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John in Patmos.


Vision of Christ.

affliction, and in the kingdom and patience | brass, as if they had been purified in a furnace: of Jesus Christ, was in the island which is and his voice as the sound of many waters. called Patmos, for the word of God, and for And he had in his right hand seven stars : 16 10 my testimony to Jesus Christ. I was in the and out of his mouth went a sharp two-edged Spirit on the Lord's day, and heard behind sword: and his countenance was as the sun 11 me a loud voice, as of a trumpet, Saying, " shining in his strength. And when I saw him,, 17 "What thou seest, write in a book, and send I fell at his feet as if dead. I fell at his feet as if dead. And he put his it unto the seven churches; to Ephesus, and to Ephesus, and right hand upon me, right hand upon me, saying to me, "Fear not; to Smyrna, and to Pergamos, and to Thyatira, I am the first and the last; He that liveth, 18 and to Sardis, and to Philadelphia, and to though I was once dead; and, behold, I con12 Laodicea." And I turned to see whence the tinue living for evermore, and have the keys of voice came that spoke with me. And being And being death and hades. Write therefore the things 19 13 turned, I saw seven golden lampstands; And which thou hast seen, and the things which now in the midst of the seven lampstands one like are, and the things which shall be hereafter. The 20 to the Son of man, clothed with a garment mystery of the seven stars which thou seest down to the feet, and girt about his breast with in my right hand, and the seven golden lamp14 a golden girdle. His head and his hair were stands is this: The seven stars are the angels white, as white wool, or as snow; and his eyes of the seven churches: and the seven lamp15 were as a flame of fire; And his feet like fine stands which thou seest are the seven churches.

11. I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last. Griesb. REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER L 1. Whatever God has been pleased to reveal to his servants, by his Son Jesus Christ, respecting his own will, their duty, or privileges; or respecting the state of the church on earth, its sufferings, persecutions, supports and triumphs; or respecting its final deliverance, and happiness in heaven, deserves our most serious regard, study, and constant meditation. The testimony given to Jesus by the Father on many occasions, John and others have declared, even what things they saw and heard; and we are bound in duty and interest to receive their word. We have now to contemplate a prophecy of no common interest and importance, respecting things, some of which were then shortly to come to pass, and which have come accordingly. May the grace and peace John devoutly desires, come to us from the ever-living and unchangeable Jehovah, by the influence of the Holy Spirit, whose fulness and operations prove his divinity, and from Jesus the faithful witness, the first

see him in his glory, will lament that he was treated with such indignity and cruelty when on earth.-—I am Alpha, &c. Here he who is described as coming in the clouds speaks of himself as possessing divine attributes. See v. 18.

9. Companion in the, &c. A fellow-sufferer with you in the kingdom of Christ, whose subjects are now so grievously persecuted and have need of the patience of Christ, was banished to the island called Patmos, for preaching the word of God, and giving testimony to Christ. This event occurred about the year 95, in the reign of Domitian; and this shows that this book could not be published sooner than 96 or 97.

10, 11. On the Lord's day. On the first day of the week, the day on which he rose from the dead, and the day on which christians usually meet for divine worship; on this day, in the island of Patmos, the Spirit came upon me as on the prophets, and presented to my mind the following visions. I seemed to hear a voice behind me, saying, "What thou seest, &c."

13. I saw seven golden, &c. This is the just version of the text, but they must have been single, and very different in their form from the chandelier of

11. • which are in Asia. Griesb.

born from the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth We cannot indeed enjoy these blessings unless washed from our sins in his blood, and anointed and consecrated to God, even our Father, as priests, to offer the sacrifices of prayer and praise; and as kings, to rule over our depravity, and to wear the royal robe and the crown of righteousness. To what honour and dignity does Jesus raise miserable sinners by his free love and grace; and how thankfully should they ascribe to him glory and dominion for ever. Amen.

