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Fatal security of many.
38 will the coming of the Son of man also be. For || as in the days which were before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying, and giving in marriage, until the day that Noah entered 39 into the ark; And understood not until the flood
came, and took them all away; so will the co40 ming of the Son of man also be. Then will two men be in the field; the one shall be taken, 41 and the other left. Two women will be grinding at the mill; the one shall be taken, and the other left.
"Watch therefore; for ye know not at what 43 hour your master cometh. But this ye know, that if the householder had known in what watch of the night the thief would come, he would have watched, and would not have suf44 fered him to break into his house. Wherefore
REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER XXIV. 1. The former part of this prophecy shows us how vain and dangerous it is to trust in external privileges. The Jews boasted of the magnificence, strength, and sanctity of the temple, and its surrounding buildings; and even the disciples of Jesus on beholding them, were struck with admiration! Alas! how soon were all these to become heaps; and the holy city be made as a wilderness, for the sin and iniquity of the people. A storm was then gathering, which would burst upon their devoted heads, and nothing should escape its ravages. Thus it was, and thus it will be, that while obstinate and impenitent sinners are crying, peace, peace, sudden destruction cometh.
2. We learn the kindness of God towards his own faithful servants. He warns them of the coming desolation, and admonishes them how to act, and to conduct themselves so that they may escape. When they saw the desolating Roman army, they must flee to the mountains, desert their houses and property, and their lives would be granted them for a prey. There God would be to them a sanctuary,
was to be accomplished, and of course, what he had said, could not refer to the last final judgment.
be ye also ready; for in an hour ye think not the Son of man cometh. Who then is the faith- 45 ful and wise servant, whom his master hath placed over his household, to give them food in due season? Happy is that servant whom his 46 master, when he cometh, shall find doing thus. Verily I say to you, That he will place him over 47 all that he hath. But as to that evil servant 48 who saith in his heart, My master delayeth his coming; And beginneth to smite his fellow-ser- 49 vants, and to eat and drink with the drunken The master of that servant will come in a day 50 when he looketh not for him, and in an hour of which he is not aware, And will cut him off, 51' and appoint him his portion among the perfidious: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.".
36. But that day, &c. Whether we refer this to the time when Jerusalem was to be destroyed, or with Grotius, Lightfoot and others, to the day in which the heavens and the earth shall pass away, it is attended with difficulties, especially as it is read, Mark xiii. 32, where we have, nor the son, &c. As our Lord had said that generation should not pas away' before these things should be fulfilled, he not only knew the period within which what he said would be accomplished, but made it known. He has foretold many remarkable particulars respecting that day and hour, and is it not reasonable to think then that he knew it? Besides, in the parable which follows, Jesus speaks of himself as 'the Lord who shall come when the servant looketh not for him, and in the hour that he is not aware of,' ver. 50. Is it not unnatural to suppose that the Lord himself did not know of that hour? The same reasoning applies to the last day. If we compare other scriptures, the difficulties are increased. Comp. Chap. xi. 27. Col. ii. 3. 9. John xxi. 17. By regarding the verb as transitive, with Macknight, the difficulties are removed, and a plain and easy sense arises. As to the very day and hour it›
and by his watchful providence supply their wants, and keep them, while they beheld the sun, moon and stars, the rulers of their nation, totally obscured and extinguished; and their civil polity destroyed. Thus will God secure his people, and save them for ever, when he finally destroys the wicked. 1
3. Let what we have read, remind us of the last day. Then shall the Son of man come with power and great glory; come to be admired of his saints, and glorified in them that believe, but to take vengeance on them that know not God, and have not obeyed the gospel. Yet the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the triumph of God! Then must all stand before the judgment seat of Christ; and happy they that can stand with confidence on that day! Who may abide the day of his coming? Those who have fled to him as their Saviour and friend, who have loved, served, and honoured him; who have watched for his coming; those shall stand in their lot among his chosen ones, and, not only be absolved, but welcomed to his kingdom.
was granted to no one to make known, neither to the angels of heaven, nor to the Son; but the father only had reserved this time and season in his ownpower. Comp. Zech. xiv. 7. Acts i. 7. In this and the 34th verse, our Lord answers the questions put to him ver. 3.
