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macy with the abstract sciences. It scientious struggles after a greater might have been expected also, that abstraction of the affections than his love of physical philosophy seenis attainable for perhaps is would rather have inclined him to even allowable) in the present stage that class of arguments for the truth of our existence, assisted, we doubt of religion which are founded on not, by the wretched state of his the phenomena of visible nature. health, had the effect of rendering Quite otherwise. When he be- his manners somewhat cold and ina comes a theological writer, he strikes different. Even tbis was an abateout a perfectly new track. He al- ment, merely of 'sociableness, -- not ters his weapons as well as his war- of benevolence, which glowed in fare. The ardent votary of natural bis heart with ever-increasing philosophy altogether forsakes the warmth till its last beat. His in material world, to bury himself in tellectual faculties and acquirements the world of the human mind. The are better known' and appreciated. hard geometer adopis a style of ar. He was born a mathematician and gument, remarkable indeed for per- an analyst. In experimental philospicuity and conclusiveness, but still sophy, his sagacity was only equal more for pathos' and fervour,'- a led by a modesty and caution style addressed to the heart as well which formed a striking and amiaas the reason,--simple as truth, and ble contrast to the presumptuous impassioned as poetry.

hardihood of his contemporary, Dés Some writers of the present day Cartes. Condorcet, indeed, appears have represented' D'Alembert as to consider the rashness and dog. remarkable among all the men of matism of Des Cartes as a more science that ever flourished, for an useful quality than the wariness of assemblage of opposite qualities;- Pascal, or at least as having in fact for the uņion of the higher gifts produced more good. Accidentally, of the mind with its lighter and there can be no doubt that the bold softer graces --of profound and ori- contempt of Des Cartes for received ginal thinking 'with simplicity and opinions, and his confident reliance even playfulness, of the contem- on himself, proved highly benefi. plative habits of a student with a cial to the progress of science by iaste for social enjoyment,--and of demolishing established errors and a severe and laborious inathematical making room for a sounder philofaculty with great warmth of feel- sophy. But, if Condorcet intended ing and vigour of eloquence. We to represent this fortunate audacity would not grudge D'Alembert his as in itself more respectable thaa due praise ; but it seems to us that that cautious and accurate examinaPascal would have been a prefera-' tion of evidence, and that distrust ble example. Were we called on of novelty which distinguished Pasto name a mentál

cal, or even as, in ordinary times,

a more serviceable and successful combination, and a form Where every god did seem to set his seal,

qualification for a philosopher, we

can only say that a professed disthis would have been among the ciple of the Newtonian philosophy foremost names in our catalogue. ought to have judged better. Ma. It is not perhaps generally known thematical and physical science, of Pascal, though it amply appears' however, formed but the smaller in the most authentic accounts of part of Pascal's glory. Having age bím that his social qualities and tonished the world by his philoson colloquial powers were of a highly pbical proficiency and discoveries, distinguished order. He was, as a while at the same time the intense companion, delightful, till towards application with which he studied the close of his life, when his con absolutely ruined bis' bealth, he, in Christ. ODSERY. No. 155.

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deliberative style on

"Dis thirty-third year, burst into no- mind bave been, of which the mere stice as the author of the Provincial tough and formless sketches have Letters. This work was written produced such a performance !" without any model, for indeed the 'Surely, here was a wonderful French had at that eime no great constellation of excellencies, even writers whatsoever, but it has it. if, to so many talents and accomself become a model to all succeed. plishments, that might singly have ing times.' 'All competent judges, made other men famous, there had

of whatever sector party, have not been added that one qualifica. tried together in its praises. "Though tion, without which the bigbest of of a controversial nature, and eng. agthorities assures us that the com.

ployed on nietaphysical questions of mand of all mysteries and all knowgreat subtilty, it exhibits all the ledge could profit us nothing. :

graces of fine writing; and Vol. But we are losing sight of what taire" himself confesses that it at is more peculiarly our present tast.

