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deserved to be happy; yet, if a book were compiled from the calamities of painters, as has been done in the history of men of literature, no one would excite our compassion more than he. The poverty of Coreggio was rather exaggerated than true; the misery of Dominichino knew its bounds; the Caracci, though poorly paid, lived beyond scarcity; but Andrea, from the ill-fated day on which he married a certain woman named Lucrezia del Fede, remained in grief to his last sigh. Vasari, in his first edition, says, that, for having married this woman he was despised by his friends, and abandoned by his employers; so much was he the slave of her will, that he was obliged to leave off succouring his own father and mother; and that, on account of her arrogance and ungovernable temper, no scholar of Andrea's could remain with him for any time. In the second edition, Vasari has either * repented of what he had told, or been appeased; for he is comparatively silent in such reproaches, though he does not deny that she was to her husband the source of perpetual sorrow. He relates, in addition, that Andrea was called to the Court of Francis the First of France, where, approved and pensioned, he might have raised the envy of every artist, had he not, induced by the womanly lamentations of Lucrezia, returned to Florence; and, breaking the faith which he had pledged by oath to the king, he unwisely preferred remaining in his own country. Repenting of this rash step, and desirous to re-enter into his for
mer fortune, he was unable to obtain it. Thus, between jealousies, and the narrowness of his domestic circumstances, he daily pined away, till at last, struck by contagion, and abandoned both by his wife, and others, he died in 1530, in the 42d year of his sage, and was buried with the most obscure obsequies.
The artists who came nearest to Andrea in their style of painting, were Marc Antonio Francia Bigi, called Baldinucci, or Franciabigio, and Pontormo. The first was scholar, for some months, of Albertinelli, and afterwards, it appears, formed himself upon the best models of the school; nor, according to Vasari, were there many equal to him in the anatomy, in perspective, in the daily exercise of drawing from the naked, or in his exquisite diligence in every labour. There was already, by him, in the church of St Pier Maggiore, an Annunciation, the figures small, and of the highest finish, the architecture beautiful, yet the picture was not wholly free from the old dryness. Andrea, with whom he had contracted a friendship, and formed a companionship in study, raised him to a higher style. Francia, (as he is called by Vasari,) from an associate became an ardent imitator; and, if not inferior in talent, yet he never could add dispositions so sweet, effects so true, or so much native grace to his figures. There is in the cloisters of the Annunziata, a Lunette picture of the Marriage of the Virgin, close by the works of Andrea; and we there
figures as large as life. On more minute inquiry, he found its merits were quite unknown to the fraternity, and before his departure concluded a bargain for its purchase, at a sum not exceeding L.25 English money. Not anticipating any further difficulty, he was in no hurry to remove his treasure from its old abode, but prosecuted his tour as far as Rome, and then returned to Florence, from whence he issued the necessary directions for its removal to Leghorn for embarkation. In the meantime, however, he had been so unguarded as to mention the circumstance to some of his acquaintance, and it came to the ears of a person employed as a Commissioner, by the Grand Duke, in collecting and preserving the capi d'opera of the art. Application was immediately made to Government, and two peremptory orders obtained, one of which was despatched to the convent, to prohibit the sale of the picture, in the event of its being still there, and the other to Leghorn, to forbid its being shipped, and to authorize its seizure, in possession of whomsoever it might be. It was apprehended in the act of commencing its journey to the ocean, that "highway broad and free," which would so soon have carried it in triumph to England. It was shortly afterwards brought to Florence, where, cleaned, re-varnished, and set in a magnificent frame, it now graces an apartment of the Pitti Palace, and is looked upon as one of the chief jewels of that unrivalled collection. In this country it would have been worth two thousand guineas! We mention the anecdote as a warning to others. Vir sapit qui pauca loquitur, says Ruddiman.
perceive in what manner one painter strove to arrive, by effort, at the same degree of excellence which another had attained by his genius. This work is not yet completed, because, having been examined by the monks before due time, the painter felt so vexed, that he gave it several blows with his hammer, in order to destroy it, and could never be again prevailed upon to give it the last finish, nor did any one else dare to do so. In the paint ing of the Scalzo he also competed with Andrea; and he there executed two Histories, which certainly suffer little from the comparison. Thus, too, at the Poggio Cajano, in the same spirit of friendly rivalry, he undertook to represent the return of Marcus Tullius from exile; and although that work was left unfinished (in tronco,) it exhibits great merit. It is the chief praise of Franciabigio's pencil, to have so often coped with Andrea, and to have kept alive in him that emulation and industry, as if he had feared the possibility of being overcome.