39. Understood not, &c. Did not regard Noah's warning, and thus were unexpectedly swept away by the deluge.
41. Two women grinding, &c. From this, it appears that it was the custom for women to grind the corn; and there is reason to think that this was done daily, grinding only what was sufficient for a day. Comp. Exod. xi. 5.
42-44. Watch therefore, &c. What follows contains a warning to our Lord's own disciples, to be watchful, faithful and persevering, from the cir cumstance that they did not know at what hour he might come to inflict punishment on his enemies, and even on careless and wicked pretended servants.
51. Will cut him off. That is, from his fellow-servants, and send him to prison for his unfaithfulness, his oppression of his fellow servants, and his wasting his master's property by intemperance. Cut him asunder. I think
and of the talents, &c.
Watch therefore, for ye know not the day nor 13 the hour.
THEN will the kingdom of heaven be like to ten virgins, who took their lamps, and went 2 forth to meet the bridegroom. And five of them were wise, and five were foolish. Those who were foolish took their lamps, but took with 4 them no oil. But the wise tools oil in' their ves5 sels, together with their lamps. While the O bridegroom tarried, they all slumbered and slept 6 And at midnight there was a cry made, Behold! the bridegroom cometh ; go ye forth to meet him.ged in the earth, and hid his master's money.
"For the Son of man is like to a man travel, 14 ling into a far country, who called to him his own servants, and delivered to them what he had, And to one he gave five talents, to another two, 15 and to another one; to every man according to his ability; and immediately went into another, country. Then he that had received the five ta- 16 lents went and traded with them, and made of them other five talents. And in like manner he, 17 that had received the two, also gained other two. But he that had received the one went aud dig‐ 18
7 Then all those virgins arose, and trimmed their
Now after a long time the master of those ser- 19
and said, Verily I say to you, I know you not.'
Parable of the ten virgins,
XXV.baum ode og
149 am t
A. D. 33. The parable of the ten virgins, and of the talents; and a des cription of the last judgment."
¦ se za.
· MATTHEW XXV,
with Campbell, very improper, as he is supposed to live after, and to have his portion among such like perfidious servants,
CHAP. XXV. 1. Then will the, &c. When these calamities are brought on the Jews, then will the heavenly kingdom, or gospel dispensation be like, &c. I do not see how this parable can directly refer to the final judgment. The ten virgins represent professing christians; and the coming of the bridegroom, the coming of our Lord to punish the Jews.
24. Wise-foolish. Campbell renders, after Wakefield and others, prudent; but as wise implies this, I have retained the term; and as it forms a better antithesis with foolish. Their conduct proved their character; and this shows that even then some had only the form without the power of religion. The whole parable contains a plain reference to the custom which prevailed among the Jews then, and in some degree still prevails. They celebrated their marriage-feasts in the evening; the bride and her virgin-companions, or bride-maids, were full dressed, and furnished with lamps or torches, that when the bridegroom came to conduct his bride home, they might go forth to meet him, and then accompany him to the marriage-feast. Sometimes the marriage-feast was kept in the house of the bride, and sometimes in that of the bridegroom, but most frequently, in that of the latter: Judg. xiv, 10. and 1 Mac. ix. 37.
They all slumbered, &c. The wise became remiss, because the bridegroom did not come as soon as expected. This was their fault; but though not so attentive to duty as they ought to have been, they were yet sincere. 69. Go forth to meet him, &c. Now was the time of trial. They all
13. ° wherein the Son of man cometh. Mss.
wanted a supply from their wiser companions, but these had none to spare, They advised them to go to those who sell, and buy for themselves. Nothing could be more prudent.