once rivals the wit of Moliere and The argument from the nature of the sublimity of Bossuet. Even man, powerfully and conimandingly this work, however, thus bigh and as it is stated by Pascal, has not various in excellence, is not that perhaps all the completeness to from which the repưation of its which he would have wrought it author has been principally derived. had his life been spared. A philo; His life was now hasting to a close. sopher himself, he has finely pajatHe died at the age of thirty-nine, ed the agonies of the human underand the three or four last years of standing in its search after-truth: his life were one succession of the and has given some striking sketches acutest sofferings. Yet this short of the general imperfection of bu. and harassed interval sufficed, not man knowledge. He has repreonly to exhibit him once more with semted also, with great force, the undiminished power in the field of moral contrarieties of the soul of mathematics, but to prodiace an in- man; - the confused contest bevaluable, though "unfinished, moriu- 'tween conscience and evil inclinament of his capacity in an entirely- tions; the mixture of a moral new department. In the work sense with moral incapacity. Even which forms the more immediate on these points, however, bad the subject of the present article, he ap- author"lived to complete his design, peared, no longer as a controversial, he would probably have entered but as a contemplatite, moralist; into a far greater variety of detail. no longer as the advocate of a par- But the greatest defect seems to beticular body of Christians, but as long to that part of his argument the champion of Christianity itself. which is founded on the vanity of The merits of this work have com- human bappiness; and, as Voltaire pelled the admiration of those most has not failed, in his annotations to inclined to'ridicule its object and take advantage of this imperfection, exaggerate its defects." It is pathe- we shall sperhaps be forgiven for tic, profound, and sublime, com- . remarking on it rather more partiposed in the simplest style yet cularly views abounding with examples of that.': The desire of happiness, says sage and serene eloquence which Pascal, is the single motive of hubefits an ambassador of "Heaven. It man action syet wo man is happy. seems to us the perfection of the 'From the earliest times, no man

." * Yet it is a mere collection of frage alone Brery manzbas sigbedo czAll rients, the casual product of short seek it, and all complain that their on intervals of extremre pain; and, as search has been fruitless , princes 29M"Renouard excellently observes a band subjects, gables and commoners,

" How extraordinary must that old and young, strong and weak,

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learned and unlearned, healthy and rated exercise of imagination, from sick, of all countries and in all poetry and from music, from the ages. All have an inextinguishable charms of roral retirement, from the idea of an unattainable good; all social and benevolent affections,

commerce with the same hopés, to and, above all, from the charities of end in the same disappointment; domestic life. We are, indeed, faand, by this coutrast between that tally prone to abuse these gifts ; which they are formed to seek, and but the gifts themselves must not that which they are doomed to find, therefore, be slighted or undervaillustrate "at once the grandeur of lued. Amidst the signs of wrath their origin, and the depth of their and penal misery by which we are degradation.

on all sides surrounded, these boug. The dark view given of human lies seem scallered as memorials of life in this representation, though Him wbo does not willingly afflict sadly just on the whole, yet seems even the unthankful and evil, sbo to require some little qualification considers punishment as his strange There are indeed those who will re- i work, and who is pleased still to cognize the likeness at once, and re

remember and to watch over a cognize it the sooner for its sombre world by which, he is insulted and colours. This gloomy portraitare : forgotten. To, omil, then, these * needs not any softening, to please - bright spots in a piolure of the prethe serious, the pensive, or the dis- sent state of man, is surely a defect; appointed; the child of affliction, and, to some minds, would seem one or the victim of remorse ;-alt those, of no small magnitude. There are

in short, who have been taught by persons, of naturally amiable, or at * "habit or circumstances to cast a 80- least tranquil, dispositions ; of decober eye on man and the world, - rous habits; of no deep or large re. chastise the gaiety and joyousness flection, and who experience a loof life by a recollection of its many lerably uninterrupted course of those days of darkness, - to visit the gentle, and (in themselves) innocent, desert places of the earth; and muse enjoyments which we have meni amidst the ruins of human happi- tioned. Such persons would be api ness. To bosoms so prepared, the to shrink from descriptions which "dark speech” of Pascal will ever exhibit the earthly condition of find a comparatively ready access. mankind as one uomitigated exBut there are persons of a different panse of restlessness, disappointcast, who might complain a little ment, and woe. They would deof this strong painting, and perhaps clare that it was not so universally:

