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lour forces us to confess, that the apearance may have been temporary And deceitful, for he had just been urned off; and in that predicament, t is possible that the shoulder of any entleman whatever might make a tiffened approach to his head, however eficient the gentleman might have een in slyness, or in the scavoir faire, r in dramatic genius, or in a general alent for constructing interesting plots
10. Self esteem, VERY LARGE. This 3 one of the four organs that, in Mr Combe's opinion, brought Haggart to he gallows. Dr Gall first found this rgan of self-esteem in a beggar. In xamining the head of this person, he bserved, in the midst of the upper osterior part of the head, an elevation hich he had not before observed in > high a degree. He asked him the ause of his mendicity; and the begar accused his pride as the cause of is present state, he having considered imself as too important to follow any usiness. He had therefore only spent is money, and did not think of earng a livelihood.-COMBE's Phrenogy, p. 157. When this organ beomes diseased, the individual somemes believes himself to be a king, mperor, a transcendent genius, or ven the Supreme Being.-COMBE, . 160. It does not appear that Hagart went the length of believing himelf the Supreme Being; and he was Do often in confinement, and under e lash of the law, ever to think himelf a king or an emperor. But he ertainly thought himself a transcendnt genius; and Mr Combe seems to aink so likewise. Mr Haggart says, at at school, though rather idle, he exelled all his fellows in talent and eru→ ition; and Mr Combe afterwards speaks f'his "great talents." His self-esteem f himself, as a master in his profeson, knew no bounds. We have seen hat he thought himself irresistible mong the fair sex. He prided himelf on his personal prowess in fightg, running, &c. He thought himelf skilful in the law, and made some ery arrogant strictures on the conuct of an Irish judge on the bench; nd he imagined his poetical genius to e of a high order, as witness his haunt composed in prison on the wening of his sentence. "This senment of self-esteem, when predomiantly powerful, makes the individual
carry his head high, and reclining backwards. The expression it gives to the manner is cold and repulsive." -COMBE, p. 159. Haggart was consequently placed, by this organ, in a very awkward predicament. For we have seen that he also possessed in great force, the organ of secretiveness, "which produces a slyness of look, a peculiar sidelong, rolling cast of the eyes, and a stiffened approach of the shoulders to the head." Now, let the reader combine these appearances, and suppose them, for a moment, united in one individual. What would he think, say, or do, if he were to meet in Mr Blackwood's or Mr Constable's shop, a gentleman carrying his head so high as to recline backwards, with a cold, repulsive air, haughty as a king, an emperor, or a transcendent genius, and yet with a sly look, a peculiar, sidelong, rolling cast of his eyes, and a stiffened approach of the shoulder to the head? What if he were told, that is Mr Combe, the great phrenologist, or Christopher North, the Supreme Editor, or the Great Unknown? How Mr Haggart, having both organs in perfection, contrived to manage the matter, we do not know, nor, in a scientific point of view, do we care. For, that he had the organs, and that the sentiments do produce these indications, are matters of fact; and it is altogether a private concern of the gentleman who unites them, how he carries himself-let him look to that
let the painter study his appearance if he chuses; but we repeat, it is enough for the man of science to have discovered the facts, and the philosophy of the facts-all the rest is but My eye and Betty Martin.
11. Love of approbation, SMALL. There was some strange anomalies in Haggart's character. Though able to command the approbation of great part of mankind, and though receiving it every day in his life, he did not value it a single curse. Even on the scaffold, where he conducted himself in a manner deserving the highest approbation, he did not, we are told, (for we were a minute or two behind our time) seem to value the good opinion of the spectators at a pin's head, but seemed to be wholly absorbed in the enjoyment of his own self-esteem. Even when saluted by the tears and the blessings of the most fair and virtuous of their sex, who lined the lane
up which he walked to the place of execution, he appeared to hold light their tender and touching expressions of approbation, though, with that gallantry for which he was, nevertheless, distinguished and beloved, he graciously inclined his head towards them; at which, according to the newspaper reporter, the air was rent with the clamours of female grief. Probably some of the young women were those "whom he had left to the freedom of their own will;" and it must have disgusted his chaste nature to see also " so many of those called prostitutes," collected to witness his last efforts, with an approbation of his courage, which the conformation of his skull rendered hateful to his proud and intrepid spirit.