Jacopo Carruchi, from the name of his birth-place, called Pontormo, was a man of rare genius, and admired, even in his earliest works, by Raphael and Michael Angelo. He had received a few lessons from Da Vinci, afterwards from Albertinetti, and was somewhat advanced in the art by Pier de Cosimo; finally, he gave himself as a scholar to Andrea del Sarto. Having raised the jealousy of his master, and been treated uncourteously, he was induced to take his leave, and soon became rather a competitor than an imitator in many labours. In the Visitation at the cloisters of the Servi, in the picture of various saints in the Church of St Michelino, in the two histories of Joseph, in a cabinet of the Great Gallery, one clearly sees how he follows his master without fatigue, and is guided almost in the same path rather by a resemblance in natural genius, than through any principle of imitation. It is an error to regard him as a copyist, like the settarii, of mere forms and faces. He has always an originality by which he may be distin
His style may be said to have been somewhat estranged from the natural, and he too easily became dissatisfied with one manner in order to attempt what he conceived as a better, though frequently with an unfortunate result. So it happened likewise to Napi, the Milanese, and to Sacchi, the Roman, and indeed to every one else, who, at too mature an age, has attempted to change his taste. The Certosa of Florence possesses a picture by Pontormo, from which the learned have deduced the three manners ascribed to him. The first is correct in the design, and powerful in the colouring, and may be regarded as the most allied to Andrea. The second is also good in the design, but the colouring is rather languid; it was this which seems to have served as an example to Bronzino, and others of an after period. The third is a true imitation of Albert Durer, not merely in the invention, but even in the heads and attitudes, a manner most truly unworthy of so beautiful a com mencement. Of this style it is, however, difficult to find examples, except some histories of the Passion in the cloister of the monastery of Certosa, seemingly copied from the engravings of Albert, and from the effects of which he afterwards spent some years in endeavouring to free himself. We might have added a fourth manner if the great works at St Lorenzo with which he was engaged for eleven years, called the Flood, and the Universal Judgment, had been still in existence. They were his last labour, and afterwards white-washed for some ordinary purpose, without either regret or remon strance on the part of the artificers. He had then wished to imitate Michael Angelo, and to leave some examples of what has been called the anatomical style, which in Florence was now about to be esteemned beyond every other. But the effect produced was very different from the object aimed at, and he only taught posterity how vain and fruitless it is for a man advanced in years to affect to follow the varying fashion of the day.
It was a custom of Andrea del Sar
I have seen one of his sacred families in the house of the Marquis others of the age, to conduct his works Carboni Pucci, along with others by with the aid of painters practised in Baccio, Rossi, and del Sarto; and his style, who were either his scholars however much he may have resembled or his friends. This notice is not with
or imitated these, he yet possesses a well-defined character of his own.
out use to those who, in studying his pictures, may sometimes detect the
touch of another brush. It is known that he put the finishing hand to some paintings of Pontormo, and that he kept in his company Jacone and Domenico Puligo, two men born for the art, quick and docile in imitation, although desirous of more substantial rewards than those of honour. A highly commendable work of Jacone, is on the front of the noble Casa Buon delmonte, done in chiar' oscuro, with a beautiful design (in regard to which he was excellent) and entirely after the manner of Andrea; besides the painting in oil which he executed at Cortona, and of which Vasari talks with praise. Puligo, on the other hand, excelled less in design than in colouring. His style was mild, harmonious, and clear, though not without an idea of concealing the contours, and thus freeing himself from the obligation of rendering them more perfect. The character of his style of painting may be discovered in some Madonnas, and other pictures, which, probably designed by Andrea, appear at first sight as if they were also painted by him. Another intimate friend and scholar. of Andrea was Dominico Conti, who became heir to his collection of drawings, and whose memory is eulogized under a bust erected to his honour beside the immortal works of the Annunziata. Vasari makes mention of another follower of Andrea, called Pierfrancesco di Jacopo di Sandro, by
whom there are three pictures in the Church of St Spirito. He also makes honourable mention of two others who lived much in France, Nannoccia and Andrea Sguazzella, both of whom held a style allied to that of Del Sarto.