not wholly without reason. Noteand, for a proof of their assertion, !! withstanding the natural condition would plausibly, and in some de

of man is lost, depraved, and in gree even justly, appeal to their
a serious view most unbappy, yet own case.'
à merciful Providence has been Perhaps our great author might
pleased to surround him with many have rendered his argument more
blessings, not immediately growing level to characters of this class, if he
out of the practice of religion, al. had broken his general sketches of
though doubtless intended to excite , life a little more into detail, and, by
Him to it. We may truly say, that specifying particular cases, gradual.

og this desert soil ly led his more narrow-minded readWants not its bidden lustre ; ers to those comprehenive surveys of our nature has the capacity of deriva 1 which be is so powerful a master; ing pleasure from many innoxious above all, if he had more particularly

sourcesg=from the interchange of dwell on the subject of death. Tbis, o slabour and rest, from the pursuit of indeed, is the best answer to every “- usefut káowledge, from the culties objection, and one that admits of no .***ation of the arts, from the møde- rejoinder, Grant to the worldling

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all that he can pretend of the hap- Thus it is, that for a confirmation of piness of life ;- let him adorn it the scriptural account, we need not with that unsunned beadty which resort to the various shapes of sufit wears in the hopes of youth or fering by which our mortal condia the dreams of poetry ;-still must tion is oppressed, to the portentous he recollect that

forms that preside (as the poet exA perpetuity of bliss is bliss :

presses it), over ihe wounds and Could you, so rich in raptare, fear an end,

wrecks of nature, to the awful mo. That ghastly thought would drink up all nitions of ruined ambition or blasted your joy,

pride, of pain and calamity, despair And quite unparadise the realms of light. and death; but may consult the

Indeed, it appears to us that Pas- gentle virtues and blameless pleacal might have admitted the exis- sures of private and domestic life, tence of that quiet description of which will, with a more toaching pleasures of which we have been voice, repeat to us the same sad speaking, not only without injury, history, but with positive advantage, to his

Besides the class of persons that argument. The argument says,

has been mentioned as not likely to that the present condition of man acquiesce in the gloomy descriptions exhibits relics of his lost estate in of Pascal, there is another of a less paradise ; and, perhaps, among respectable kind, who would, prothose relics, the pleasures in ques. bably, be still more dissentient

. tion may not improperly be num

We allude to the thoughtless; the bered. It may be true of them all, dissipated; the men of pleasure; the what Cowper says of domestic hap- votaries of fashion ; the deliberate, piness in particular, that they are

calculating, epicurean profligates

These, indeed, are bad subjects for

the bliss Of Paradise, which has surviv'd the fall.

the lectures and persuasions of the

moralist, charm he never so wisely. For, surely, the various and multi- Scarcely would they be persuaded, phed capacity for those sober, and, though one rose from the dead. To in their own nature, innocent en

say the truth, their very insensi. joyments, was a constituent part of bility (as Pascal observes of unbe the original perfection of man, as lievers in general) tends to establish the gratification of that capacity was the doctrines which they rejech a part of his original felicity. The Their denial is itself an argument

, remains, therefore, both of the fa. Did we not behold such melancholy culty, and of the means of exercis. instances of infatuation of heart

, the ing it, may be considered as “shin. sensible proofs of human deprasity ing fragnients” of a better world; would appear less complete, asa as lingering beams of a glory that lazar-house would seem comparihas set. And, if we take these tively imperfect without a ward of blessings in connection with the maniacs. Yet, as Heaven extends in perfections and inquietudes by its offers of mercy to all men, even which they are attended; the these insensale loyers of pleasure abuses of which they are suscep. are not to be despaired of, tible; and the mortality to which abandoned to their folly. It is they are subject; they seem to tell highly desirable, therefore, that us, some sense, not only the Pascal had addressed some part of truth, but the whole truth. They his reflections nore peculiarly. to. intimate, though obscurely, the idea persons of this character; and, pero both of our elevation and our fall. haps, had he survived to finish bisa Thus it is that the whole of our work, he would have left nothing, moral nature--both what we suffer to be desired on the subject. His and what we enjoy--breathes a terrible eloquence was well.calcu. consistent and harmonious language lated to souse these med, if any