2. We are admonished not to imitate the conduct of scoffers, who say, "Where is the promise of his coming?" Do not all things continue still as they were, after so many years have passed away? Let us remember that the longest duration of years bears no proportion to eternity, and that at the appointed time He that is to come, will come, and will not tarry. Behold He is coming in the clouds of heaven, in his own glory and in that of the Father, to raise the dead, and to judge

the tabernacle. Exod. xxv. 31, &c. They were properly lampstands, and each was the emblem of a single church. They were placed either in a circle, or in a straight line, a space being left in the middle, where in the vision stood one like to the Son of Man, a most glorious person, clothed in robes of majesty. 14-16, His head, &c. This is very like what Daniel saw, Ch. vii. 9. White. Surrounded with uncommon brightness and lustre, as the word signifies; and his eyes were as a flame, darting and penetrating. His feet, his lower parts, as the finest and best polished brass, while his voice was aw ful as the sound of the roaring ocean. This glorious person held in his right hand seven shining stars; and there seemed to issue from his mouth a sharp two-edged sword, to represent the power of his word as a judge; and his countenance was like the sun shining in his noontide brightness.

17-20. As if dead. The glory of this scene overpowered me, and I became as one dead, insensible; but he revived me and said, Fear not. See Dan. x. 10.I am the first, &c. Though appearing as a man, I am indeed possessed of divine perfections and glories.—He that liveth. He that now

Churches of Ephesus



A. D. 96. What is commanded to be written to the angels or ministers of the churches of Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamos, and Thyatira, &c.'


"To the angel of the church of Ephesus write; These things saith he that holdeth the seven stars in his right hand; that walketh in the midst of the seven golden lampstands; 2 I know thy works, and thy labour, and thy patience, and that thou canst not bear those that are evil and thou hast tried those who say that they are apostles, and are not, and 3 hast found them liars: And hast patience, and hast borne much for my name's sake, and 4 hast not fainted. Nevertheless I have somewhat against thee, because thou hast lost thy

mankind. Then every one shall see him in human nature, exercise sovereign power, infinite knowledge, awful justice, awarding to all according to their deeds. He who as man was once despised and rejected will appear to be the Alpha and the Omega, the First cause and Last end of all things in creation, providence, and redemption; as one with the Father, the Eternal and Almighty. Then they who pierced him, and all who have crucified him afresh, by their unbelief, apostacy, and persecutions, shall see his glory, and feel the power of his avenging


Then shall Caiaphas, and the chief-priests, Herod and his men of war, Pilate and his soldiers, and all the tribes of the earth, who have neglected his great salvation, lament because of him in horror and despair; nor can they find any hiding-place from his justly deserved wrath. O that men were wise, that they would consider this awful day! and in the exercise of repentance, faith, and love, prepare to meet their judge. Humble believers can look forward to it as the completion of their redemption, and can add their attestation, even so, Amen.

3. We learn that in times of suffering God's children have been favoured with the brightest visions of his glory, and discoveries of his love. When they are banished from the society of christian friends by

liveth again, though I was as to my human nature, as thou knowest, once dead and laid in the tomb; and behold, as your High priest and Saviour, I continue living for ever, and am invested with power over death and the unseen world. The mystery, &c. This vision of the stars and lampstands represents the seven pastors, and seven churches of Asia.

CHAP. II. 1. To the angel. From what is said to the angel of the church at Ephesus and the other churches, it is evident, that the people forming these churches are included, or rather particularly addressed; and as we learn that there were in this church many elders or pastors, (Acts xx. 17, 28) it is by some concluded that the term angel is symbolical both of the pastors and the people. Campbell supposes that the angel means the presiding elder, or the chairman, when they met for any special purpose, together with the church, according to the custom of all societies. See Lect. 5, on Eccles. Hist. Ephesus was the capital of the province called Asia. See Acts xix. 8-12. -Holdeth the seven, &c. Who supports and maintains his ministers, and who is present to bless and encourage all believers,

2,3. I know thy works, &c. That this is addressed to the whole church is

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and Smyrna addressed. first love. Remember, therefore, whence thou 5 hast fallen, and repent, and do thy first works; or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will remove thy lampstand out of its place, unless thou repent. But this praise thou hast, that 6 thou hatest the deeds of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate. He that hath an ear, let him 7 hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches, To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the midst of the paradise of God.