10-13. The bridegroom came, &c. While those who were foolish, aroused by the near approach of the bridegroom, began to prepare to meet him, but were not prepared, the wise were admitted to the marriage-feast, and only they. The other were deemed unworthy. The concluding verse explains the leading design of the parable. The clause, wherein the Son of man cometh,' is wanting in the best manuscripts, and in the fathers. Omitting it, the sense is the same as the 50th verse of the preceding chapter. Though the whole parable may primarily refer to the state of christians, when Jerusalem was destroyed, it may refer also to the duty of professors at all times, to be watchful, and especially to be upright and sincere.
14. For the son of man, &c. The text is either elliptical, or something has been omitted. With Campbell, I supply Son of man as here preferable to the heavenly kingdom; as what follows, seems to apply to him personally.
15. Five talents, &c. A talent is supposed to have been worth about 188 pounds; a considerable sum to be entrusted with a servant, which shows the kindness of the master. The design of the parable is, to remind men of the value of the privileges they enjoy, especially under the reign of Christ, and their great obligation to improve them.
21. Joyful banquet, &c. That xaga has this sense, See the Greek, Esther ix. 10. The banquet or feast is implied, and the illuminated guestchamber, in the punishment of the wicked servant, ver. 30. Campbell ren
trimmed their lamps; but the foolish virgins had no oil in their vessels; theyders, partake thou in thy master's joy.",
The wicked servant,
! MATTHEW XXV.
The last judgment. two talents: Lo, I have gained besides them, || And he will set the sheep on his right hand, but 33 23 two other talents. His master said to him, the goats on the left. Then will the King say, 34 'Well done, thou good and faithful servant; to those on his right hand, to those on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for place thee over many things: enter into the you from the foundation of the world. For I 35 24 joyful banquet of thy master.' Then he who was hungry, and ye gave me food; I was thirsty, had received the one talent came near and said, and ye gave me drink; I was a stranger, and ye Sir, I knew that thou art a hard man, reaping took me in; Naked, and ye clothed me; I was 38 where thou hast not sown, and gathering where sick, and ye took care of me; I was in prison, 25 thou hast not scattered: And I was afraid, and and ye came to me.' Then will the righteous 37 went and hid thy talent in the earth: lo, thou answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee 26 hast what is thine.' His master answered and hungry, and fed thee? or thirsty, and gave thee said to him, ' Wicked and slothful servant, thou drink? When saw we thee a stranger, and 38 knewest that I reap where I sowed not? and took thee in? or naked, and clothed thee? Or 39 27 gather where I scattered not? Thou oughtest when saw we thee sick, or in prison, and came therefore to have put my money to the ex- to thee?' And the King will answer and say to 40 changers, and then at my coming I should have them, Verily I say to you, Inasmuch as ye did 28 received mine own with increase. Take ye it to one of the least of these my brethren, ye therefore the talent from him, and give it to did it to me.' Then will he say to those also on 41 29 him who hath the ten talents. For to every one the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into that hath improved more shall be given, and he the everlasting fire, which was prepared for the shall abound, but from him that hath not im- devil and his angels: For I was hungry, and ye 42 proved shall be taken away even that which he gave me no food; I was thirsty, and ye gave me 30 hath. And put out the unprofitable servant into no drink. I was a stranger, and ye took me not 43 the outer darkness: there shall be weeping and in; naked, and ye clothed me not; sick, and in gnashing of teeth." prison, and ye took no care of me.' Then they al- 44 so will answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee hungry, or thirsty, or a stranger, or naked,or sick, or in prison, and did not minister to thee?" Then he will answer them, saying, 'Verily I say 45 to you, Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these, ye did it not to me.' And these 46
"Now when the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory; 32 And before him shall be gathered all nations: and he will separate them one from another, as a shepherd separateth his sheep from the goats:
26. Wicked and slothful, &c. The master reasons on his own principles, and justly attributes these qualities to him. Campbell prefers, malignant to wicked. See his excellent Note.
28-30. Take ye therefore, &c. Deprive him of every privilege he has enjoyed, and instead of being admitted to the joyful banquet of his master, and sharing in his happiness and glory, let him be put out into the outer darkness. This forcibly describes the miseries of such offenders.