12. Cautiousness, FULL." It appears to me," says Mr Combe," that this faculty gives an emotion in general, and that this emotion is fear." "The tendency of it is, to make the individual in whom it is strong, hesitate before he acts, and, from apprehending danger, to lead him to calculate consequences, that he may be assured of his safety." "Too great an endowment, and too great activity of this faculty, predispose to self-destruction." Now, from this account, we should have expected Haggart to be afraid of ever putting his hand into any man's pocket, without having previously proved, to a demonstration, the certainty of his taking it out again in safety. It is also calculated to make us look on Haggart as a youth whose imagination must have been continually haunted with fetters, stripes, dungeons, cords, and gallow-trees. It prepares us also to find him self-suspended by his pocket-handkerchief to a nail in the wall, or with a quarter of a pound, at least, of arsenic in his stomach. But, reader, admire the wise provision of nature; for, look at No. 18. Firmness, and you will find it very LARGE. Now it gives 66 constancy and perseverance; and when too energetic, produces obstinacy, stubbornness, and infatuation." "When eminently powerful, it gives a stiffness and uprightness to the gait, as if the person were transfixed with an iron rod; and it gives a peculiar emphatic tone to the voice."-COMBE, 181. Now, Nature gave Haggart that power of firmness, to counteract the effects of cautiousness. And if it is asked, Why
this roundabout way of going to work? our answer is, Hold your tongue. We present you with facts; and if they seem mysterious to you, you ought to remember that all nature is full of mys tery. Now that these opposite powers, when existing in the same individual, do neutralize themselves, or leave a balance merely in favour of some one, is certain, otherwise Mr David Hag. gart's personal appearance, as far as we have followed him in Combe, might be thus recapitulated:-" Mr Haggart carried his head so high, that it even reclined backwards. He had a cold, repulsive air, which bespoke a haughtiness equal to that of a king, an emperor, or a transcendent genius United with these externals, he had a peculiarly sly look, a peculiar, sidelong, rolling cast of his eye, and a stiffened approach of the shoul der to his head. The tones of his voice were emphatic; and the stiffness and uprightness of his whole gait were such as if his person were trans fixed with an iron-rod. He was a bold, timid, fearless, cautious, considerate, and infatuated person, who rushed boldly on danger, without a moment's pause, after the most mature deliberation on the most remote consequences; and he was only prevented from committing suicide, to which he had a strong natural prope sity, by two other propensities, which he had the good luck to possess equal vigeur-combativeness and destructiveness, which led him to put others to death, instead of himself, and finally saved him from the guilt of self-destruction, by placing him in the salutary hands of the hangman." To a mind uninstructed in the new and true philosophy, this soundsoddly. But before the eye of a Combe every thing is reduced to order; and the picture is complete, distinct, and individually characteristic.
We have not room to continue our separate consideration of all the powers and feelings of Mr Haggart; so let us say a word or two on his Benevolence, LARGE, and skip over the rest lightly. Mr Combe seems at first sight to have stared a little at the big bump of bene volence on the head of Haggart. But he soon recovered from his amazement, and remarks, "When, however, the organ of benevolence possesses gree of development, which, in Hag gart's case, it undoubtedly domes, a
nanifestation cannot be entirely supressed; and it may be extended to hew itself in occasional gleams of ood feeling amid his atrocities, like he lightning's flash through the gloom of the storm!" This is one of the few ursts of impassioned eloquence in Mr Combe, whose style is in general markd by a philosophical calmness and cientific precision, that remind us of he happiest passages of the late Mr Playfair. Mr Combe has too much good sense to sustain long this highly levated tone, and accordingly descends nto his own dignified simplicity thus: 'There are, accordingly, various inications of the activity of this feeling; s his dividing the plunder of a gentle nan's pockets betwixt two poor thieves, and retaining none for himself; his caling the walls of Durham jail, to iberate his condemned associate; his ribing the hangman in Perth, not to e severe on the boys whom he was mployed to flog through the town; is forbearing to rob a young gentle nan, whom he met in the mail-coach coming to Edinburgh, because he had een kind to him; these instances, and his dying declaration, that the humanity with which he had been reated while under sentence of death, was the severest punishment he had yet net with, afford decided evidence that he was not altogether insensible to generous emotion, although this feelng unfortunately was not sufficient o control the tendencies by which it was opposed. The singular mildness of his aspect, also, which was remarked by all who saw him, and which evilently, in various instances, contributed to his escape, by misleading spectators as to his real character, is unaccountable, except on the principle now explained.