"And to the angel of the church in Smyrna 8 write; These things saith the first and the last, who was dead, and is alive; I know thy 9 works, and affliction, and poverty, (yet thou art rich,) and the blasphemy of those who say

persecutors, they have often enjoyed the peculiar influence of the Spirit, and been blessed with the most delightful fellowship with the Saviour. A solitary island, a prison, a sick bed, cannot prevent their prayers. and serious meditations, nor the gracious visits of their Saviour. We should esteem the Lord's day holy and honourable; and seek the special aid of the Spirit, that we may employ its hours in the duties of humble worship. In such exercises we may find strong consolation, while by faith we realize the glory of the Redeemer, who walketh amidst his churches, and hear his voice as the good Shepherd who laid down his life for the sheep. What may we not expect from his love, who is the First and the Last, who, having once died for our sins, and risen for our justification, now ever lives to make intercession for us? What may we not expect from his power and grace, in whose hands are the keys of death and the unseen worlds of heaven and hell? Let us not fear what men or devils may do to injure and destroy us; but confiding in our almighty Saviour, let us leave the disposal of our lives, and the manner of our death to his wisdom and love, assured that he will fulfil his promise, and fit us and bring us to behold his glory, the sight of which would now overwhelm us.

admitted; and from this I conclude, that the presiding minister or elder included the rest of the officers.--That they are apostles, &c. Who pretend to a special commission from me, and thou hast found them impostors, and hast rejected them; and thou hast exercised patience under thy trials, and hast not fainted or been wearied out.

4, 5. Thy first love. Thou art declining in affection and zeal. It is proper, therefore, to call upon thee to remember thy state, and to regain thy former love, aud do the same works of charity as formerly.

6. Nicolaitans. The followers of one Nicolas, who held and taught that the most impure practices were indifferent, or even innocent.

7. To him that overcometh. That nobly perseveres in maintaining the faith, and triumphs over all difficulties, shall enter into the heavenly paradise. 8-11. Smyrna was a large city to the north of Ephesus, and still abides and retains its name.-Are Jews, &c. Pretend to be the peculiar people of God, and are ever speaking evil of me; but they are indeed the synagogue of Satan.- The devil. By his servants and instruments, persecutors, will cast some of you,&c.- -Ten days, &c. That is a short and limited period. Some,

Churches of Permagos and


Thyatira addressed. they are Jews, and are not, but are the syna- | hidden manna, and will give him a white stone, 10 gogue of Satan. Fear none of those things and on the stone a new name written, which which thou art about to suffer. Behold, the no man knoweth but he that receiveth it. devil will cast some of you into prison, that ye "And to the angel of the church in Thya- 18 may be proved; and ye will have affliction for tira write; These things saith the Son of God, ten days. Be thou faithful to death, and I who hath his eyes as a flame of fire, and whose 11 will give thee a crown of life. He that hath feet are like fine brass; I know thy works, 19 an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto and thy love, and service, and faith, and pathe churches. He that overcometh shall not tience, and thy last works, which are better be hurt by the second death. than the first. Nevertheless I have somewhat 20 12 "And to the angel of the church in Pergamos against thee, because thou sufferest that woman write; These things saith he which hath the sharp Jezebel, who calleth herself a prophetess, to 13 two-edged sword; I know thy works, and where teach and to seduce my servants to commit thou dwellest, even where the throne of Satan fornication, and to eat things sacrificed unto is: and yet thou holdest fast my name, and didst idols. And I have given her time, and she 21 not deny my faith, even in those days wherein will not repent of her fornication. Behold, 22 Antipas was my faithful witness, who was slain I will cast her on a bed of sickness, and those 14 among you, where Satan dwelleth. Never- that commit adultery with her into great afflictheless I have a few things against thee, because tion, unless they repent of their deeds. And 23 thou hast there such as hold the doctrine of I will kill her children by death; and all the Balaam, who taught Balak to cast a stumbling-churches shall know that I am he who searchblock before the children of Israel, to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit for15 nication. So hast thou also such as hold the doctrine of the Nicolaitans, which thing I hate. 16 Repent; or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will fight against them with the sword of 17 my mouth. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. To him that overcometh I will give to eat of the

however, understand ten prophetic days, a day signifying a year.—Crown of life. Paul calls the reward of the christian an incorruptible crown, a erown of righteousness, and James, a crown of life; by which is meant the future state of glory and happiness.Second death. The future punishment of the wicked.

