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PRICES of STOCKS from December 26, to January 26, inclulive, 1970.
BANK INDIA South Sea South Seaf South Seal 3 per C. 1 3 per. C. 13 per. C. 13 per. C. 1 3 per C, 31 Bank 4 per C. Navy Long Exc, Bills. In. Bonds.
STOCK. STOCK. STOCK.jold Ann. Inew Ann. Ind. Ann. reduced. Conlol, B. 1731. B. 1756. 1758. 1762. Buls, Annu. 1.). 1. 8.
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COURSE of the EXCHANGE. LONDON, Jan. 21, 1770.
Wheat 30 to 37 s. od. Amft. 34 3 US. Hamburg, 33 3 2 Ul. Cadiz

391
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491 Barley is to 18 s. ola Dito at tight 339 Paris 1 day'e date

Venice Rye 22 to 24 5. 01. Antwerp, ao price

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Bilboa

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Oale 14 to 20 od, Rotterd, 34 3 UI, Bourdeaux ditto 311 Leghosa 50% Oporto is s. 603

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ADY,

flosarte A Survey of the Roads from

Sgsted

CHELMSFORD in ESSEX 131

to STED. BURYin SUFFOLK,

and SAFFRON WALDEN in ckman River

ESSEX. kino Street

As also from CHELMSFORD to
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The UNIVERSAL MAGAZINE for FEBRUARY, 1770.

57

ΤΗ

HE annexed Whole. Theet Plate, being the XXVIth in our Ma

gazine of the Roads of England, contains a Survey of the Roads from Chelmsford in Eflex, through Braintree, Sudbury, and Laver ham, to St. Edmundsbury in Suffolk, and Saffron Walden in Eflex :- Allo the Roads from Chelmsford to Malden and Raleigh in Essex, and Gravesend in Kent; with a Branch from Canterbury to Sandwich, Deal, and Dover, shewing the Distance between Town and Town by Mile Stones, with every other Particular worthy of Observation. DISCOURSE on the Question, Whether KNOWLEDGE contributes

to HAPPINESS?

a

OWEVER knowledge may refine the one must be content to take his fhare of that of brutes, it betrays a want of experi- companion. Pleasure and pain, like two ence and obfervation on the various charac. Monarchs, divide the empire of the world beters of men, and the different conditions of tween them, and conjointly fit on the fame life, not to know that the strongest pleasures throne. Every one, whether learned Greek, of sense are heightened by the ablence of or untaught barbarian, that is pleased to be a knowledge and speculation, which tend to fubject of the former, muft at feasons indure give a disrelish, at least in fome degree, to the uncontroulable influence of the latter every fenfual enjoyment. The pasiions are it is however allowed that age alone impairs the springs of numberless pleasures, and they the faculties of enjoyment ; for which Tome are chilled by the intervention of mental ac- deduction must be made. quifitions. True it is, a pursuit after knows The Belles Lettres, to those whose taste ledge is a feast to the mind, and worthy the inclines that way, afford a pleasure that leaves attention of a rational being, as it, in the eye no disguft behind. But there are branches of reason, compenfates for the lots of corpo- of science which, however agreeable undet ral delights : But it actually abridges us of certain attitudes of the mind, are beset with other sources of pleasure, and casts a fickly perplexity and gioom. The irgenious reaa Vell over them.

der will readily conccive that I have an eye That knowledge is not essential to happiness to deeply moral and metaphy cal difquifiis a truth exemplified in an eminent manner tions, which are apt to alienate the affections in children and in the beasts of the field; from common pursuits. I have singled out from whom a strong inference may be drawn that particular' branch of knowledge which in fupport of this opinion. It will

, without treats of the Deity, of the ultimate end of dispute, be readily acknowledged, that the man's creation, mul of other such important lamb which Ikips and plays knows not for- points, as an acquaintance with these mattow; and yet he is certainly but little in- ters, lo far as reason lends a beam, may be debted to knowledge for his felicity: deeined noble, and as this part of science is Thoughtless and unconcerned, he seizes particularly productive of disatisfaction in such pleasures as undeviating nature reaches afruirs of life. forth to him, and is not excruciated with l'act and experience are doughty atges anxious doubts of the immortality of the ments in the scale of a dispute. It will re. foul, or the eternal existence of matter, the fiect light on the question if we take a view necessity of moral evil, or the freedom of the of the chargcters of many kudious men awill.

mongst us, and examine how far their apThat we increase in knowledge as we ad- pearance will countenance the above asiera rance in years we all know; but we do not What gloom surrounds thefe confc4 find that we increase in happiness. On the crited votaries of the muses ! The gay, the contrary, experience tells us, that childhood, foutive joys seem to have bid them eternal which is the most ignorant, is likewise the adieu : forbidding looks, filence; nelanhappieft ftate of human life ; a circumftance choly, retreats, ufurp their place. principally chargeable to ignorance and tim- Grca: app cation to captivates the eager plicity. Evils multiply faiter tiran blessings. fudent, as to render that common convertà Knowledge brings care as well as pleature tion, which the less cultivated mind would along with it ; and he that eagerly erobraces be plek watiifickly and palling. The Ny B. CCCXVIII, Vol. XLVI,

mean:

tions.