From the hands of the above-named painters more than from any other, proceeded the many beautiful copies which, in Florence and elsewhere, so frequently are made to pass for originals; but it does not appear credible that Andrea should have repeated so often or so punctually his own inventions, or should have himself reduced them from the great to the small proportions. I have seen one of his holy families, the Saint Elizabeth of which may be found in more than ten cabinets; and other figures painted by him may be found repeated in three or four houses. I have observed the picture of St Lorenzo, with other saints, which is in the Pitti, also in the Gallery of Albani, and the Visitation of our Lord, in the Palazzo Giustiniani; the Birth of our Lady, as painted at the Serri, is also in the house of Signor Pirri at Rome, all most beautified pictures, of a small size, by an ancient hand, and usually assigned to Andrea del Sarto. To me it appears not improbable that the best of so great a number were at least painted in his study, and retouched by himself, as was the occasional custom of Titian and Raffael.
We have no hesitation in saying, that this is by far the best book which has ever been written by any British traveller on the subject of North America; and we are quite sure it must not only attract a great deal of notice now, but retain its place hereafter, in every considerable library, both on this and on the other side of the Atlantic. It is written, as we are informed, by a very young man ; but this is what nobody would be likely to guess from the style either of its opinions, or of its language: for it displays enthusiasm, without any trace of the green; and in the midst of
much ornament, we have been able to discover nothing either of superfluity or of vanity. In short, it seems to contain a faithful and unaffected transcript of the workings of a mind alike active, reflective, fervid, imaginative, shrewd, upright, and generous. Mr Howison is entitled, by this effort alone, to claim no undistinguished rank among the English writers of his time; but nobody who reads his book, can doubt that it remains with himself to demand and obtain, by future exertions, such a high and eminent place, as it is probable his own modesty may have
*Sketches of Upper Canada, Domestic, Local, and Characteristic: to which are added, Practical Details for the information of Emigrants of every class; and some Recollections of the United States of America. By John Howison. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh. 8vo.
hitherto prevented him from conceiving to be within his reach.
The subject of Emigration is perhaps the most important to which the attention of British politicians has lately been directed; and we earnestly recommend this book to the notice of all who love their country, and their country's welfare, because we believe more practically useful hints in regard to this great subject, may be gathered from its unpretending pages, than from all the treatises and travels that have appeared within the last twenty years. Totally free from the prejudices which have so offensively characterized the greater part of those who went before him-totally free, as it appears to us, from all prejudices, except a few, from which we hope English gentlemen will never be quite emancipated-Mr Howison writes like a man who loves his country, and respects her religion, but displays not the least trace of bigotry, either political or religious. He has not gone through a new region wilfully blinded. He has seen the good and the evil, and he has told what he has seen with the calmness of one who has thought too much of human life, either to expect extravagantly, or to judge uncharitably. His sagacity has not chilled his feelings, nor has his warm-heartedness unnerved his judgment. Our literature, in a word, has not for a long time witnessed a debut every way so promising, as this of Mr Howison.
the districts through which he travelled.
Being a Scotsman, and of course acquainted with the actual state of his country, it was to be expected that Mr Howison should consider the subject of emigration, with a particular regard to the habits and necessities of those unfortunate countrymen of his own, who, in consequence of many untoward circumstances, are every day compelled to think of seeking the means of existence at a distance from their native land; and we shall not affect to conceal, that to our view the chief interest and value of his book consist in the admirable manner in which he has thrown together the result of inquiries instituted and pursued from the most patriotic of motives. This is not the place nor the time for inves tigating the short-sighted and heartless behaviour of certain great proprie tors, whose miserable selfishness has been the chief origin of the necessity of emigration from the mountainous districts of Scotland. The day will come, and that full surely, when these persons, or their descendants, shall be compelled to repent in bitterness and vexation of spirit, of the policy which drives away a virtuous and devoted pea santry, for the sake of rearing a diffe rent species of farm-stock, and thereby increasing (perhaps precariously enough) the rental of a few overgrown estates. The whole of this subject is, we are well informed, about to be It does not appear with what parti- treated in the fullest and most mastercular views or purposes Mr Howison ly manner, by one whose name will crossed the Atlantic; though, from va- afford the highest pledge, both for the rious passages in his book, we should accuracy of his statements, and the be inclined to suppose he did not tra- liberality of his view sand, therefore, vel purely for amusement, but rather we for the present shall be silent. It that he had entertained some thoughts is sufficient to know, that a necessity of settling either in Canada or in the for emigration does exist among the United States, in some professional si- Highlanders of Scotland, and it is