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ere he sailed for Canada, he would, it is likely, have regarded the exhibitions of Yankee petulance with a somewhat more tolerant eye.
At the same time, nothing can be more just and true, than the general conclusions which Mr Howison draws from his own observation of the state of manners on the New Continent, both in Canada and in the United States. Himself apparently by no means tinged with any deep aristocratical notions, he is constrained to acknowledge that the equality (as it is called) of American society, is the greatest curse of that society; that the manners of the vulgar are brutalized to a horrible degree by that almost total absence of superior models, which is observable in Canada more particularly; and, finally, that external manners, although not certainly in themselves the first objects of philosophical attention, are fit objects of very serious consideration, in as much as, be they good or ill, they cannot fail to
re-act for evil or for good on the character (properly so called) of those who wear them. In these views, we have no doubt our intelligent readers in America will perfectly coincide with Mr Howison; and, altogether, as we have already hinted, we think his book will be a favourite one in America as well as in England.
Mr John Howison, the author of these Sketches of Upper Canada, is, we understand, the brother of that Mr William Howison, who has already excited so many bright expectations by his beautiful Fragments and Fictions, published under the name of M. de Peudemots; and by his Essay on the Sentiments of Adaptation, &c. We doubt whether there be another family in the empire that can boast the possession of two such rising lights of letters, and hope both brothers will exert themselves to keep up the hopes that have been formed, or, as we may more properly express it, to redeem the pledges that have been given.
CHRISTOPHE, LATE EMPEROR OF HAYTI.
To Christopher North, Esq.
SIR,-AS Supplementary to an Article which appeared in your fifty-first number, relative to the late Emperor of Hayti, the subjoined Letter will perhaps gratify some of your readers. They will be glad to recognize, in an inde pendent document, statements verifying the inferences, which I then considered as fairly deducible from the Imperial Rescript, addressed to Mr W., and which it would not be difficult abundantly to sustain by other collateral proofs. As it is, I feel a melancholy pleasure in thus offering to the once powerful Christophe, on the good old principle, my sacrifice after sunset!
may, probably, create a farther interest in the fame of the Departed, if I add, that his daughters, (now, with their mother, in England,) are represented by their hospitable friends, as well-bred and simple-minded young women, characterized chiefly by their timidity, and a tinge of seriousness, which the recent events of their life have been but too well adapted to create. One does not, surely, readily derive such dispositions and habits from a bloody and luxurious parent,
Nec imbellem feroces
But, if they pluck the "precious jewel" from adversity, they will have no cause to regret their fallen fortunes. The widow is said to be a good-humoured and pleasing woman; but less refined, as might be expected, and less accomplished than her daughters.
Out of the wrecks of their shattered greatness, it is trusted that enough has been collected to render them independent. If Christophe had been as rapacious for private purposes, as his calumniators contend, would he not have invested, out of his millions, large sums in foreign funds, for his family's use; in the contemplation of that aclaμNTOY TO μEλoulos, which his own observation must so forcibly have impressed on his mind?
After the testimony, indeed, borne by Lord Byron to the courtesy of Ali Pacha, it may now, perhaps, be questioned, whether the civilities (hearty and unpretending as they appear to have been,) recorded in the annexed epistle,
contain evidences of a friendly disposition or a kind heart. But, at the risk of being classed among the dupes of a mock patriotism, or a spurious humanity, I am willing to regard the efforts of Christophe to purify the morality of his recently liberated and ill educated countrymen-particularly with respect to adultery and duelling, as establishing his magnanimity in its best acceptation. The concupiscible and irascible passions, which prompt the Venerem et prælia, were not likely to be easily controlled in bosoms drawing intensity of feeling of every kind, from the region which has supplied our stage with its Oroonokos, its Zangas, and its Othellos; warped as they must farther have been, by a sense of many wrongs, and stimulated, for the first time, by the intoxicating cup of sudden emancipation.
Neither does his unceasing zeal to introduce a better education throughout his new dominions, or the enthusiasm with which the toast, proposing his health, was received at the governor's table, naturally announce the savage or the tyrant.