12, 13. Pergamos lay north of Smyrna.—Two-edged sword. Ch. i. 16. -Throne of Satan. Is established by the superstition, wickedness, and persecution of the people; yet you profess my name, and did not deny my doctrine in those days, when Antipas was, &c. Nothing more is said of this person; so that we know not whether he was a minister, or a private christian. He nobly suffered death for his faith, and his Lord mentions him with respect and honour.

14, 15. The doctrine of Balaam, &c. See Numb. xxv. 1, 2.; xxxi. 16. As he taught Balak how to seduce the Israelites, so some among you seduce my disciples, and teach the impure doctrines of the Nicolaitans. See verse 6. 16, 17. Sword of my mouth. I will quickly come and punish them. Hidden manna. He shall enter into the most Holy place in heaven, and partake of the pleasures which are there for evermore. The allusion is to the pot of manna, which Moses commanded to be laid up before the Lord. Exod. xvi. 33, &c, -A white stone, &c. White stones were used in acquitting accused persons, and black in condemning them; and white stones were also given to the victors in the Grecian games, as warrants to receive their prizes.

eth the reins and the hearts: and I will give unto every one of you according to your works. But to you I say, even to the rest in Thyatira, 24 as many as have not this doctrine, and who have not known the depths of Satan, as they speak: I will put upon you none other burden. But that which ye have already, hold fast till 25 I come. And he that overcometh, and keep- 26 eth my works unto the end, to him will I give

To one of these customs the passage seems to refer, and Lowman applies it to the latter. New name. Such a conqueror is not only to be for ever absolved and entitled to the promised reward, but to enjoy a new name, a ne rank and state, which no one can know but he who receives and enjoys it. Danbuz refers this new name, or state, to the new situation of immortality in


18, 19. Thyatira lay to the south-east of Pergamos.-The Son of God. He appeared as the Son of man, but was, in a particular sense, the Son of God. Comp. Ch. i. 13-16.—I know thy works, &c. This shows that he searches the reins and the hearts of men, as he knows not only the works of his people, but the faith, the love, and the patience which they exercise.

20-23. Woman Jezebel. One like her addicted to vice, teaching and seducing my disciples to uncleanness, and to join in the feasts of idols.—Of her fornication. Of that which she teaches.—Commit adultery, &c. Who follow her impure and pernicious doctrines. Kill her children. Her dis ciples and adherents; and this awful judgment shall make all the churches know that I will reward every one according to his works.

24. Even to the rest, &c. To those who abide faithful, and do not receive this impure doctrine, and who bappily have not known the deep arts of Satan, as they are justly called, but which they esteem the deep things of God; I will put on you no new burden. Some suppose that he refers to Acts XV. 28.; see verse 20,

Christ will judge men.

27 power over the nations:

· REVELATION III. And he shall rule

them with a rod of iron; as the vessels of a potter shall they be broken to shivers, even 28 as I have received from my Father. And I And I 29 will give him the morning star. He that hath He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.


A. D. 96. The church of Sardis is reproved and exhorted to repent; the church of Philadelphia is approved, and that of Laodicea rebuked for its lukewarmness.

REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER II. 1. Here both ministers and the body of believers are addressed. Let the former remember that their light is wholly derived from, and supported and maintained by Christ. He holds them in his sovereign hand; and may he guide all their steps and motions by his unerring wisdom. And let the church rejoice in the gifts, talents, and usefulness of ministers; and while they faithfully hold forth the word of life, let them receive it in the love of it, and walk according to its light, that sinners may be won to Christ. How condescending is Jesus, who visits and inspects the churches of his saints, walks among them, and is ever ready to commend their works of love, their patience under sufferings, and their diligence and labour for his cause and in his service. Nor is it a less proof of his love to rebuke them for what is amiss, since his design is to excite to repentance, and save them. How just is the charge of having lost our first love, in most instances, and how proper is it that we reflect on it and do our first works! What should excite and rouse us, if the denunciation of the Saviour will not, that though there may be something commendable in us, yet unless we repent, he will remove the lampstand of his truth and ordinances, and leave us to our errors and crimes. O let us hear what the Spirit saith; take the warning, and fight the good fight, that we may eat of the tree of life in the midst of the paradise of God.