"In Haggart's Life, we find the narrative of two murders; but these appear to me referable, with greater propriety, to combativeness, which gave to his mind the bold and determined tendency to attack, than to destructiveness, which, when too energetic, inspires with a disposition to deliberate ferocity. Benevolence is opposed to destructiveness, which, when powerful, disposes to cruelty. In Haggart's head, conscientiousness is small, and it will be perceived that there is scarcely a feeling of remorse expressed for the numerous robberies which he committed; but benevolence is large,
and we have now to inquire into the emotions which he experienced in surveying the murder of Morrin, which he was certain he had committed. The account of his sensations, when he heard that the jailor was dead, is completely in point. "When," says he," the buy answered, No, but the jailor died last night at ten o'clock,' his words struck me to the soul; my heart died within me, and I was insensible for a good while; on coming to myself, I could scarcely believe I had heard them, for the possibility of poor Morrin's death had never entered into my mind." The sympathy which he expresses (p. 141) for the young women, who had murdered a lady in Dublin, because their situation resembled his own, and the agony which he felt when he entered the jail at Dumfries, after the murder, (p. 146,) afford evidence, that his mind was not altogether steeled against humanity. Bellingham, the murderer of Mr Percival, a cast of whose skull may be seen with Messrs O'Neill and Son, in which destructiveness is very largely developed, and benevolence uncommonly small, shewed no contrition, but to the last hour of his life spoke of his crime with the most perfect indifference, and even self-approbation. This was the natural feeling of such a combination, but Haggart never exhibited such relentless ferocity.'
Never was there a more triumphant vindication of disputed benevolence. The organ of benevolence is thus seen to be of the greatest use in tempering murder to the shorn lamb. We see little or no ferocity in Haggart. He shot (as he says) the Newcastle beak, with a small pocket-pistol,- -a weapon in which there is little to shock the feelings. Neither, perhaps, is shooting a beak any thing very reprehensible in the abstract. Then it is obvious, that in knocking the Irish farmer off his horse with a blow on the back of the head, with the loaded butt of a whip, poor Haggart acted more in the spirit of fear than of ferocity. There was nothing very ferocious in the mere thought of drowning an impertinent gentleman, who stared Haggart out of countenance in the packetboat; and when all the circumstances of the murder of Mr Morrin are taken into consideration, we agree with Mr Combe in considering it, on the whole, rather a mild murder. Hag
gart very naturally wished to get out of prison, and Mr Morrin stood in the way. What then did he do? He concealed himself, with his characteristic benevolence and firmness, behind a door, with a large stone in a bag, and on Mr Morrin making his appearance with a plateful of potatoes in his hand, for a gentleman of the name of O'Gorman, who was to be hanged before the dinner-hour on the day following, he knocked the unsuspecting Morrin full on the temples with this ingenious sling-fractured his skull-and then, by repeatedly bobbing it against the stone floor, smashed it in upon the brain, knocked the eyes out of the sockets—and then made his escape. Mr Combe gives us a slight description of a murder committed upon a poor half-witted pedlar boy, in a solitary moor, by a ruffian named Gordon, and then reverting with calm and philosophic satisfaction to the murder by Haggart, also slight ly described above, observes," the most benighted intellect must perceive a difference in the motives of the murders for which these men suffered." The difference is indeed great, and exhibits the benevolence of Haggart in the most pleasing light.
We have left ourselves room only to inform the philosophical world, that Mr Haggart's cerebral organization exhibited in great fulness the organs of Form, Locality, Order, Tune, Language, Causality, Wit, and Imita tion; so that, had his life been spared, he would probably have distinguished himself as a sculptor, a geographer, a musician, a linguist, a philosopher, an Addison, and a Mathews. Never before have so many faculties been found united in one individual; and melancholy it is to reflect that that individual should have been hanged.
From the slight and imperfect sketch which we have now given of the conduct of this interesting young man, as furnished to us by Mr Combe, the world will perceive the high character of that philosophy of which he is the ablest expounder. For our own parts, we think that Gall, and Spurzheim, and Combe, have thrown greater light on the nature of man, than all the other philosophers put together since the world began. Indeed there is now little or nothing to discover. The moral and intellectual geography
of the head of man, and, we understand, of all other animals, is laid down with a minuteness of accuracy that must be very galling to the feelings of an Arrowsmith or a Morrison. Aristotle, Lord Bacon, and Locke, are mere impotent ninnies, in comparison with Gall, Spurzheim, and Combe; and indeed, any one page of Combe's great work on Phrenology is worth
all that Bactrian, Samian sage e'er writ." We propose that a colossal and equestrian statue be erected to Him on the Calton Hill, instead of that absurd national monument the Parthenon; and that a subscription be forthwith set a-going, under the auspices of Sir John Sinclair, who will soon make Michael Linning hide his diminished head.
The world will rejoice to hear that a Phrenological Society has been established in this city. Their “ Report" is now lying before us; and as it is quoted in Waugh, we presume that, without offence, we may quote it also.
