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be taking bread, by blessing giving it for them, and afterwards giving the Sacrament to them.

Our only object at present is to trace as well as we can the origin, and to find the exact meaning of the prayer which immediately precedes the words of consecration in the Romal Missal. Christ used prayer, give thanks, and he blessed the bread which he took, and he then declared what substance was there; and he commanded the Apostles, and through them their successors, to do what he did, Do this.

It has been before remarked, and no fact is better established than it is, that in the early ages of the Church, the forms or words for the Sacraments were not committed to writing : thus St. Basil says “ who is it that has left us in writing the words which are used for the consecration of the Eucharist."And just after he continues, "we are not content with using only those words which are reported by the Apostle, and the Gospel ; but we add to them Others before and after, as of great efficacy for the mysteries, and which we have learned only from this unwritten doctrine." Justin Martyr in his Apology ť says, that our ordinary food " is changed into the Eucharist by the word of God and by prayer.” Origen I says, that " we eat of this bread sanctified by the word of God and by consecration.” Tertullian says that Christ “made the bread his body by the words this is my body.” St. Ambrose says || "The change of the bread and wine into the body and blood takes place the moment the words of Christ are pronounced: “ before the consecration, it is bread, but when the words of Christ are added, it is no longer bread, but the body of Christ.” The same writer says I “Blessing is of more efficacy than nature,

*li de Spiritu S. c. 27. Apolog: 3 ad Antonin. | Hom. 15." in Matt. § Tert. adver. Marc I. 4. c. 40. || De Sacram). 4. c. 4. 1 De iis qui. init. c. 9.

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be taking bread, by blessing giving it for the a far the blessing changes nature itself” and the exafterwards giving the Sacrament to them. ample he adduces is the consecration of the Eucha.

Our only object at present is to trace as relil mist by the blessing. St. Augustin says, * « But our we can the origin, and to find the exact meaning bread and chalice become mystical to us by consethe prayer which immediately precedes the word cration;" and in another place, t " It is consecrated consecration in the Romal Missal. Christ

by the mystic prayer, Thus we find, prayer, blesprayer

, gure thanks, and he blessed the bread the he took, and he then declared what substancë there ; and be commanded the Apostles, and the

The prayer which next follows has been looked them their successors, to do what he did, Da li

upon at all times as that which has come down from It has been before remarked, and no factiske

the Apostles, in the way mentioned by St. Basil. In established than it is, that in the early ages of epeating it, the celebrant thrice makes the sign of Church, the forms or words for the Sacramento e

the Cross over the offerings, then once over the Dot committed to writing: thus St. Basile

bread, and once over the wine, and lifting his eyes to ** who is it that has left us in writing the words

heaven to invoke the power of the eternal God, and in are used for the consecration of the Eucharist' imitation of the Saviour, he again holding the bread in And just after he continues, "we are not cute

his hands, makes the sign of the Cross over it at the with using only those words which are reportal

word blessed, and pronouncing the words of Consecrathe Apostle, and the Gospel ; but we add to the

kis hands, he kneels to adore his Lord and Saviour

tion bending over the altar, and holding the host in mysteries, and which we have learned only

then concealed ander the appearance of bread, and unwritten doctrine." Justin Martyr in his Azadly

rising, elevates it to be seen and adored by the people; t says, that our ordinary food is changed in

and having again made his adoration, he repeats the Eucharist by the word of God and by prayer."

same ceremony with regard to the Chalice. gen I says, that we eat of this bread sanctifead!

* that he would vouchsafe in all respects to bless the

In the prayer the celebrant intreats of the Lord the word of God and by consecration." Tertulia says that Christ " made the bread his body bp

use to be a holy oblation, to approve" it by ranking

oblation pow made, by separating it from common words this is my body.” St. Ambrose says { "fy change of the bread and wine into the body and the

it amongst those, which having been sanctified, are takes place the moment the words of Christ are

looked upon with peculiar favour to ratify," the nounced : before the consecration, it is bread

same, by so fully confirming his benediction, as that when the words of Christ are added, it is no kue

* To make it rational as well by enabling us to ap

these gifts may never more be taken from the Lord. bread, but the body of Christ. The same with

pear in a rational and becoming manner before our says "Blessing is of more efficacy than malum

God, according to that of the Apostle. I I beseech

you brethren, by the mercy of God, that you present *li de Spiritu S. c. 27. Apolog. 9 ad Antoni Hom. 15. in Matt. Tert. adver. Mare 1.4.0!

Lib. 20. Contra Taust. lib. 3 de Sacerd. Rom. De Sacram l. 4. c. 4. De iis qui. init. c. 9.

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your bodies a living Sacrifice, holy, pleasing unto God in the your reasonable service, as by making it the body and blood of Christ, who taking away the Sacrifices ofirrational animals offered himself with his rational soul, &c. and “acceptable," so that in every respect it may be faultless, not only on the part of the victim, but on the part of the celebrant and the assistants. The great object of all is thus expressed “ that it may be made for us, the body and blood of thy most beloved Son Jesus Christ our Lord." There is no doubt but the institution of the Saviour will produce its effect; and the body and blood of Christ will be produced; but the object of the pray. er is more, it is to have the benefit of his death applied to us, by making it available for us.

The other part which is the consecration, is taken chiefly from the Gospels, in the repetition of which the celebrant lifts his eyes to heaven, and blesses the bread, and the chalice as the Saviour did, and having pronounced the words of consecration pays the tribute of his adoration to the true victim which has now been produced by the operation of the Holy Ghost, in place of the substances of bread and wine which have been destroyed.