I might also appeal to his excellent character, as a husband and a father; for, though instances of conjugal and parental affection are not wanting among barbarians and despots, they seldom show themselves in so rational and so consistent a manner as in the case of the Emperor of Hayti.
But I leave these, and other deductions, to the good sense of the public.Yours, &c.
Yorkshire, Dec. 1, 1821.
IPHIGENIA, PORT ROYAL,
MY DEAR ***** ACCORDING to promise, I sit down to give you as full an account of our reception at Cape Henry, as my recollection will furnish me with, as I am promised a conveyance for it by a pri
not immediately about the King, is said to have greater influence than any other man. The Admiral then waited on the Duke of Marmalade, governor of Cape Henry; after which we sat down to breakfast, and found a most sumptuous entertainment provided. The only difference between our breakfasts and dinners, was the addition of tea at the former, and more wine drank at the latter; in other respects they The Admiral landed at six in the were quite the same; soup, fish, and morning of May 16; his party consisting of Captains Parker and Cox, splendid dinner being provided at both, all the other component parts of a Lieutenant King of the Beaver, Mr together with wine of every descrip Gahan, Dr Macnamara, surgeon of the tion; in short, the greatest gourmand of
Home Popham was received at the landing-place by a guard of honour,
courses and the good things that constituted them. Sixteen places were
where carriages were waiting to convey provided for whatever guests Sir H. the party to the house allotted for our Popham thought proper to invite. Car
reception, which we found to be a very riages and horses were constantly kept
good one-uncommonly clean, well in readiness; but in consequence of furnished, and provided with a library the extreme heat of the weather, (the and plenty of servants; the lower part, sun at this time being exactly vertical,) other offices, being fitted up as a tem- morning, and after dinner, when the we seldom rode out, except early in the porary guard-house, which was occu- cavalry by no means held sinemur. pied during our stay by a guard com- places; his Haytia n Majesty's
with the exception of the kitchen and
manded by a Captain, who always paigne promoting wonderful emulation
turned out on the Admiral's going from or returning home. Two centinels
among the horsemen.
In these excursions, we visited the were constantly posted at the door, places most worth y of notice in the and one at the head of the staircase. neighbourhood of the town, particle Baron Dupuy here received the Admi- larly the scenes of several desperate day, giving us all a most hearty wel- the French, during their struggle for ral, and did the honours during the first battles fought between the natives and come. The Baron is a Mustiferio, (the emancipation from slavery, siasm and fourth remove from black,) and though of these battles, the enthusiasm and
devotion of the undisciplined negroes in the cause of liberty, overcame the best troops France could send against them; although they frequently were armed with no other weapons than a long stick with a spike-nail at the end. The Haytians feel an honest pride in pointing out these places, rendered sacred by their heroic achievements.
Cape Henry, when in possession of France, (then called Cape François,) was considered one of the richest, and certainly was the most splendid city in the West Indies-with a population of sixty thousand. It was so celebrated for its magnificence, luxury, and dissipation, that it bore the name of the "Western Paris." But with all this, scarcely any town ever fell so completely a victim to revolutionary fury. Not a single house or church escaped conflagration. Their ruins still denote their former splendour. The remains of the cathedral are, among the most striking objects. These occupy one side of a large square, at the head of which the king's palace now stands. This square was the theatre for numberless inhuman spectacles, during the struggle between liberty and oppression. The French at that time made a practice, when they captured a black officer, of nailing his epaulettes to his shoulders; and, after allowing these unfortunate men a sufficient time to suffer under their tortures, they generally put a period to their lives by nailing their caps to their heads, by way of derision. The private men were tortured to death in various ways; the most common of which was, to boil them alive over a slow fire, or to consume them gradually, by commencing at their feet, and burning upward. In addition to these, whole ship-loads were taken outside the harbour, and there scuttled; and where they were not despatched by wholesale, four or five were sewed up in a bag together, and so thrown overboard. After suffering these horrible cruelties, can their present antipathy to their former tyrants be wondered at? Although at the conclusion of this inhuman war, the Haytians had an opportunity of visiting their oppressors with the same cruelties they had themselves suffered, they shewed much more moderation, and in the end suffered the remnant of the French to embark on board a British squadron. To the present time a native of Hayti never mentions a
Frenchman without expressing a generous indignation. It is said to be Christophe's intention to restore the town to its former state, when the independence of his country is acknowledged by France, and guaranteed by England; for without Great Britain being a third party, such is their opinion of French perfidy, they will not even enter into a negociation with them. In the meantime, as he is in constant expectation of an attempt on the part of France to recover her colonies in St Domingo, he does not much encourage building in the sea-port towns; as it is his policy, in the event of an attack, to render them useless to the enemy, and retire to the inland fortresses or mountains, where their active harassing system of warfare, aided by their climate, (so fatal to Europeans,) will soon destroy any force France can send against them.
