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own ftore. Dr. Johnfon does not escape, but is cenfured for his intolerance, and his prejudices. Though the field is exten five, the exceptions are fo few, that we are almost ready to fufpect this to be a friendly attack.

Elements of English Grammar, methodically arranged. 12mo. Is. 6d. Evans.

We have perufed this little work with attention, and had defigned to examine it at fome length, as the early diffemination of error may have a lafting and extenfive effect; but, on more mature reflection, the errors appeared unimportant, and fuch as the pupil would neceffarily correct in the more advanced ftate of his knowlege. The execution in general is entitled to our praife, for the rules are plain and fimple; the examples, with a very few exceptions, accurate and well chofen.

The Preface, and the Plan of Study, is judicious; but we muft neceffarily object to the author's condemnation of the flavish custom' of learning by heart.' The period of youth fhould be employed in improving the faculties of the mind: in early youth, the memory only begins to expand; the perceptions are not accurate, the reason is weak, and the judg ment has fcarcely dawned. To the memory then, for a time, our attention must be directed; and, if properly managed, fo that it be not crowded or confufed, we need not be afraid of overloading it. Many of the modern innovations in education are fanciful refinements, and no one is inore reprehenfible than this very tender regard for the memory.

Ovidia; or, Nutshells: being Ichnographic Diftributions for fma!! Villes; chiefly upon economical Principles. In Seven Claffes With occafional Remarks. By Jofeph Mac Packe, a Bricklayer's Labourer. Part the Firft, containing Twelve Defigns. 8vo. 55. in Boards. Dilly,

This gentleman has put on the frock and apron with a very good defign, and we are much pleased with the inftructions of this honeft labourer. It requires, however, no great fagacity to fee through the disguise, nor to discover that the author of thefe Nut-fhells poffeffes great knowledge of architecture, with a correct, cultivated tafte, and fome experience in the practical part of his work. The defigns are elegant and convenient; the diftribution of the feveral parts is well conducted; and the whole feems to be founded on plans ftrictly œconomical.

The introductory tables contain the proportional breadths of different rooms, as connected with the harmony of numbers, which the author feems to treat with the precife degree of attention it deferves; the proportional breadth of paffages, ftaircafes, door-ways, chimnies, heights, &c. In fact, this intelligent labourer feems fond of regularity and proportion, but is not willing to facrifice any utility or convenience to them. The different plans then follow, which we cannot analyfe; next an appendix; and the work concludes with fome neceffary notes.

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The appendix contains ufeful hints to gentlemen who choose to build, which we would recommend to their ferious attention; and the author's fentiments on decorations. We were pleased with the indignation which he expreffes at the ridiculous mifplaced ornaments, with which modern tafte has decorated the external parts of our buildings, and the abfurd irregularities which we have adopted, from a fear of falling into the oppofite extreme. This fanciful mode will always be rejected by a pure claffical tafte; for it is far diftant from that which has pleased for ages, and will continue to please those who are not corrupted by fashion, or will not facrifice every thing valuable to the caprice of the day.

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Some few words, and in a few inftances the language, of this work is exceptionable; but on the whole, it is very correct, for a bricklayer's labourer;' and this is the ftandard by which the author wishes to be judged. We shall select a short paffage, which difplays both a tafte and knowlege greatly fuperior to his affumed character,

