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Christ, which must be a subversion of the christian faith. Instead of Christ's paying the debt due to divine justice, they purchase deliverance by suffering the demand of the law. To a question of this nature it is replied, we do not believe the wicked suffer in this or the world to come to purchase salvation, or to satisfy a debt due to divine justice; neither of which are required, nor in the nature of things could be effected in this way.We hold their sufferings are the natural consequences of sin, and that which sin requires as its wages; "for the wages of sin is death.” A state of punishment for good purposes may also be designed to humble and prepare for that instruction which the word of life gives, and the salvation that arises from faith in the gospel of Christ. The person who believes. in salvation by grace through a Redeemer, and yet can understand, that whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom he receiveth, may see how we reconcile the idea of future punishment with complete salvation through the efficacious power of gospel grace. If our light afflictions, which are but for a moment, in this life, work for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory without lessening the honor of salvation by Christ, cannot afflictions in a future state be productive of the same end, and he understood with the same consistency in the divine economy of grace? "We glory," says the

apostle, "in tribulations; knowing that tribulation worketh patience; and patience, experience; and experience, hope; and hope maketh not ashamed, because the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the holy Ghost which is given unto us." Here he happily unites the effects of tribulation with the gift of the holy Spirit, and considers the effects of the one not to dishonor the operation of the other. Future punishment is, therefore reconcilable with the atonement of Christ, on the same principles which reconcile punishment in the present life.

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Shall we now attend for a few moments to the common idea that there can be no change after death? This many conclude is as true as the Bible, and yet in the Bible we can no where find it. On account of this idea, sudden death is considered alarming, because it gives no opportunity for repentance. Jeremiah, it appears, was entirely ignorant of the idea. He says in Lam. iv. 6, "For the punishment of the iniquity of the daughter of my people is greater than the punishment of the sin of Sodom, that was overthrown as in a moment, and no hands stayed on her." Had he thought Sodom was doomed to endless misery, would he have considered the punishment of any other people greater? Again, the Sodomites had no time for repentance at their death, for their overthrow was as in a moment. The daughter of Jerusalem had a fair 5*

opportunity for repentance; yet he thought their punishment was greater than the punishment of Sodom.

'The idea of no change after death must introduce all men into another life as they leave this. None can be any more holy than they are here, nor any more miserable. The idea therefore, opposes the sentiments of its own advocates.

As it respects the nature of future punishment, I think we have no reason to doubt but what it is designed for good and benevolent purposes, as is the chastening rod of our heavenly Father in this life. A punishment to satisfy a certain notion of vindictive justice, when that justice can never be satisfied by it, we have no reason to believe from scripture or from what we know of the character of God. We read that God commended his love to sinners; that he so loved the world that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life; and that the Lord is good to all, and his tender mercies are over all his works. It is difficult to believe all this, and believe God punishes without a good and benevolent design.

Some ridicule the idea of there being any repentance in hell, or any mercy in so doleful a prison. But the strength of their ridicule is founded on certain imaginary ideas in the public mind, that never was supported by revelation. Does the Bible tell us of one partic

ular place, called hell, prepared from all past éternity, for the purpose of punishing wicked people in the future state? It is presumed. no such account can be found. Jonah who understood the word as well as modern commentators applied it to his prison in the whale's belly. Here we find one local hell, where there was repentance, and prayer that was heard and accepted; and from whence was salvation. All this in one particular account, which we have of hell. David says, "The sorrows of hell compassed me about." Here he speaks of it in the past tense, which no doubt is to be understood of deep affliction. Psalm lxxxvi. 13, "For great is thy mercy toward me; thou hast delivered my soul from the lowest hell." On this passage let it be remarked, there are more hells than one, or there could not be a lowest. We have also another instance of salvation from hell, not merely the body, but the soul from the lowest one. In Hosea xix. 14, "I will ransom them. from the power of the grave." The original sheol rendered grave is said to be the only Hebrew word translated hell in the Old Testament. Here is a promise of redemption from hell, though many christian people think. the idea contemptible. In Revelation we are told Christ has the keys of hell;-can they

be in better hands?

From the scriptures that we have examined as well as others that might be produ

ced, it is evident any place of confinement and trouble might be called hell, whether in the present or future state; and likewise, any deep affliction and sorrow of heart. Many sinners have been saved from hell in this life, then why ridicule the idea of salvation from hell in another?

Some refuse to credit the idea of any being saved from hell, because they say it makes it like the papal purgatory. But as ridiculous as they fain would make this idea appear;-yet many of the same persons can swallow the papal notions of a hell of endless misery. They find no objection to this faith, because the pope holds it forth; yet ridicule the idea of future disciplinary punishment, because they say it resembles purgatory. But how does future punishment resemble purgatory any more than present punishment? I believe in salvation from hell in this life as well as in another. Then why is not this state as properly a purgatory as the future? But neither of them are like the papal purgatory, till we look to the pope and his associates for the pardon of our sins.

As it respects the idea suggested in the first Lecture that future punishment will be in the day of judgment and not after it, I would now add, it seems according to every representation of scripture. The angels that kept not their first estate are reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment ;

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