31. Now when the son, &c. Here our Lord passes on to describe the last judgment; as what follows seems to have no reference to his coming to punish the unbelieving Jews. Comp. Chap. xvi. 27. and 2 Thes. i. 7-9. Jude 14, 15.
32. Sheep from the goats. In prophetic language, sheep signify good men, and goats, bad and wicked men: Ezek. xxxiv. 17, 22. Zech. x. 3. When separated, the former are placed at the right hand, as the place of ho Hour; and the latter at the left, as that of disgrace, or less honourable : Ps. xlv. 9. 1 * 4.6 34. The king will say, '&e. Our Lord means himself, who is made 'King of Kings, and Lord of Lords,' and constituted the final judge and
VOL. III. PART XIX.
arbiter of men.- ·Foundation of the world, Or beginning of the world, Campbell, formation,' which conveys the same sense. When God made the heavens and the earth, he prepared the former, and fixed it in his eternal purpose, as the inheritance of his chosen, ransomed, and sanctified people.
35. A stranger, &c. Not only a person unknown, but one of another nation is intended; and taking him in means entertaining him.
37-39. Lord, when saw, &e. They will be surprised, as they had never seen him in the flesh, and could not literally do these things to him; and their language shows that they placed no dependence on their own works.
40... Ye did it to me, &c. One of the meanest of my disciples, out of love and regard to me and my authority, I take it as done to myself. This ought to be a most powerful motive to the exercise of christian kindness and charity.ast
41. Which was prepared, &c. Doddridge has observed, that there is a remarkable difference between our Lord's expression here, and verse 34, There the kingdom is said to be prepared for the righteous; whereas here the everlasting fire is not said to have been prepared for the wicked, but for the devil and his angels. Comp. Rom. ix, 22, 23.
42-45. I was hungry, &c. The wicked are charged with the neglect, 49
Conspiracy against Christ.
i shall go away into everlasting punishment; but the righteous into everlasting life."
A. D. 33. The rulers conspire against Christ; a woman anointeth his feet; Judas selleth him; he eateth the passover, and instituteth his own supper ; he is delivered up by Judas to the Jewish rulers.
AND when Jesus had ended all these words, he 2 said to his disciples, "Ye know that after two days will be the passover, and the son of man will be delivered up to be crucified." Then assembled together the chief priests and the scribes, and the elders of the people, in the palace of the high priest, who was called 4 Caiaphas; And consulted how they might take 5 Jesus by craft, and kill him. But they said, "Not during the feast, lest there be a disturbance among the people."
REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER XXV. 1. We learn how essential inward piety is, and how vain a mere profession of it. The We wise virgins represent the former, and the foolish the latter. profess the name of Christ; our lamps are in our hands, and we go forth as those that expect to meet Christ; as those who desire and hope to be admitted to the marriage-supper of the lamb. But alas, how few are there that are prepared to meet him, and to enter into the happy place! Even the wise forget their duty, and slumber and sleep. Still they had the oil of grace in their vessels, their hearts, and when aroused, trimmed their lamps, became at once alive to their duty, and went forth to meet their bridegroom, and were admitted to the splendour, happiness and joy of the marriage-feast! Alas! foolish virgins, ye saw your folly too late! Their empty profession was of no avail! They sought admittance in vain. The door was shut. O the misery of dead, foolish pretenders to religion. Their portion is the outer darkness.
2. We learn from the parable of the talents, that we are entrusted with something which it is our duty to improve; and the improvement, or misimprovement of which wik be followed by proportionate rewards and punishments. Whether God gives us five, or
if not the contempt of our Lord; and this was manifest from their treatment of his disciples.
46. Everlasting punishment, &c. As the same word occurs in each part of the sentence in the Greek, it is better to render it everlasting in both; and miserable are they who dare venture their souls on its signifying a limited duration in either, as Doddridge remarks.
