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during the midday halt will desert in great numbers. The be the triumph of Bolshevism whole Bolshevist movement west over the British Empire. In of the Oxus was on the point of the East news is carried by crumbling, and could not have word of mouth, and facts lasted another month but for speak for themselves; the the withdrawal of the British printed word reaches but few troops. Within a month of of the teeming millions, and that withdrawal the Bol. the story of an eyewitness sheviste, meeting no opposition, carries more oonviction than oooupied Merv, and I believe any double-headed denial of a Askhabad. penny daily paper with a mil- The whole story is pitiful. lion ciroulation,
were not prepared to The same stories will be baok the Turkomans and the carried through the passes volunteer army, why did we into Afghanistan and eastward ever go in ? If we were preto great China itself, and soon pared to back them, why did it will be known all over
we withdraw at the moment Central Asia that Great Bri. when sqocess was within our tain was unable or unwilling grasp ? We won
over the to stem the Bolshevist tide. Tarkoman, and taught him The emissaries of the oreed to rely apon us, and within will have plenty of food for a few months abandoned him propaganda, and will be able to to complete disintegration. It point to the fait accompli to sometimes seems to the man justify their claim of a big upon the spot that the direc
tors of the destinies of nations Even in March last the Bol. take decisions and lay down shevist hold west of the Oxus policies, ignoring the wishes was so insecure that almost at of the peoples and countries any moment we could have for whom they are legislating. definitely pushed them baok. I agree that the Russians Their army at this point was should work out their own mainly reoruited from Austrian salvation, and that if the prisoners of war captured by patriotic Russian is not sufthe Russians during the earlier ficiently patriotio aot part of the war, and these effectively on his own behalf, prisoners had been informed he is not worth the bones of that the Allies had suffered an English soldier; but it defeat everywhere, and that seems to me that when the only a few British outposts wider aspects of this particular stood between them and the case are examined, that the road to their homes.
support of a large section of Enoouraged by these reports loyal Mahomedans is no small they made attempts to foroe matter to throw lightly away, their way westwards, but were and that if our withdrawal was defeated; and finally, when they based upon Party political conlearnt that they had been fed siderations, it was the duty of on lies, the Austrians began to those in authority to make
clear to the opponents of despatoh ? In any case, all their polioy the very vital parties should have been in. reasons why such & policy formed before troops was necessary, No harm is sent, and the necessary oonsent done by clearly explaining obtained or refused. Better a good reasons.
refusal to send troops than an You cannot run empires on ignominious withdrawal on the the lines of parish counoils, verge of success. Perhaps it nor oan a continuity of polioy was a pity that we ever sent be ensured if vote-catching troops beyond the Persian straws be olutched at. Tell frontier - but having sent the British people the truth, troops, it seems a greater pity lay before them the faots lead- that we should withdraw them ing up to a certain polioy, and just at the moment when we the Government will always did. I am confident that all be backed up if their cause be our troubles in Afghanistan good. Why was not the Em- are caused by Bolshevism. pire immediately informed of Afghans are to be seen everythe cirou mstances attending where in the serais of Bariam the despatch of Malleson's Ali, Merv, &o., and there is foros? If Labour objeoted, constant caravan communicawhy not show Labour clearly tion between Afghanistan and the reasons that led to its the big cities of Turkestan.
THE BENCH AND BAR OF IRELAND.
BY J. A. STRAHAN.
THOUGH the law is not in- good or bad, was done for and variably respected in Ireland, in Ireland; and the way it the lawyers always are, One was done was the way of Irereason of this is, I think, that land and not the way of Eng the Bench and Bar of Ireland land. The genius which arose is the one publio service of the among their members was the nobler kind which is native to kind of genius Ireland admires and racy of the soil. Grattan's
-% genius expressing itself in Parliament in its time shared eloquence, wit, and courage, that distinction, Both the and in substituting words for lawyers and the politicians of deeds. Then it was the only Ireland have done much in the kind of genius whioh remained past whioh needs excuse, and in Ireland: the military, the not a little for which excuse is literary, the scientifio genius impossible. But the Catholios of the country looked for the and native Irish, who suffered most part, and for the most most wrongs from their doings, part still looks, to the greater have been the first to forgive world of England, and did its them; and now they who for- work and made its home there; get nothing seem also to have and nobody feels more strongly forgotten them. Grattan's than the average Irishman the Parliament, which was in the truth of Froude's statement, main a corrupt body of Pro- that the curse of Ireland has testant landlords and their been the absenteeism of genius, henohmen, and which put down and in no country more than the Nationalism of its time in Ireland are the people so with an iron hand, is now a oareless of the achievements name to conjure with among acoomplished and the honours Nationalists; while the Bench won by Irishmen in lands other and Bar, which before the than their own. Union was similarly composed, Perhaps another reason for and since the Union never the popularity of the Bench hesitated to enforce Coeroion and Bar of Ireland is that the Aots without fear and without law is the one profession in favour, are perhaps the most which the Catholics have been popular institution in the successful rivals of the Protesland.