tuation. That he has received a me- most consolatory to be assured by such dical education, we think highly proa man as Mr Howison, that by emibable, particularly from the excellent grating to Upper Canada, it is in the style in which he satirizes some of the power of any industrious man to purtransatlantic practitioners, and the fe- chase, by the labour of three or four licity with which he occasionally dis- years, the certainty of a comfortable cusses topics of chemical, mineralogi- subsistence for himself and the whole cal, and zoological inquiry; but with of his family, during all the rest of Mr Howison's personal views, we have their days. Mr Howison's precis of nothing to do: It is sufficiently evi- the result of his observations on this dent, that in the pursuit of them, he head, is too valuable not to be given as sought and obtained very extensive it stands in his own words: opportunities of observing the state of
to embark in vessels
society, manners, and commerce, in all bound for Quebec or Montreal. If they
sail for New York, they will have to pay a duty of 30 per cent. upon their luggage when they arrive at that port; and, as there is very little water-carriage between it and Canada, the route will prove a most expensive one, particularly to people who carry many articles along with them. Those who have money to spare, should lay in a quantity of wearing apparel before leaving this country, as all articles of the kind cost very high in Upper Canada. A stock of broadcloth, cotton, shoes, bedding, &c. can be carried out at a trifling expence, and will prove advantageous to the settler. But no one should take household furniture with him; and if he cannot sell what he has in this country, he ought to leave it behind him. The conveyance of tables, chairs, &c. into the back-woods costs far more than their value; besides every thing that is necessary for the interior of a log-hut can be procured in the settlements. Good furniture is not at all fit for the rude abode that must at first be occupied by those who have newly emigrated.
"A passage to Quebec or Montreal can now be procured for about £7, provisions included. Half price is usually paid for children. Nothing is charged for luggage, unless the quantity is very great. Those emigrants who have but a small sum of money, should convert it into guineas or dollars, British bank-notes and silver not being current in Canada. If the amount is large, it should be lodged in the hands of a friend in this country, and such arrangements made as will enable its owner to obtain the sum he wants, by drawing a bill upon his correspondent at home.
"There are offices, both at Quebec and Montreal, where persons, by paying a small fee, may obtain some information about vacant lands, the expence of a grant, and the means of proceeding to the Upper Province. Emigrants should go to these whenever they get on shore, and make such inquiries as they may think necessary, and then immediately set out for York.
"When the emigrant reaches York, he should go to the Land Office there, where he will be informed concerning the steps that must be taken, before he can be entitled to a grant. It is unnecessary to detail these farther than by stating, that the chief object of them is, to make the applicant prove himself a British subject.
"Government gives fifty acres of land to any British subject, free of cost; but, if he wishes to have a larger quantity, he must pay fees to a certain amount. In Canada, fifty acres are considered as a very small farm, and therefore the emigrant should procure at least twice as much, if he can afford to do so; however, he will not easily obtain more than one hundred acres, unless he proves himself possessed of the means of soon bringing a larger
quantity under cultivation. All lands are bestowed under certain regulations and restrictions. The settler must clear five acres upon each hundred granted to him, open a road in front of his lot, and build a log. house of certain dimensions. These settling-duties, if performed within eighteen months after the location-ticket has been issued, entitle him to a deed from government, which makes the lot his for ever; and are so far from being severe or unreasonable, that he will find it necessary to perform them in less than the time specified, if he propose to obtain a subsistence from the cultivation of his farm. The following is a list of the fees on grants of land exceeding fifty acres :—
"The emigrant must now visit the settlement, or place, where he feels most inclined to take up his residence. Different persons will, of course, recommend different spots. But that tract of land which extends from the mouth of the Niagara river to the head of Lake Erie, combines a greater number of advantages than any other portion of the Province; and the emigrant will do well to choose his lot in some part of it. He may perhaps be told, that it lies too far from a market; but this is quite a temporary defect, and is fully counterbalanced by the richness of soil, comparative lightness of timber, fine water communications, and superiority of climate, which characterize its whole extent. Ancaster, Long Point, Talbot Road, &c. are situated in this fertile region, which contains many other settlements equally beautiful and inviting.
"Whenever the emigrant has obtained from government a location-ticket, which is a sort of certificate that empowers him to take possession of the portion of land he has selected, he ought to commence operations immediately. But it sometimes happens, that emigrants are too poor to purchase the provisions, stock, and farming utensils that new settlers require, when commencing their labours. Persons so situated must hire themselves out, until they gain enough to make a beginning. They will be paid for their work in money, grain, cattle, or provisions; all which articles will prove equally useful and valuable to them. They will, at the same time, be acquiring a knowledge of the manners and customs