A woman anoints him. Now when Jesus was in Bethany, in the house 6 of Simon the leper, There came to him a woman 7 having an alabaster box of very precious ointment, and poured it out on his head, while he was at table. But when his disciples saw it, they 8 had indignation, saying, "To what purpose is this waste? For this ointment might have been 9 sold for much, and given to the poor." And 10 Jesus knew this, and said to them, "Why trouble ye the woman? for she hath done a good deed to me. For ye will have the poor 11 always with you; but me ye will not have always. For in that she hath poured this ointment 12 on my body, she hath done it for my embalming. Verily I say, to you, Wheresoever this gospel 13 shall be preached in the whole world, this also, which she hath done shall be spoken of, for a memorial of her."
CHAP. XXVI. 2. After two days, &c. Or in two days, or before they shall be ended; for if as Pearce thinks, these words were spoken on the Wednesday, the time of observing the passover began on the Thursday evening, at six o'clock, and continued till the same hour the next day. This was immediately followed by the feast of unleavened bread, which continued for seven days more. The whole eight days were called the feast of unleavened bread, including the passover.
two, or one talent, is of no importance, as our acceptance and reward will be proportioned to our diligence; nor will any be blamed, because he did not receive five talents, though many will be condemned for neglecting one. Woe to such as excuse their own criminal neglect, by entertaining hard and unjust thoughts of our Lord; as char ging him with reaping where he had not sowed, &c. Such will be justly condemned; while the faithful, diligent servant will be admitted to sit at the joyful banquet of his master.
3. The view given us of the final judgment, ought to inspire the righteous with the most lively hope, and to rouse and alarm the wicked. Our Lord will then come in his glory, and all the angels with him. All nations shall be assembled before him; and each individual must form a part of that assembly. The sheep and the goats must then be separated, and hear their final sentence; the one shall go into everlasting punishment, and the other into everlasting life. Such will be the final state of the saint and the sinner, the righteous and the wicked. Reader, to which class dost thou belong? to which state wilt thou be doomed? O consider this, and now seek to enter into the heavenly kingdom, that thou mayest find mercy of the Lord in that solemn day.
5. Not during the feast, &c. One of these rulers were apprehensive lest the people should defend our Lord, and were for deferring the execution of their design until the feast had ended, and then the people would have departed; but this caution was over-ruled.
6. Simon the leper. Who had been so, and though healed, was still so called, perhaps to remind him of the mercy vouchsafed to him.
7. Came to him a woman, &c. It is evident from John xii. 3, that this woman was Mary, one of the sisters of Lazarus, John xi. 2.
When his disciples saw, &c. Matthew speaks generally, but from John xii. 4, we learn that it was Judas who made these remarks; although it is not improbable, but some others might approve of them, as they are said 'to have indignation.'
12. For my embalming, &c. My death and departure being so near,
Judas goes to the priests.
Then one of the twelve, called Judas Iscariot, 15 went to the chief priests, And said to them, "What will ye give me, and I will deliver him up to you?" And they appointed him thirty 16 pieces of silver. And from that time he sought for a fit opportunity to deliver him up.
Now on the first day of the feast of unleavened bread the disciples came to Jesus, saying to him, "Where wilt thou that we prepare for 18 thee to eat the passover ?" And he said, "Go into the city to such a man, and say to him; The Teacher saith, My time is at hand; I will keep the passover at thy house with my disci19 ples." And the disciples did as Jesus had ap
pointed them; and they made ready the pass20 over. Now when the evening was come, he 2 placed himself at table with the twelve. And as they were eating, he said, "Verily I say to 22 you, that one of you will deliver me up.' And they were very sorrowful, and began every one of them to say to him, "Master, is it I?" 23 And he answered and said, "He who dippeth He who dippeth his hand with me in the dish, even he will de24 liver me up. The Son of man goeth indeed as
what she hath done may be considered as preparatory to that event; and this act of respect to me, shall be recorded and mentioned with the highest honour.
15. Appointed him. Or weighed him thirty pieces of silver. Campbell and most others suppose that shekels are meant, which would amount ouly to about £3. 10s. but Pearce contends that a larger sum seems necessary to the purchase of a field.