tants: in other lines of life This popularity, as I have Catholios have been eminent, said, arises in both cases, partly but the greatest names are all at any rate, from the fact that of Protestants. In the army both were native to and raoy they have produced no Welof the soil. All their work, lingtons, Nicholsons, Wolseleys, or Robertses; in literature no offender, and by a strange Swifts, Goldsmiths, Berkeleys, blunder it gave a portrait for or Barkes; in science
the purpose of enabling sympaBlacks, Salmons, or Kelvins. thisers to identify the obnoxi. But in the practice of the ous judge, which was in faot law, ever since they were not a portrait of him at all, allowed to practise it, they but one of O'Donnell's leading have produced names as great counsel, the Catholio and Home as any of their Protestant Rule Sir Charles Russell. rivals. When that Act was There was another case of an passed which excluded them Irish judge who, if his own from practioe, the greatest story is true, was marked down lawyer in Ireland was a Catho- for outrage. That was the late lic, Sir Theobald Butler. Since Lord Justice Deasy; but the they have been admitted to threat against him arose not practise again they have pro- out of his being a judge but duced advocates like O'Connell, out of his beooming a landShiel, and O'Hagan, and judges owner. After he was raised to like Monahan, Deasy, Morris, the Bench he was imprudent and Palles—the last, in my enough to buy an estate in opinion, the only British judge Tipperary, I believe. His lordentitled to contest the place ship was extremely diminutivé of the greatest master of the in person; and when he paid Common Law of the nineteenth his first visit after its purchase centary with his countryman to his new estate, this faot, he of the English Bench, Mr used to tell, was bitterly comJastioe Willes.
mented on by the wives of his Perhaps it is this popularity faithful tenantry. “That bit which has brought the Bench of a thing the new landlard ! " and Bar of Ireland soathless he overheard them say to one for over a century through another in indignant whispers. the political crime in that “Sure, it's not fair to the country, and that though, as I bhoys! Who oud expiot thim have said, they never hesitated to bring down such a shnipe as to enforoe & Coercion Aot or that in the dark !” However, any other law of the land how. bis lordship in the end died ever muoh it might be abhorred comfortably in his bed, as they of the people. So far as I can say in Ireland, recolleot, the oply judge who It may be, too, that it is this during that time was ever popularity of the Bench and threatened with vengeance for Bar of Ireland which accounts his judicial deeds was an Eng- for the immense number of lish one, the late Mr Justice lawyers in that land. There Denman, who tried O'Donnell are over a thousand on the at the Old Bailey for the mur- Bar List, which, it must be der of the infamous James admitted, is a generous supply Carey of Invincible fame. An of counsel for a population only Irish-Amerioan paper was the a trifle over four millions.
Sootland, with half a million Before the war the rush of
some Irish Bar of England. Before the barristers who are not Irish- Union they were not, nor was men, and there are some who anything else. The more one are Irishmen, but who never studies the contemporary literintended to practise; but, ature of Ireland during the last roughly speaking, in Ireland quarter of the eighteenth cenevery man who is called to the tury, the more extraordinary Bar intends to look to the law does the state of society in that for his living. How that living country at that time appear. is in many cases obtained the The bulk of the population outnumber of members of the Irish side North - East Ulster was Benoh to some extent explains. living in the last extreme of Besides a Lord of Appeal, there poverty. The few who posare a Lord Chanoellor, who is, dessed all the wealth of the in faot, a Supreme Court judge, land were getting rid of it in and 12 other Supreme Court the fastest way they could disjudges and 21 judges of cover,
. They were building County Courts. England gets houses twice too big for them on with 30 Supreme Court and in the country, and houses 51 County Court judges. If twice too expensive for them she were benched as well as in the town: rows of the latter, Ireland, in proportion to her robbed of their carved marble population, she would have mantelpieces, their painted 104 judges of the High Court ooilings, and their gilded furniand 168 judges of the County tore, now constitute some of Courts.
the worst slums in Dublin. Besides her judges, Ireland They gamod and they drank has soores of Crown prosecu- and they fought, and they ontors, stipendiary magistrates, tertained lavishly overy body and other officials who are except those who needed it. always or usually barristers. Never even in the France or