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going discourse, is to remove the offence the Jews took at the Gospel, because the Gentiles were received into the church, as the people of God, and were allowed to be subjects of the kingdom of the Messiah. To bring them to a better temper, he shows them, from the sacred Scripture, that they could not be saved by the deeds of the law, and iherefore the doctrine of righteousness, by faith, ought not to be so strange a thing to them. And as to their being, for their unbelief, rejected from being the people of God, and the Gentiles taken in in their room, he shows plainly, that this was foretold them in the Old Testament; and that herein God did them no injustice. He was Sovereign over all mankind, and might choose whom he would, to be his people, with the same freedom that he chose the posterity of Abraham, among all the nations of the earth, and of that race chose the descendants of Jacob, before those of his elder brother Esau, and that before they had a being, or were capable of doing good or evil. In all which discourse of his it is plain the election spoken of has for its object only nations, or collective bodies politic, in this world, and not particular persons, in reference to their eternal state in the world to come.

Having thus finished the principal design of his writing, he here, in this, as is usual with him in all his epistles, concludes with practical and moral exhortations, whereof there are several in this chapter, which we shall take in their order.

TEXT. 1 I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye

present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, which is your reasonable service.


1 It being so then, that you are become the people of God, in

the room of the Jews, do not ye fail to offer him that sacrifice, that it is reasonable for you to do; I mean your bodies, not to be slain, but the lusts thereof being mortified, and the body cleansed from the spots and blemishes of sin, will be an acceptable offering to him, and such a way of worship as becomes a rational creature, which therefore I beseech you, by the mercies of God to you, who has made you his people,

NOTE. 1." Your bodies.” There seem to be two reasons, why St. Paul's exhorta

tion to them is, to present their bodies uudeiled to God: 1. Because he had before, especially chap. vii. so much insisted on this, that the body was the great source from whence sin arose. 2. Because the heathen world, and particularly the Romans, were guilty of those vile affections, which he mentions shap. i. 24—27.

TEXT. 2 And be not conformed to this world; but be ye transformed by the

renewing of your mind, that ye may prove what is that good, and

acceptable, and perfect will of God. 3 For I say, through the grace given unto me, to every man that is

among you, not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think; but to think soberly, according as God hath dealt to every man the measure of faith.

PARAPHRASE. 2 to present to him. And be not conformed to the fashion of

this world b: but be ye transformed, in the renewing of your mindso; that you may, upon examination, find out what is the good, the acceptable, and perfect will of God, which now, under the Gospel, has shown itself to be in purity and holiness of life: the ritual observances, which he once instituted, not being that, his good, acceptable, and perfect will, which he always intended; they were made only the

types and preparatory way to this more perfect state under 3 the Gospel". For by virtue of that commission, to be the

apostle of the Gentiles, which, by the favour of God, is bestowed on me, I bid every one of you, not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think, but to have sober and modest thoughts of himself, according to that measure of

NOTES. 2 666 To the fashion of this world;" or, as St. Peter expresses it, “ not fashion

ing yourselves according to your former lusts iu the time of ignorance.” 1 Pet. i. 14. c« Transformed in the renewing of your minds." The state of the Gentiles is thus described, Eph. iv. 17—19, As walking in the vanity of their minds, having the understanding darkened, “ being alienated from the life of God, through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their hearts, who, being past feeling, have given themselves over unto lasciviousness, to work all uncleanness with greediness, fulfilling the lusts of the flesh, and of the mind.” And Col. i. 21, “ Alienated and enemies in their minds by wicked works.” “ The renewing," therefore, “ of their minds," or, as he speaks, Eph. iv. “ in the spirit of their minds," was the getting into an estate contrary to what they were in before, viz. to take it in the apostle's own words, “ that the eyes of their understandings might be enlightened," and that they“ might put on the new man, that is renewed in knowledge, after the image of him that created him; that ye walk as children of the light, proving what is acceptable to the Lord, having no fellowship with the works of darkness :" that they “ be not unwise, but understanding what is the will of the Lord : for this is the will of God, even your sanctification. That you should abstain from fornication. That every one of you should know how to possess his vessel in sanctification and honour, not in the lust of concupiscence, even as the Geutiles that know not God."

In these two first verses, of this chapter, is shown the preference of the Go. spel to the Gentile state and the Jewish institution.