17. On the first day, &c. On that of the passover, properly so called. See Note on ver. 4.
18. To such a man, &c. It is highly probable that the man to whom our Lord now sent, was one of his disciples, one that had believed on him; and if so, one that would not only afford the necessary accommodations, but think himself bonoured by having such guests.
20. The evening was come, &c. The passover feast began on the Thursday evening, after three o'clock. The victim was to be slain and roasted, and eaten on that night; but from John xviii. 28, it appears that some had not eaten it on the Friday morning. Pearce observes, that this most probably occurred from the multitudes of the Jews who then assembled; so that from necessity they took the liberty of eating the passover on any hour before the second evening, on the fifteenth day.
23 Answered and said, &c. Not aloud, but to John only, who was the nearest to him, John xiii, 23–26.—— He who dippeth, &c John gives the particulars, and I think it clear, that while Jesus was dipping the sop, Judas also was putting his hand into the dish. According to Baxter, the Jews have yet at the passover, a very thick kind of sauce, called charoseth, to represent the clay in which their forefathers wrought while they were in bondage. It is the Arab custom still, for all persons present, to help themselves with their hands out of the same dish. See Harmer.
The Lord's supper appointed.
it is written of him; but alas for that man by whom the Son of man is delivered up! good. were it for that man if he had not been born." Then Judas, who delivered him up, answered 25 and said, "Master, is it I?" He said to him, "Thou hast said."
25. Then Judas said, is it ¿? He had already agreed with the Priests to deliver him up; aud, hearing this denunciation, he asked the question to
And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, 26 and having given thanks, he broke it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, "Take, eat; this is my body." And he took the And he took the cup, and gave 27 thanks, and gave it to them, saying, " Drink ye all out of it; For this is my blood, even that of 28 the new covenant, which is shed for many for the remission of sins. And I say to you, I shall 29 not drink henceforth of this produce of the vine, until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom." And after having 30 had the hymn, they went out to the mount of Olives.
Then saith Jesus to them, "All ye will offend 31 because of me on this night; for it is written: I will smite the shepherd, and the flock will be scattered.' But after I am risen again, I will go 32 before you into Galilee." Peter answered and 33
ward off suspicion.-Thou hast said. Campbell and Wakefield render, according to our idiom, It is. According to the Hebrew idiom, the reply unquestionably means, It is as thou hast said. Comp. ver. 64. Mark xiv. 62. The Jews still retain this kind of affirmation. "They said, 'Is the Rabbi dead?' He answered, 'Ye have said." See Scoettgen. in loc. and Pearce, who quotes Plautus for the same mode of affirmation.
26. And having given, &c. I follow Campbel in this version, as the textual reading will admit it; for it is well vn, that it was the uniform custom of the Jews, to bless God or to give thanks to him, for providing food, and not to bless the food Comp. Luke xxii. 17. and 1 Corin. xi. 23. and Chap. xiv. 19; xv. 36. with John vi. 11. Acts xxvii. 35. This is my body. The verb substantive, whether expressed or understood, is often equivalent to signifieth, representeth, Gen. xl. 26. "The seven good kine are or signify seven years, &c." Exod. xii. 11. “It is or signifies the passover of Jehovah." Cor. x. 4. "That rock was or signified, represented Christ.” Comp. Gal. iv. 25. Rev. i. 20.; v. 6. 8.; xi. 4.; xvii. 12, 18.; xix. 8.
28. This is my blood. This wine of which ye drink I appoint to represent my blood, shed for the ratification of the New covenant, and for the remis sion of the sins of many according to the tenor of it.
29. Drink of this produce, &c Jesus would not drink of the vinegar which was offered to him, Ch. xxvii. 34.-Drink it new, &c When in consequence of my having finished the work given me to do, and risen from the dead, and my kingdom is indeed begun, I shall again drink with you. That our Lord ate and drank with his disciples after his resurrection is certain. See Acts x. 41.