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thing could, from their delusion. He many persons might be inclined to la would bave painted with a dreadful say, we must confess that it requirfidelity, the fallacy of their joy, and ed & Voltaire to do the sentimeat the wretchedness which they gild complete justice, and that the over with smiles. He would have patriarch of the holy, philosophical shewn them, that there is a perfect church" (as it pleased the jokers of and a horrible consistency between his own school to style him) has exsuch happiness as theirs, and the pressed himself with a gay étourderie A harshest pictures of worldly misery, pre-eminently becoming his "Bigh with which the moralist can charge station. The note does indeed seem his canvas.

to us (in a certain sense), the very A What sort of answer the charac- best in the whole collection : it is so ters in question might be disposed natural, so characteristic, so exquito make to the argument of our sitely Parisian, as to be a perfect great author, (we mean, as that ar- curiosity. In the refutation of a gument now stands), there is no oc- profound philosophical essay on the casion to conjecture. One of them- unhappiness of man; in an arguselyes, even a prophet of their oyn, ment to shew that the notion of that and one certainly whom they would unhappiness is an empty reverie, and very gladly have chosen for their the common complaintofit a mistaké spokesman, has saved us the trou, or a pretence; that our mortal 'state ble. The following is the note of is a state of bliss, or at least of comVoltaire, on Pascal's assertion that fort; that we are not born 'lo'trouall men, young and old, the great ble as the sparks fly upwards; that and the little complain of being every man does not walk' in a vain unhappy. We omit only one clause, shew, nor disquiet himself in vain." which ibe note ought never to have and that those who maintain the i contained.

contrary of these propositions, are 4 Je sais qu'il est doux de se plaindre : quemad: in a demonstration, we say, of de tout temps on a vanté le passé pour in- all this, who could possibly haver jurier le présent ; que chaque peuple a expected, that the OPBRA, and imagine un âge d'or, d'innocence, de bonne GOOD SUPPER would appear conspi. santé, de repos et de plaisir, qui ne sobsiste cuous in the foreground of the pice plus. Cependant j'arrive de ma province à ture! The question is, who sball Paris; on in'introduit dans une très belle insure man against the thousand salle ou douze cents personnes écoutent ané natural shocks hat flesh is heir to?? musique délicieuse : après quoi toute cette And the answer given

is, Gretry and asserablée se divise en petites sociétés qui vont faire un très bon souper... Je vois Vestris, Madame du Deffant and her tous les beaux arts en honneur dans cette cook!” Not a syllable of the domes ville, et les métiers les plus abjects bien sé tic affections : even benevolence is compensés ; les infirmités très soulagées; les mentioned only for its effects on the accidents prévenus, tout le monde y jouit objects of it, not for the reflected ou espère jouir, ou travaille pour jouir un blessingswhich it bestows on thegiverd jour, et ce dernier partage n'est pas le plus -- the laborious, and often painful, oC mauvais

. Je dis alors à Pascal : Mon grand cupations of the vulgar, are spoken bomme, êtes-vous fou? Je ne nie pas que la terre n'ait été sou

of with the easy coolness of a philosos. sent inondée de malheurs et de crimes, et pher who passes by on the other side; nous do nvons eu notre bonne pare. Mais - meanwhile, for the grand talisman, certainement, lorsqae Pascal écrivoit, nous of happiness, for the safeguard, and d'etions pas si à plaindre. Nous ne sommes pillar of human felicity, we ara, pas non plus si misérables aujotrd'hui.

referred to large salles and little "Prenous toujours ceci puisque Dieu nous sociétés, to the circles frequented and l'envoic, Maes Wir

adurned (truly so) by, the writer Nous n'aurons pas toujours tels passe-temps." himself; circles, distinguished for at

Pp. 281, 912' mixture of wit, genius, sacquirera Although this note contains what meats, frivolily, flattery, operadangos

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