Individuals, however, have repaired and fitted up their houses in a very handsome manner, and all that are inhabited are of a very comfortable description.
In my humble opinion, an attempt to subjugate Hayti, would be perfect madness. The people have tasted the blessings of liberty and independence; and the obnoxious recollection of their former state is too fresh in every man's memory, to admit of their again submitting their necks to so galling a yoke. Their mountains and forests afford a natural defence, from which no human power can dislodge a people so devoted to their country. Besides this, the talents of the King as a general, as well as of many of his officers, are by no means despicable. This he has manifested during the revolutionary war, and in his wars with the republican part of the island. His army (which is uncommonly well armed, clothed, and disciplined) at present consists of three nominal, but only two complete regiments of cavalry, three nominal, and two complete regiments of artillery, one regiment of engineers, and nineteen complete regiments of infantry, each of two battalions; the whole amounting to 35,000. Their high state of discipline is admirable; in fact, the minutiae of military duty are entered into with the same precision as in the British army. The arms are all of English manufacture, with the Tower mark upon them, purchased from the Austrians, Prussians, and
Christophe, late Emperor of Hayti.
Spaniards, who were so liberally supplied during the late war by Great Britain. The centinels are obliged to stand like statues from the time they are posted, until relieved, without being permitted to move one way or other. Those at the palace have little pedestals to stand upon. Nothing, even of a very minor consequence, can occur without the King's knowledge. His memory is so good, that he is acquainted with every man in the army, as well by name and person, as by character.
The laws of Hayti are very severe; but, when it is considered that the King, on his accession to the throne, found his country in the utmost confusion, insubordination, and demoralization, the necessary severity of the "Code Henry" will appear obvious. This great and wonderful man, in the space of ten years, has corrected all the numberless abuses which he found existing; and his endeavours to establish morality have been eminently successful. The penalty for adultery, is death to both parties; but I under
stand there is not an instance of its
having been rigidly put in force. On
A short time ago, three Judges were sent to the Citadel Henry, to work as labourers, on being convicted of partiality, and were kept at hard labour for a month!
The King is in all things absolute. He is the sole proprietor of land, the produce of which is sold for the bene fit of the State. No other person whatever can have a freehold: but tracts of land are granted by lease at a nominal rent, in reward for services, the King constantly retaining the roy alty. Cattle and sheep are also a royal monopoly. The revenue arising from the above, and 10 per cent duty levied indiscriminately on all imports and exports, more than double the expenditure of the country. The whole treasure collected at Sans Souci is immense. Twelve millions sterling is consider ably below the medium statement I heard respecting it. Whatever gold or silver is deposited in the treasury, never again sees day-light. All pay ments are made in produce, which the merchants are obliged to purchase with gold or silver, or European goods; so that money is constantly flowing into the country, without any leaving it.