It feems not perfectly agreeable to the genius of architecture, to admit of decorations of the vegetable tribe, too closely copied from nature; the wild nefs of natural foliage, contrafted with the regular geometrical forms of buildings, produce a heterogeneous mixture by no means allowable; and it may be also observed, that the ruling lines of all curves in architectural ornaments, whether fimple, waved, or fpiral, fhould flow from the circle only, and be as free from intanglements and interfections as poffible; all confiderable deviations from this principle, will produce ill effects, and, I apprehend, need only be mentioned, to guard the defigner from encroaching too much upon the province of the painter, whofe chief excellence is, that of being a close imitator of nature. That architecture is too artificial to admit of the natural wildnefs of vegetable forms into its compofition, is, I apprehend, felf-evident, and the effect which would be produced by fuch kind of decoration, may be readily gueffed at, by the following inftance :-fuppofe a building erected in the midft of a garden, having its exterior richly ornamented with foliage, fruits, and flowers, ftrictly copied from nature; compare thefe decorations with the blooming originals furrounding the building, how abfurd and difgufting the effect would be, upon fuch comparison, may be better imagined, than expreffed. The truth feems to be, that all architectural ornaments should be as much as poffible effential parts of the defign they decorate; and this is effected in fome inftances, by difpofing them in fuch pannels and compartments, and upon fuch tablets, plat-bands, and facies, as åre proper to the defign, and which, without decoration, would leave the child of nature to enquire whether those blank frames are for the reception of paintings or glaffes. It is, however, proper to remark, that the regular parts of felected vegetable forms; I mean the leaves, buds, flowers, and hufks, are not

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by any means to be excluded, when properly corrected by arti though, indeed, thofe generally fucceed beft which are wholly the produce of art. Vegetable forms, purely natura), appear to fucceed beft in freezes and fafcias, and other members of that character; the reafon feems to be, that the parallel or concentric lines, bounding or inclosing fuch decorations, being fo near to each other, as to be feen at the fame time with the ornaments between them; the irregularity of the natural forms is thereby confiderably counteracted or qualified. It may, perhaps, be obferved, that the feftoon is an exception to the above refriction; certainly not; for if the aid of art is not called in to bind the vagrant foliage together, and hang them fo as to produce outlines, in general, nearly regular, whether ftrait or curved, they will produce a very indifferent effect.'

The New and Univerfal Guide through the Cities of London and Westminster, the Borough of Southwark, and Parts adjacent. By John Mazzinghy, M. L. 12mo. 35. 6d. in Boards. Dilly.

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This work feems to have been originally written in French; for the English is frequently incorrect, fometimes obfcure :• l'enfevelerent,' is tranflated they re-entered it.' ' erronès,' ignorous,' &c. We fhall felect a very curious derivation of a very obvious term.

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Pie Powder Court.-It is a court of record, denominated pipoudres, (vulgarly pie-powder) and is incident to every fair. It is derived from pedas pulverifati, and is fo called from its expeditious proceedings in the decifion of all controverfies that happen in fairs; becaufe, for the encouragement of traders who frequent the fame, juftice is as quickly administered as duft can fall from the feet. Held in Cloth-Fair, Smithfield, during the time of Bartholomew-Fair.'

If the author had not been determined to look very far for a derivation, he might have deduced it from the dusty shoes' of the attendants on fairs,, the ufual litigants in thefe courts.

In general, the accounts are taken from good authorities; for little feems to belong to the author except the trouble of compilation. We have not, however, been able to find the fource of the population; but we have much reafon to think it exaggerated. The stated and accidental inhabitants of London are estimated at one million two hundred and fifty thoufand; but, if this be not too great a number, the provifion is too low. The yearly confumption of fheep and lambs is faid to amount to feven hundred and fourteen thoufand eight hundred and thirty. We fufpect the error to be in the number of inhabitants, fince the author reckons eight perfons to one house: perhaps five and a half, the ufual calculation, exceeds the truth. This brings the fiated inhabitants to seven hundred and ten thousand four hundred and feventy-three; and perhaps the whole may be comprifed within eight hundred thousand. The

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confumption of meat will, in that cafe, be more confonant to experiments made in a fmaller circle.

In other refpects, this is an ufeful guide, and may be serviceable, from its being written in both languages, to vifitors from the neighbouring continent.

A Journey from Birmingham to London. By W. Hutton, F. S. A. 12mo. 2s. 6d. Baldwin.

In our fifty-fecond volume, we gave an account of this author's Hiftory of Birmingham. That work is distinguished by a peculiar humour and good-natured pleafantry; but in this, the lively fallies are lefs natural, and the wit is often false, ⚫ Currit in extremum ridendus :'-Few know where to ftop.

