« PreviousContinue »
ALLEGORY CONSIDERED. 65 « anointed Priest, continually officiates before « God, and devotes its noblest powers to hiiñ “ for a spiritual sacrifice *"
$7. Under the head of Allegory we may place Parables, of which we have so many instances in Scripture; and Fables, of which we may find some very fine examples in Pagan antiquity. The best Orators have not scrupled to make use of them. Thus when ALEXANDER, after his conquest of Thebes, ordered the Athenians to deliver up to him eight, or, as others fay, ten of their Orators; DEMOSTHENES dissuaded them from complying with this demand by a Fable of the sheep, who gave up their guardian dogs to the wolves t..
* STENNETT's Sermons, vol. i. page 161, 16zi "
+ Eveus 8 9 Akagavpb aft: by Tên tay nhau xà pev, ws Idoj sveus xãs Acügts espnncom orta d', wis os boheisos και δοκιμωτατοι των συγγραφεων – Οτε και τον περι των προβατων λογον ο Δημοσθένης, ος τους λύκους της κυίας εξιδικε. PLUTARCHUS in Vit. Demosthe#is.
fi. The definition of a Metonymy. § 2. The
change of name used four ways : (1) The cause
put for the effeEt ; (2) The effect put for the : cause; (3) The subje&t put for the adjunet; - (4) The adjunet put for the subject. § 3. The
Metalepsis, its definition. $ 4. The use of the
$1. Metonymy * is a Trope, in which one
2. name is put for another, for which it · may be allowed to stand by reason of some relalation or coherence between them.
*. $.2. This change of name is principally used these four ways:
(1) When the cause is put for the effect. Thus Mars among the Heathens is used for war, Ceres for corn, and Bacchus for wine. So we bid a person read Cicero, that is, C1cero's Works. So we say, “ look at this man's hand,” that is, at his writing. Thus Virgil describes his Mepherd was playing upon his
reed," * From peta and ovoudi, the passing of one name into ana otber.
reed * " that is, upon his pipe made of a reed. Instances of this kind are not wanting in Scripture. Luke xvi. 29. " They have Moses and the ss Prophets;s and Numb. xxxii. 23. ss And be sure ss your sin will find you out,ss that is, the punishment of your sin.
(2) Another kind of Metonymy is, when the effect is put for the cause. Death is called pale, because it makes the countenance pale. Youth is called gay, because it makes persons gay. And in like manner anger is called rash, because it makes men rash. We have instances of this sort in Scripture. Gen. XXV. 23.Two nations ss are in thy womb," that is, the fathers of two nations; Exod. xv. 2. ss The Lord is become my ss falvation," that is, the author of my salvation; and 2 Kings iv. 40. 's There is death in the pot,ss that is, a poisonous herb that will cause death.
(3) Another kind of Metonymy is, when the subject is put for the adjunct, that is, for some circumstance or appendage belonging to or depending upon the subject. “ He has a good heart,” that is, he has courage, which is supposed to reside in the heart. Christ. bid his Disciples, Matt. xxvi. 27. to ss drink of the cup," that is, of the wine in the cup. It is said, Mark i. 33. that ss the city was gathered at the door,ss that is, all the inhabitants of the city. To thefe examples. I might add such as follow : the Church, that is, Religion forbids it. “ He painted our
King,”. . * Sylvettem tenui mufam meditaris avena.
VIRGIL, Eclog. i. ver. 2.
King," that is, the picture of our King. “There's the Hero,” that is, the bust of the Hero. ;
(4) Another kind of Metonymy is, when the adjunct is put for the subject. Gen. xxxi. 53.
Jacob fware by the fear of his father Ifaac,'s that is, by the God whom Isaac feared. 2 Kings xx. I. Şet thine house in order, that is, the affairs of thine house. Phil. ir. 3... For * we are the circumcision,' that is, the persons who are circumcifed. Such passages as follow belong also to this division of the Metonymy. “ We slight living virtue," that is, men alive who are virtuous. « No age shall be silent in thy praise," that is, men in no age shall be sis lent in thy praise. And what charming Metonymies have we of this kind, since the virtues and vices mentioned evidently denote the persons in whom they are found, in that animated passage of CICERO, where, comparing the forces of the Roman republic with the profligate army of CaTILINE, he says, “. On this side modesty is en-. “ gaged, on that impudence; on this side chal“tity, on that leudness; on this integrity, on 6 that deceit; on this side piety, on that pro“ faneness; on this side constancy, on that fury; “ on this side honour, on that baseness ;- on this « side moderation, on that ungoverned passion : « in a word, equity, temperance, fortitude, pru"dence, and all virtues contend against injuse « tice, luxury, effeminacy, rashness, and all a manner of vices *.” * Ex hac enim parte pudor pugnat, illinc petulantia,; hinc
pudicitias, 33. Under the Metonymy we may consider the Metalepsis, of which it may frequently eithet more or less consist; but it has this circumftance peculiar to it, that it is very far-fetched and uncommonly multiplied, or, as Dr WARD defines it, two or more Tropes, and those « of a different kind, are-contained under one :56 word, so that gradations or intervening fer 36 come between the word that is expressed, - the thing designed by it. The contests, fai “ the learned Professor, between Sylla and .“ Marius proved very fatal to the Roman state. 6 Julius CÆSAR was then a young man. · But “ Sylla, observing his afpiring genius, faid of to him, In one CÆSAR there are many MARIUSÉS: ti (nam Czfari multos Marios ineffe, Suet. in Vit. W c. 1.) Now in this expression there is a Meta" lepfis, for the word Marius, by a Synecdoche s or Antonomasia, is put for any ambitious or “ turbulent person ; and this again by a Meto
nymy of the cause for the ill effects of such a « tempêr to the Public. So that SYLLA's mean* ing, divested of these Tropes, was, that CÆSAŘ
would prove the moft dangerous person to the .66 Roman state that ever was bred in it: which .66 afterwards proved true in the event t." F 3
As .pudicitia, illinc ftuprum ; hinc fides, illinc fraudatio ; hinc pie. tas, illinc fcelus ; hinc conitantia, illinc furor ; hinc honeftas, illinc turpitudo; hinc continentia, illinc libido; denique æ. ,quitas, temperantia, fortitudo, prudentia, virtutes omnes certant cum iniquitate, cum luxuria, cum ignavia, cum temerio tate, cum vitiis omnibus. Cicer. in Catil. Orat. ii. $ 11.
# Ward's Oratory, vol ii. page 25, 26.