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bh16:1:91 Day 09: es the case, then there is nothing but slavery for you.

For there is no other medium, if we neglect on the one hand to repel violence; and, on the other, the

enemy will not grant us a truce. Our danger too e differs very much from that of the other Greeks ;

for Philip will not be barely satisfied with enslaving

Athens, he will destroy it; for he knows very well - you will never submit to slavery; and that, though

you would do this, you never could, for command and authority are habitual to you; and besides, you

will be capable of giving him more trouble and opcc position than all the rest of the Greeks united, .“ whenever you shall think fit to lay hold of any oc

casion to throw off the yoke. It must 'then be laid ,“ down as a certain maxim, that our whole fortune

is at stake, and that you cannot too much abhor the 9 mercenaries who have sold themselves to this man; « for it is not possible, no it is not, to vanquish your ç foreign enemies, till you have chastised your domes“ tic foes, who are his pensioners; so that, whilst you

will bulge against those as against fo many rocks, ç you will never attempt to act against the others, till

it be too late.

FROM THE THIRD PHILIPPIC. "Make this reflection, I beseech you: you think " the privilege of saying any thing is so inherent in < every man who breathes the air of Athens, that you

suffer foreigners and saves to deliver their thoughts

on every subject; infomuch that servants are here į indulged a greater liberty in that particular than ci

tizens in some other commonwealths. 'Tis from < the Rostra only, that the freedom of speech is de« nied. Hence it is that you are grown so unac« countably haughty in your assemblies, and so diffi« cult to be pleased. You would always be flattered " in them, and hear nothing but what fooths you: 5 and 'tis this pride and delicacy have brought you

indulged Tubject and have the air ons is to ; yout

to the brink of destruction. If then you remain " fill in the same difpofition, I have nothing to do " but to be silent. But if you can prevail with your, “ selves to listen to what is for your advantage with"out flattery, I am ready to speak. For notwith"standing the deplorable condition of our affairs, " and the several losses we have suftained through our “ neglect, they yet may be retrieved, provided you " determine to act as you ought in duty.

“You know, that whatever the Greeks suffered “ from the Lacedæmonians or from us, they suffered © by those who were Greeks as well as themselves;

so that we may compare our faults to those of a lon, who being born in a rich family, should err “ against some maxim of good ceconomy. Such a " lon would juftly deserve the reproachful name of a

{quanderer ; but it could not be justly asserted, that " he had seized upon another man's right, or that he “ was not the lawful heir. But if a slave, or a suppo“sititious child would seize an estate he had no man"ner of title to, just heavens! would not such an

enormity raise the whole world against him? and " would not they cry out with one voice, that it de"served exemplary punishment? But we do not con“ sider Philip and his present conduct in that light. “Philip, who, besides his not being a Greek, is no

ways allied to the Greeks by any kind of relation, " and is not distinguished even amongst the Barbarians " by any thing but his being denominated from the

contemptible place whence he comes ; and being a

wretched Macedonian by his birth, came into the “world in a corner whence we never buy even a good " llave. Notwithstanding this, does he not treat you

with the utmost indignity? Is it not arrived at it's “ highest pitch ? Not content, &c."

The Extracts which follow, being taken from the orations of Æschines and Demoithenes de Corona, it will be necessary to give the reader some idea of the subject. This Cicero informs us of in his prcamble

to those two orations, when he translated them; and this is the only fragment now remaining of that excellent work.

Demofthenes was entrusted with the care of repairing the walls of Athens, which he accomplished with great honour and reputation, having contributed a great deal of his own fortune towards it. Ctesiphon decreed a crown of gold to him on that account ; proposed it should be presented in the open theatre in a general assembly of the people ; and that the herald fhould proclaim it was to reward the zeal and probity of that orator. , Æschines accused Ctesiphon, as having violated the laws by that decree " So ex“ traordinary a contest raised the curiosity of all

Greece: people ran from all parts, and with rea« son too. What finer fight than to see two ora.

tors contending, each excelling in his own way; “ formed by nature, made perfect by art, and be- : “ sides animated with a personal enmity to each other. :

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Æschines, after having represented in the beginning of the exordium, the irregularities introduced in the commonwealth, and their pernicious tendency, proceeds thus.