2. With what authority does our Lord speak to his professing people at Smyrna, and through them to all others! These things saith He who is the "First and the Last, but who in his incarnate state died and rose again; I know thy works." He knows what is in men, their patience in affliction and poverty; their calm submission and resignation to the divine will. While many of his people are poor in this world, and sometimes like the Redeemer, who in the days of his humiliation, had not where to lay his head; yet are they rich in faith and hope, in peace and consolation. And though fresh trials are ever occurring, yet is the grace of Jesus sufficient to enable them to suffer

State of the church at Sardis.


"AND to the angel of the church in Sardis 1 write; These things saith he that hath the seven Spirits of God, and the seven stars; know thy works, that thou hast a name that thou livest, and yet art dead. Be watchful, 2 and strengthen the things which remain, which are ready to die: for I have not found thy works perfect before God. Remember there- 3 fore how thou hast received and heard, and keep those things, and repent. If therefore thou shalt not watch, I will come upon thee as a thief, and thou shalt not know what hour

joyfully. The devil may rage against them, and by his servants cast some of them into prison; yet let them not fear, but be faithful unto death, and they shall receive the crown of life. The second death will have no power to hurt such as thus overcome..

3. In addressing the church at Pergamos, Jesus alludes to wat John saw, Chap. i. 16, as a sharp, two-edged sword coming from his mouth, to denote his awful justice in the pnnishment of his enemies. And this was suitable to encourage his believing children. Like Lot in Sodom they dwelt where Satan had established his throne; where the two great engines of his power, persecution and heresy, were employed in opposing the gospel. How honourable is it in such a situation to hold fast the Redeemer's name, and not to deny the faith. Yet some among them were corrupted, holding the doctrine of Balaam, and were seducing others to idolatry and other impurities. Without repentance these would soon become the victims of justice. Let all sinful, impure professors, reflect on this, and repent, and overcome by faith in the blood of the Lamb, that they may eat of the hidden manna of divine love, and receive the white stone of absolution and victory.


4. As there is no member of the church of Christ, free from imperfections and sins, so there is no church on earth free from errors, and unsound members. The Son of God, (Chap. i. 13—16) knew and praised what was good in many of the members of the church of Thyatira, and their growth and improvement; yet were they blameable in suffering some female pretender to prophecy and seduce and corrupt When discipline is not exercised, the tares or darnel, will soon overgrow the wheat. Jesus sometimes takes the work into his own hands, and exposes and punishes hypocritical and sensual professors of his holy name. Let us then hold fast his pure doctrine against all deceitful teachers and perverters of it, and overcoming the deep designs of Satan, let us look forward to that day when we shall sit with Christ on his throne, approve his righteous sentence on the wicked, and be made resplendent as the bright and morning star.

26, 27. Over the nations. Danbuz refers this to the period when Christ shall reign on earth and his saints with him, Ch. v. 10.; xx. 4, 9.; but Doddridge to the final judgment, when they shall sit down with him on his throne, and judge and condemn all his enemies. Ps. ii. 8, 9.

28. Morning star. Such splendour and glory as the morning star fitly represents.

CHAP. III. 1. Sardis lay to the south of Thyatira, and was once the

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State of the churches of


'I will come upon thee. Yet thou hast a few persons even in Sardis who have not defiled their garments; and they shall walk with me 5 in white for they are worthy. He that overcometh, the same shall be clothed in white raiment and I will by no means blot out his name from the book of life, but I will confess his name before my Father, and before his 6 angels. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. 7 "And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write; These things saith he that is is holy, he that is true. he that hath the key of David, he that openeth, and no one shutteth, 8 and shutteth, and no one openeth; I know thy works: behold, I have set before thee an open door, which no one can shut: for thou hast but little strength, and yet hast kept my 9 word, and hast not denied my name. Behold, I will make those of the synagogue of Satan, (who say they are Jews, and are not, but lie; behold, I will make them) to come and do to come and do obeisance before thy feet, and to know that I 10 have loved thee. Because thou hast kept my kept my word enjoining patience, I also will keep thee from the hour of trial, which shall come upon all the world, to try those who dwell upon the 11 earth. Behold, I come quickly: hold fast