"The existence of this Society implies a belief in the Members, that the Brain is the organ of the Mind, and that particular parts of it are the organs of particular menkey to the true Philosophy of Man. The tal faculties; and that these facts afford a the doctrines have met with, and of the riSociety is aware of the opposition which dicule which has been cast upon them; but they know also, that in all ages a similar reception has been given to the most im portant discoveries; which, nevertheless, have in time prevailed. The Pope imprisoned Galileo for teaching that the earth turned on its axis; but the earth continued it had done before it, and carried him round to revolve after the Pope's denunciation as on its surface, whether he believed in Ga
lileo's assertion or not. As the evidence
and now Galileo is an object of respect, was examined, the fact itself was believed; and the Pope of compassion or contempt. The result, it is believed, will be the same with Phrenology."
This is finely put. Nothing can be more simply sublime than the statement of the earth continuing not only to revolve after the Pope's denunciation, but also to carry the misbeliever round on its surface, instead of chucking him overboard. In like manner, if a louse were to get drunk in the head of a phrenologist, he would indisputably be of opinion that the said head, with all its organs, was whirling round; but in this the louse would be most grossly mistaken; and the head would continue to remain unrevolving after
he louse's denunciation as it had done before it, and keep him on its surface hotwithstanding his astronomical heesy. If, instead of a louse on the head of a phrenologist, the phrenoloist himself were to get drunk, and he louse to remain sober, then the hrenologist would opine that the head evolved, and would denounce, if he new it, the opinion of the louse; but he head would continue stationary fter the phrenologist's denunciation, and would not carry round the louse
on its surface just as it had done before, whether the phrenologist agreed with the opinion of the louse or not.
The Phrenological Society, we hope, will publish their Transactions, as well as the Royal Society, and the Dilettanti. We shall have an eye on their proceedings; and, in a future number, we mean to give a list of the members, which, as it might be expected, contains many of the most illustrious names in literature and science.
VOYAGES AND TRAVELS OF COLUMBUS SECUNDUS.
THE Christmas holidays in Edinburgh have long furnished the working classes vith an intermission from labour, -the overs of good eating with excuses for gratifying their propensities,-andhave nnually suspended the administration of justice in our courts of law, by a hree weeks' recess from business. The Church of Scotland, having wisely discarded from her polity set times, appointed feasts, and unprofitable fastngs, the approach of Christmas brings with it no idea connected with reliion, except what may be gathered rom festive hilarity, and the practical gratitude of family meetings. For some time previous to this day, all is oustle and preparation among the maufacturers of confectionary; currants and almonds, raisins and orangepeel, and all the necessary ingredients for forming shortbread and buns, are laid out in tempting variety in the shop windows of the grocers; and British and foreign spirits, of every variety and price, are also exposed, with the price per gill in conspicuous characters, to attract purchasers who wish to get merry at a trifling expense. The Christmas holidays to which I allude, it is necessary to mention, are those of some twenty years back, before the morals of the humbler citizens were broken down by a change of manners ;—when the poor man could easily procure labour, have his amorie filled with wholesome provisions at a cheap rate, and was able to get desirably tipsy upon penny whip for two pence. The distillers were then allowed to poison the lieges without check; the brewers had not adopted the mo
dern plans of tanning the stomachs of their customers; the grocers were conscientious, and ash-leaves and burnt horse-beans were totally unknown in the manufacture of tea and coffee; ale was drunk in quaighs without measure, and reaming stoups of genuine claret. superseded the necessity of paying five shillings a bottle for sloe juice.
One of the first demonstrations of the approach of Christmas in Edinburgh was the annual appearance of large tables of anchor-stocks at the head of the Old Fish-market Close. These anchor-stocks, the only species of bread made from rye that I have ever observed offered for sale in the city, were exhibited in every variety of size and price, from a halfpenny to a half crown; and the manufacture, as far as may be judged from a hereditary resemblance of feature, has been continued to the present time by the same family,-I believe from Musselburgh. Anchor-stocks, at this period, had, from their novelty, an uncommon sale; and even among the higher ranks many were purchased, as an agreeable variety in the accustomed food; for they were sweet-tasted, and baked with caraway seeds and orange-peel. I have been particular in mentioning the composition of anchor-stocks, as, without some such explanation, many who read my travels might proclaim to the world, that the citizens of Edinburgh were so ill off in point of provisions, as in winter to eat the very stocks of their ship anchors, and thus class the inhabitants of the Northern Athens with the saw-dust and fish-bone eaters of Lapland and Norway.