobstinacy, and threatening to reject them whelmed with licentiousness, and distractfor their ingratitude: and as their priests ed with civil war. had a large share in the common guilt, Ephraim (says God) is joined to idols, is they especially are threatened with a pro- wedded to his sins: let him alone, thereportionable share of the common ruin. fore! and immediately we see him, as it The sins of idolatry anıl divination are par- were, bound up in the wings of a tempest, ticularly reproved and threatened, and Ju- and carried off into captivity.

NOTES. CHAP. V. Ver. 2. The revolters are profound- Benjamin—that is, " Fly, for the enemy are per Bp. Newcome (whom Boothroyd follow's) renders ing after thee;"and this is the mole of alarmin rode this verse, “ T'he revolters have mare deep the Ver. 11. Walked after the COER in a teat-of slaughter (of victims); therefore (will) I (bring) Jehovah, certainly, but of their wicked princes. chastisement on them all :" Marg. * correction." Ver. 12. As a moth, as rottenness. Ser Job 18, 19;

Ver, 4. They will not frame -- Heb. “Give;" xiii. 2. The meaning is, that atter having as Marg. “ Their doings (Horsley,' evil habits ') will grieronsly offended God, they must bot trast to be not sutier them to turn," &c.

for deliverance, Ver. 3. Duth testify to his face - Boothroyd, Ver. 13. Jareb is the name of an Assyrian Lir; " Against him."

or, as the margin suggests, of an Assyrian co. Ver. 7. Sirange children-that is, the children of 2 Kings xvi. 7. strange women, and of a strange religion ; heathen. Ver. 15. Till they acknowledge, &c.--Heb - Ta See Deut. vii. 1-3.

they be guilty; i.e. either till they can'es thes Ver. 8. Gibeah, &c. - All places in the tribe of selves guilty, or till they have been puolelle Benjamin, Josh, xviii. 22-25. — After thee, o prefer the former

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