Philadelphia and Laodicea, what thou hast, that no one take thy crown from thee. Him that overcometh I will make 12 a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall go out no more: and I will write upon him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, of the new Jerusalem, which shall come down out of heaven from my God; and my own new name. He that hath an ear, let him 13 hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. "And to the angel of the church at Laodicea 14 write; These These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God: I know thy works, that 15 thou art neither cold nor hot; I would that thou wert cold or hot. So then because thou 16 art lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I will spue thee out of my mouth. Because 17 thou sayest, I am rich, and grown wealthy, and have need of nothing;' and knowest not that thou art wretched, and pitiable, and poor, and blind, and naked: I counsel thee to buy 18 of me gold of me gold purified in the fire, that thou mayest be rich; and white raiment, that thou mayest be clothed, and that the shame of thy nakedness may not appear; and to anoint thine eyes with eye-salve, that thou mayest see. As 19 many as I love, I rebuke and chasten: be zealous therefore, and repent. Behold, I stand 20

mènts, or themselves, by those gross pollutions with which so many are defiled; and these shall walk with me in white robes, as an emblem of their purity, and as enjoying the pleasure of a triumph, of which they are worthy.

5. From the book of life. The allusion is to the custom of enrolling the rames of citizens, or subjects, in a book or register. Our Lord speaks of having such a book. Doddridge argues that this book does not signify those whom God has absolutely purposed to save, but all those who profess the gospel, and are to be considered as heirs of heaven, until by their sins and apostacy, they prove themselves to be otherwise. I see no need of this, as it is a very common figure to express by a strong uegation what must be understood positively; and the sense is, I will never disown him, but confess him, &c. Let it be recollected that this is a promise made to the christian victor, and is only fulfilled after he has entered into the future state.

7, 8. Philadelphia lay to the south-east of Sardis.—Key of David. See Is. ix.6.; xxii. 22, and notes. An open door. Opportunity and means of extending my doctrine and kingdom. 1 Cor. xvi. 9.- -But little strength. Either by numbers, wealth, or influence, to repel persecution; and yet to thy honour thou hast kept, &c.

9. Synagogue of Satan. Ch. ii. 9.- -Do obeisance, &c. The Jews were the most bitter foes of the christian name; and it is not improbable that this was fulfilled when they were vanquished by Adrian, and dispersed in all directions; and probably some of them were converted to the faith.

10, 11. My word, &c. Hast exercised such patience under thy past sufferings as I have required of my followers.The hour of trial, &c. Lowman thinks this refers to the persecution under Trajan, which was more gene

ral, and continued longer than those which had preceded it.- -I come quickly, &c. In providence by my instruments to try you; hold fast what you possess, &c.

12. A pillar in the, &c. As a pillar in the heavenly temple; and according to the custom, I will write upon him the name of my God, under whom this glorious victory hath been obtained; and the name of the city to which he belongs, and my own new name of Redeemer. The allusion is to those pillars erected in memory of some victory.

14. Laodicia lay also south of Philadelphia, and in the road to Ephesus. The seven churches were situated in a kind of circle.The beginning of the, &c. Comp. Ch. xxi. 6.; xxii. 13. Some render, "Chief of the creation, &c." Daubuz, "Prince or ruler," while others consider the abstract used for the concrete, and that the sense is, "the efficient cause of the creation of God." Gal. i. 16, 17. As the word is ambiguous, I retain the common version. 15, 16. I would that thou, &e. Lowman observes, that this is only say. ing, that lukewarmness is very detestable to Christ; and indeed the metaphor strongly conveys this notion.

17, 18. I am rich and, &c. They thought themselves so wise and so good, as to need nothing, and knew not as to real religion, they were in the lowest and most pitiable state, destitute of every good, like a man who is poor and blind and naked.I counsel, &c To obtain from me, without money and price, blessings more valuable than purified gold; the white raiment of my righteousness, put on by faith, that thou, &c.; and to anoint, &c. praying for the unction of the Spirit, that he may enlighten thee and bring thee to know thyself.

19, 20. I rebuke and, &c. I take methods to convince them of their

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