" In such a situation of affairs, and in such dis. « orders, of which you yourselves are sensible; the only " method of saving the wrecks of the government, " is, if I mistake not, to allow full liberty to accufe " those who have invaded your laws. But if you shut " them up, or suffer others to do this, I prophesyo « that you will fall insensibly, and that very soon, un“ der à tyrannical power. For you know, gentlemen, that government is divided into three kinds;

c Ad hoc judicium concursus morum oratorum in graviffima cau. dicitur è tota Gracia factus effe. fa, accurata & inimicitiis incenia Quid enim aut tam visendum, aut contentio? Cic. de opc. gen. Orac. tam audiendum fuit, quàm fum. n. 22.

66 Monarchy,

e Monarchy, Oligarchy and Democracy. As to the "two former, they are governed at the will and plea6s sure of those who reign in either ; whereas eftas blished laws, only, reign in a popular state. That

none of you therefore may be ignorant, but, on the "s contrary, that every one may be entirely assured

that the day he ascends the seat of justice, to ex

amine an accusation upon the invasion of the laws, " that very day he goes to give judgment upon his “ own independence. And indeed, the legiflator who “ is convinced, that a free state can support itself no “ longer than the laws govern, takes particular care

to prescribe this form of an oath to judges, I will judge according to the laws. The remembrance " therefore of this, being deeply implanted in your

minds, must inspire you with a juft abhorrence of

any persons whatsoever who dare transgress them by " rash decrees; and that far from ever looking upona

transgression of this kind, as a small fault, you al

ways consider it as an enormous and capital crime. “ Do not suffer then, any one to make you depart

from so wise a principle. . . . But as, in the army, " every one of you would be ashamed to quit the poft afligned him by the general; fo let every one of you “ be this day ashamed to abandon the post, which the “ laws have given you in the commonwealth. What " post ? that of protectors of the government.

This comparison, which is very beautiful and noble in itself, has a peculiar grace in this place, presenting, as it were, two faces to us; for at the same time that it affects the judges, it reflects strongly on Demosthenes's cowardice, against whom it points a satyrical stroke, which is the more delicate and malicious, the more remote it seerns to be from all affectation. It is well known that he had abandoned his post and fled at the battle of Cheronza. This judicious observation was made by M. Tourreil.

" Muft we, in your person (addressing himself to Demosthenes) crown the author of the publick ca

• lamities, 66 lamities, or muft we destroy him? And indeed, « what unexpected revolutions, what unthought of 6 catastrophes have wenot feen in our days? The

King of Perfia, that King who opened a passage ft through mount Athos; who bound the Hellespont in

chains, who was fo imperious as to command the « Greeks to acknowledge him sovereign both of fea 6 and land; who in his letters and dispatches presumed 6C to stile himself the sovereign of the world from the « rising to the setting of the sun'; and who fights now, U not to rule over the rest of mankind, but to save his

own life. Do not we see those very men, who figCC nalized their zeal in the relief of Delphos, invefted .66 both with the glory, for which that powerful King U was once fo conspicuous, and with the title of chief 16 of the Greeks against him? As to Thebes, which 66 borders upon Attica, have we not seen it disappear « in one day from the midst of Greece? .... And 56 with regard to the unhappy Lacedæmonians, what 6 calamities have not befallen them only for taking « but a small part of the spoils of the temple; they who 66 formerly assumed a superiority over Greece,are they 6 not now going to send ambassadors to Alexander's 166 court, to bear the name of hostages in his train, to 66 become a spectacle of misery ; to bow the knee be66 fore the Monarch, submit themselves and their coun« try to his mercy ; and receive such laws as a con« queror, a conqueror they attacked first, shall think 66 fit to prescribe them? Athens itself, the common 66 refuge of the Greeks ; Athens formerly peopled with 66 ambassadors, who flocked to claim its almighty pro“ tection, is not this city now obliged to fight, not to 6C obtain a superiority over the Greeks, but to preferve 6C itself from destruction ? Such are the misfortunes s which Demosthenes has brought upon us, since his $intermeddling with the administration.

« But you, who of all men are the most unfit to figCc nalize yourselves by great and memorable actions, « and at the same time the fittest to distinguish your

“ selves

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