:

meanness of many an observation, the tedi- to singing, from melancholy to music. In ousness and unimportant circumstances of such a combination as this, sweetened with many a tale, are confidered by him as so innocence and a ferene consciousness of upmany intrusions on his time and patience; rightness, except under peculiar circumstanand with pain he liftens to a discourse which ces of misery, or extraordinary gloom of 'exhibits neither instruction nor delight to mind, may arise such a share of felicity as him. Reasoning from causes, he rises to ef- will not make the possessor think existence a fects. Penetrating into the temper of his burden ; and beyond tirefe bounds of hapcompanion, he has all his motives and piness neither the diving researches of the weaknesses open to his view, and confiders philosopher, the giddy fights of the libertine, his reflexions as the mechanical effects of his nor the unruffled ferenity of a peafant's lite, several prejudices. He dies in the conversa- will carry the most diligent inquirer. tion of the living, and revives not till he re- There is a certain portion of happiness enters the society of the dead, intombed in his measured out to us all; and the only quef. library.

tion is, in what pursuit it thall consist ; a Advancement in knowledge and advance- question which is determined by our choice ment in years have, in fact, a relemblance of or peculiar bias. That choice is too geneeach other : They both ingender dissatisfac- rally imagined to be of great importance in tion and peevishness, when they border on the scale of happiness ; but time and famili

. extremes ; so that study without bounds is a arity level the difference that is at first fuppremature age of the mind, like that of the posed to exist between different choices. body, not the center of pleasure. Truth Happiness is situate in idea. If we fancy may be sometimes disagreeable, but it is al. we have it, it is sufficient; but two few there ways tacred : We humble our hearts before are who fancy fo. It is seen by many at a the idol, even when we dislike its form. distance, like the ignis fatuus, and vanishes

Though knowledge may stand in the at their approach when they are ready to stead of sensual delights, there are tiines feize it. when that will pall on the mind like corpo. Chance, or some trifling circumstance to ral sweets on the body. Neither in fenfual universal taste as trilling as chance, at first nor in mental gratifications must we expect determines a man to a particular course in a completion of happiness. Possibly a tenor life, which by a private prejudice he judges of exquisite felicity may involve a contradic- most promising to happiness : And if under tion, as every fenfátion exists by comparison, such a choice, (whether it respects mental or or at least is heightened by it. How far this sensual enjoyment) he can perfuade himself circumftance is a necessary condition of na- that he is happy, no one elle must dare dirture is a question beyond the reach of man. pute it. The wild lunatic himself, who is We see so much cause to thank the Creator at so great a remove from rational knowfor the bleslings we inherit in things we un- ledge, as, instead of possessing the common derstand, that we will conclude the evils of share allotted to others, to treasure up whims life, numerous as we find them, are the efflux and nonsense diametrically opposite to reaof some general good, or the offspring of fon, may yet be happy ; perhaps more so uncontroulable necessity. We cannot with than the proud philolopher in Horace, who reason arraign the goodness of a Being, who thinks himself fupremely wise, and King has, upon a balance, given us a greater share of Kings. of good than evil.

It affords a smile at many ancient and some The sun does not always shine and chear more modern philosophers, to reflect on the the face of nature, but sometimes veils his great emphalis they said on mental acquire. face to burst forth again with a more daz- ment, as if that were exclusively the only zling blaze. Day and night fucceed each business of life, as well as the only path that other alternately, and give pleasure repeated leads to bliss. They did not consider, that birth. Variety Sparkles on the senses, and to appropriate so lar, e a portion of time on beguiles the tedious hours, which would speculation, as to leave none for action, is to otherwise hang like a load upon us.

defeat the intention of many faculties we de. The most probable way of enjoying plea- rive from nature besides those of the mind. sures in the highest perfection is to voy thern It would ill become an author to decry the as muclı as poffible, and not to indulge in dignity of knowledge ; nor would I be inany to a furicit. The pleasures of icnfe terpreted fo to do : But happiness is not alshould he wisely blended with the recreations ways connected with dignity; and it is his of the mind, and an agreeable variety, (as, in office to warn against the dangerous effects music, the most dedi heful harmony) vould of excess on human frailty, as tending to disthen liiccced. We thould fly froin science tort from the paulis of propriety, without

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