Several manufactures are brought to considerable perfection. Mahogany chairs and tables, together with most other descriptions of furniture, are as highly finished here as in England. The magnificent palace of Sans Souci is almost entirely fitted up with things of native manufacture. What most surprised me were the carriages (one belonging to the King, the other to the Prince Royal) both built at Sans Souci, and finished with equal taste, lightness, and elegance with some that stood beside them of English build. All the ornamental parts were of solid silver; and that metal was substituted for iron wherever it was possible. The royal stud is very large, and the stables are kept in the most beautiful order, under the direction of an English groom, with a salary of 1600 dollars a-year. Gun-powder mills are worked, also founderies for Casting shot.
Among other things, the education of the rising genera tion is not neglected. Schools on the Lancastrian prin ciple are established at all the principal towns, under the direction of English masters, whose language is to be introduced instead of French. An academy for instruction in geography,
mathematics, and the classics, is also established at Cape Henry, under the direction of an English clergyman. The admiral visited these institutions, and was much pleased with their order and regularity, and with the proficiency of the boys, several of whom were examined for his satisfaction. The whole expense is defrayed by the King, who frequently inspects them in person.
The hospitals, both military and charitable, are not less admirable. The military is under the direction of Dr Stewart, a man not less to be admired for his professional abilities, than for his hospitality and gentlemanly manners. We went over them, and found as much method and regularity exist ing here, as at the Royal Hospital at Haslar. Dr Stewart has a carte blanche from the King; and nothing is wanting for the comfort and accommodation of the patients. One thing appeared rather ludicrous and unnecessary, which was, a pair of stocks fitted to every bed-place, in which the legs of the occupier are immediately put, on the least symptom of insubordination. Dr Stewart assured us, that coercive measures were absolutely necessary; as, from the great ignorance of some of the negroes, it was imposible to induce them to take their me licines by mild ones.
To this state Haïty has been brought n the sixteenth year of its independ ence, by a people whom some have he wickedness to reproach with being he link of affinity between the human ind the brute creation.
The general residence of the King s Sans Souci, a palace built by himelf near a town of that name, situated bout fifteen miles from Cape Henry. It is said, that more than two millions terling have been expended on this nagnificent structure, which is placed on such an elevated position, that the hermometer seldom rises higher than 5. Near to this is the Citadel Heny, which stands on the summit of ne of the highest mountains in the country. From its natural strength of position, together with its very julicious and elaborate defences of art, tis justly reckoned the 'Gibraltar' of he West Indies. Three hundred and ixty pieces of artillery are mounted n the ramparts; two years' provisions re constantly kept up for a complete arrison, and it is the principal depôt VOL. X.
for military stores of every description. During the latter part of the last year, it suffered very much from lightning; which, communicating with magazine, occasioned a most terrible explosion, destroying a considerable part of the works, and blowing up 350 men, together with a vast quantity of stores, and some treasures. The flames were rapidly approaching the principal magazine, containing upwards of 400 tons of powder, and were probably only stopped by the King's great presence of mind and intrepid example. The instant he became acquainted with the accident, he repaired to the spot, and, in defiance of the prayers and advice of those around him, rushed through the flames, followed by many others, and, by dint of personal exertions, succeeded in removing or destroying the whole of the powder in time to save the citadel from total destruction. The flames were soon afterwards got under, but not before a very considerable damage had been done. It is now repaired and enlarged, and in other respects considerably improved.
With respect to his domestic character, I was assured he was a most excellent father and husband, and has spared no pains in giving his children a finished education. The Princesses have had the advantage of English governesses, and are said to be highly accomplished. The Prince Royal has been brought up by the Baron Vasti, an exceedingly clever and gentlemanly white man, author of several wellwritten publications. During our stay at the Cape, I had the pleasure to be come well acquainted with him, and liked him very much. The Queen is a very amiable and charitable woman, quite destitute of the affectation, which generally accompanies so extraordinary a rise as hers. She is fond of relating her adventures during the revolution, the whole of which time she accompanied her husband, with her children on her back, often without any other food than wild fruit and berries, and generally exposed to the weather, sometimes half clothed.
During our stay, we were entertained every evening with balls, given for our amusement by the order, and at the expence of the King. The colours of the company varied from the black to the white, Some of the Creoles were uncommonly pretty, and agreeable; and 3 Z