We may here well exclaim with St. John Chrysostom * «O miracle! O the benignity of God, who whilst he is seated with the Father above, is in the same moment of time in the hands of all, and gives himself to those who desire to receive and to enbrace him.” And again † “ Elias left his cloak to lus disciple, but the Son of God ascending on bigh left his flesh behind. Elias was indeed stripped, but Christ at the same time left it to us, and ascended with it in his possession.” In another place he says i « At that time the Angels assist with the Priest and the whole order of heavenly powers lifts its shout; and the place near the altar is full of Angels * Hom. 2. ad, pop. Antioc. + Lib. 6 de Sacerdot. Lib.

3 de Trin. c 4.

your bodies a living Sacrifice, holy, pleasing wat die jo honour of him who is immolated.". He then reyour reasonable service, as by making it the bette

lates a vision of an old man, who had often been fablood of Christ, who taking away the Sacrifices do rational animals offered himself with his albear the sight, he was enabled on one occasion to

who stated that, as far as buman weakness could

voured by the Lord with special manifestations, and soul, &c. and "acceptable,” so that in every ten behold a multitude of the heavenly host, such as apit may be faultless, not only on the part of the ne tim, but on the part of the celebrat and the peared to the Shepherds on the night of the nativity, ants. The great object of all is thus express

as related by the Evangelists, clad in shining gar" that it may be made for us, the body and blade

ments, surrounding the altar at the time of the conthy most beloved Son Jesus Christ our LX

secration, and with their heads bowed down as solThere is no doubt but the institution of the Same

diers, were accustomed to bow down before their will produce its effect; and the body and blonde

kings and emperors, and in his 21st Homily on the Christ will be produced ; but the object of the

Acts
, the same writer has this passage.

" What say er is more, it is to have the benefit of his death!

you? The host is in his hands, the Angels are preplied to us, by making it available for us.

sent, go are the Archangels, the Son of God is there, The other part which is the consecration, is the

all attend with the greatest awe." chiefly from the Gospels, in the repetition of inte

The mode of paying the tribute of adoration to the the celebrant lifts his eyes to heaven, and blestes

Saviour who then was present, was different accordbread, and the chalice as the Saviour did, anebo

ing to the customs of the times and of the people.

In the liturgy of St. James, the mode was for the ing pronounced the words of consecration pas tribute of his adoration to the true victim whicis now been produced by the operation of the By

tion, that it had taken place, and to call upon the Ghost, in place of the substances of bread and on

congregation for their praise and preparation. The which have been destroyed.

following is the enumeration of epithets used by him.

For those oblated gifts, sanctified, precious, superWe may here well exclaim with St. John (un sostom * * O miracle! O the benignity of Grad whilst he is seated with the Father above, is it

ble, terrific, divine." In the mass of the pre-sancheavenly, ineffable, unspotted, glorious, redoubta

tified, “Now the virtues of the heavens join invisisame moment of time in the hands of all, and is

bly in adoration with us, for behold the lord of glory himself to those who desire to receive and te

enters." was the expression by which proclamation brace him." And again + " Elias left bis ckaby

was made of the bringing in of the Sacrament which his disciple, but the Son of God ascending on

had been consecrated on the preceding Sunday ; left his desh behind. Elias was indeed stripped. I

and in the liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, just before Christ at the same time left it to us, and ascend with it in his possession." In another place he was

ing--the person said, “I believe, O Lord, that thou

communion was the time fixed for it, then approach** At that time the Angels assist with the Pro

art Christ, the son of the living God." "I will not and the whole order of heavenly powers

give you a traitor's kiss, as Judas did." shout; and the place near the altar is full of Akurey

In the latin church, the principal time was at the * Hom...ad, pop. Antioc. Lib. 6 de Sacerlot 2

old elevation ; that is, just before the Lord's prayer,

3 de Trin. c 4.

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when the celebrant lifting the host and chalice together, said the words - all honour and glory." The custom was so general, so well known, and so little notion of its being contradicted or called in question in the early dars of the church, that we have scarcely any thing written upon the subject. Thus although there are some few persons who do not take off their hats at present in their religious assemblies, ret the custom is so general and so well known, that the necessity of our stating the practice of being un. covered in order to give the testimony to posterity would neverstrike any person. But if a serious devi. ation from an old doctrine were attempted, the persona who held that doctrine, would mark their adherence more strongly in order to its confirmation, thus it was only upon the attempt at innovating upon her doctrines that the Catholic Church more particularly marked by some striking exhibition, her adherence to truth and her opposition to innovation. The doctrine of the real presence was not seriously opposed until the time of Berengarius, about 1050; it is true be quoted John Scotus Erigena, and Bertram, about two centuries preceding; but their innovations were so little known, if indeed it were true that they com. piled what was attributed to them, that they and their errors were then forgotten.

But centuries before their days, Theodoret* had stated that christians adored the sacred symbols, a being what they were believed to be, this expression, “ what they were believed to be," is found in Tertullian, treating of the Eucharist, and in other early writers upon the same subject, as they did not wish to speak too openly of their doctrines before thor Pagans. But St. Cyril of Jerusalem,t informs us, as do many of the other writers before and at that time, wbat they believed it to be, when he tells the Chrisrian of the profound respect he should feel in reach.

* Dial. 2. + Cat. v. Myst.

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