In fact, though this is called a Journey, the greater part of the volume confifts of a defcription of London, and the more remarkable objects in this metropolis.. We fhall felect a favourable fpecimen of our author's reflections: they arife from a fight of the Foundling Hofpital.

One cannot furvey this vaft collection of neglected fruits of unlawful love, without feeling for them, more than they can feel for themfelves. Cut off from paft generations, they ftand the first of their line. They are founders of families. Each depends upon his own merit. They give inftruction to their children, who have received none from their parents. They cannot, by ill-conduct, difgrace them. The deeds of their fathers are fhut out from the ears of their offspring. No family action is rehearfed by their fober fire. The fon rifes not up in judgment against his father. They are strangers to a mother's tender clafp; they know not a brother's love. We view the little urchins with pity, because they have no friends to pity them. They long for no man's death; they expect no man's wealth; they have no eftate in reverfion, no fable clothes to wear, no funeral tears to fall. It is as difficult to keep mo ney in this place, as to acquire it in others."

It is here alone the pride of family never enters; one ge neral level reigns through the whole. They feem as happy as those who are furrounded by relations. Having only themfelves to depend on, they, perhaps, will be more fortunate than those who depend upon others. Self is the safest

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Had not this excellent inftitution been adopted, fome of this infant race, who may become future benefits, perhaps would not now have exifted; it is, therefore, the preventer of 'guilt.'

We must also, in our own juftification, add another speci men, but it fhall not be of the worft kind.

The (churches) may be faid to be closely attended; for whenever we find one, we find it pent up by the houfes, as if with defign to fqueeze it into a narrower compafs. In fome parts of London, particularly at the west end of the town, they are thinly fcattered; but, perhaps, they are as numerous as

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neceffary. Within, they are not quite fo much attended as in Birmingham. A bifhop, with us, would draw an innumerable multitude after him; but in Londou, I attended divine service, at St. Mary Aldermary, where the bishop of L- preached, almost to an empty church. However, it fhould be remembered, he preached a charity fermon.'

Proposals for establishing, at Sea, a Marine School; or Seminary for Seamen. 8vo. 15. Dilly.

Thefe Proposals are founded on Mr. Hanway's report, and are dictated by found policy and good fenfe. If carried into execution with judgment, they may tend to leffen the number of ftreet-robbers and houfe-breakers, while thefe depredators will form a strong national bulwark, and contribute to defend their country, instead of living by rapine on its spoils. Univerfal Stenography; or a new compleat Syftem of Short Writing. By the Rev. W. F. Mavor. Second Edit. 8vo. 5s. Harrison.

In our fifty-fecond volume, page 239, we gave our opinion, in general, on the nature and ufe of fhort-hand. We need not now repeat it, but shall confine ourselves to the System before us, which we have examined with fome care. We cannot, however, commend it very warmly. It has advantages over fome other plans, of being written with neatnefs, and looking fair to the eye; but we think these are more than compenfated by particular inconveniencies. A rapid writer, for instance, cannot, without trouble, form a circle very different from an oval, fince the circles can never be true: it will be more difficult to make a blotted circle, unless it be re-touched with the pen. The management of the vowels is neither convenient or kilful, and will tend to introduce no little obfcurity in reading; we need scarcely repeat, that to read easily, is of at leaft of equal importance with rapid writing.

These reflections our duty has drawn from us; for we have no particular fyftem to prefer. From the fame motive we ought to add, that the introduction, fometimes perhaps too much inflated, contains judicious reflections on the fubject; and these led us to form very fanguine expectations of the author's fuccefs: we might have been better satisfied if we had expected Jefs.

A General Dictionary of the English Language. To which are

added, an alphabetical Account of the Heathen Deities; and a Lift of the Cities, Towns, Boroughs, and remarkable Villages, in England and Wales. Small 8vo. 35. Peacock.

This work is very neatly and clearly printed; and, from its fize, deferves the title affixed to it. We have looked over it, and fee no very particular reafon to impeach its accuracy. In a few inftances, the author has omitted fome neceffary diftinctions; and in others, the accent is not fixed with proper atten tion; or at least, without an explanation, may millead; but

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