TEXT. 4 For as we have many members in one body, and all members have

not the same office; 5 So we, being many, are one body in Christ, and every one members

one of another. 6 Having then gifts differing according to the grace that is given to


4 spiritual gifts e which God has bestowed upon him. For as

there are many members in one and the same body, but all 5 the members are not appointed to the same work; So we,

who are many, make all but one body in Christ, and are alí 6 fellow-members one of another! But having, according to

the respective favour that is bestowed upon us, every one of us different gifts; whether it be prophecy 5, let us prophesy, according to the proportion of faith b; or gift of interpreta

NOTES. 3 • Mércor wisiws, “ Measure of faith :” some copies read xácilos, “ of favour :"

either of them expresses the same thing, i. e. gifts of the Spirit. 5 The same simile to the same purpose, see 1 Cor. xii. 6 8“ Prophecy” is enumerated, in the New Testament, among the gifts of the

Spirit, and means either the interpretation of sacred Scripture, and explaining of prophecies already delivered, or foretelling things to come. h" According to the proportion of faith.” The context, in this and the preceding verses, leads us, without any difficulty, into the meaning of the apostle, in this expression : 1 Cor. xii. and xiv. show us how apt the new converts were to be puffed up with the several gifts that were bestowed on them; and every one, as in like cases is usual, forward to magnify his own, and to carry it farther than in reality it extended. That it is St. Paul's design, here, to prevent, or regulate such disorder, and to keep every ove, in the exercising of his particular gift, within its due bounds, is evident, in that exhorting them, ver. 3, to a sober use of their gifts (for it is in reference to their spiritual gifts he speaks in that verse) he makes the measure of that sobriety to be that measure of faith, or spiritual gift which every one in particular enjoyed by the favour of God, i. e. Tha no one should go beyond that which was given him, and he really had But besides this, which is very obvions, there is another passage in that verse, which, rightly considered, strongly inclines this way: “ I say through the grace that is given unto me," says St. Paul. He was going to restrain them, in the exercise of their distioct spiritual gifts, and he could not introduce what he was going to say in the case with a more persuasive argument than his own example: I exhort,” says he, “ that every one of you, in the exercise and use of his spiritual gift, keep within the bounds and measure of that gift which is given him. I myself, in giving you this exhortation, do it by the grace given unto me; I do it by the commission and power given me by God, and beyond that I do not go." In one, that had before declared himself an apostle, such an ex. pression as this here (if there were not some particular reason for it) might seem superfluous, and to some idle; but, in this view, it has a great grace and energy in it. There wants nothing but the study of St. Paul's writings to give us a just admiration of his great address, and the skill wherewith all that he says is adapted to the argument he has in hand: “ I.” says he, “ according to the grace given me, direct you every one, in the use of your gifts, which, according

TEXT. us, whether prophecy, let us prophesy according to the proportion

of faith; 7 Or ministry, let us wait on our ministering; or he that teacheth, on

teaching ; 8 Or he that exhorteth, on exhortation : he that giveth, let him do it

with simplicity; he that ruleth, with diligence; he that showeth

mercy, with cheerfulness. 9 Let love be without dissimulation. Abhor that which is evil; cleave

to that which is good. 10 Be kindly affectioned one to another with brotherly love; in honour

preferring one another; 11 Not slothful in business ; fervent in spirit ; serving the Lord ; 12 Rejoicing in hope ; patient in tribulation ; continuing instant in


PARAPHRASE. tion which is given us, i. e. as far forth as we are enabled by

revelation and an extraordinary illunination to understand 7 and expound it, and no farther: Or, if it be ministry, let us

wait on our ministering; he that is a teacher, let him take 8 care to teach. He, whose gift is exhortation, let him be dili

gent in exhorting: he that giveth, let him do it liberally, and without the mixture of any self-interest: he that presideth,

let him do it with diligence: he that showeth mercy, let him 9 do it with cheerfulness. Let love be without dissimulation. 10 Abhor that which is evil; stick to that which is good. Be

kindly affectioned one towards another, with brotherly love; 11 in honour preferring one another. Not slothful in business ;

but active and vigorous in mind, directing all to the service of 12 Christ and the Gospel ; Rejoicing in the hope you have of

heaven and happiness ; patient in tribulation ; frequent and

NOTES. to the grace given you, are different, whether it be the gift of prophecy, to prophesy according to the proportion or measure of that gift, or revelation, that he hath. And let hiin not think that, because some things are, therefore every thing is revealed to him.” The same rule, concerning the same matter, St. Paul gives, Eph. iv. 16, that every member should act according to the measure of its own strength, power, and energy; 1 Cor. xiv. 29—32, may also give light to this place. This, therefore, is far from signifying that a man, in interpreting sacred Scripture, should explain the sense, according to the system of his particular sect, which each party is pleased to call the analogy of faith. For this would be to make the apostle to set that, for a rule of interpretation, which had not its being till long after, and is the product of fallible men. The “ measure of faith,” ver. 3, and “proportion of faith," in this verse, siguify the same thing, viz. so much of that particular gift, which God was pleased

to bestow on any one. 8''o apocsáperos. “He that ruleth," says our translation; the context inclines

to the sense I have taken it in ; sec Vitringa de Synagog. I. ii. c. 3.

TEXT. 13 Distributing to the necessity of saints ; given to hospitality. 14 Bless them which persecute you: bless, and curse not. 15 Rejoice with them that do rejoice, and weep with them that weep. 16 Be of the same mind one toward another. Mind not high things,

but condescend to men of low estate. Be not wise in your own con

ceits. 17 Recompense to no man evil for evil. Provide things honest in the

sight of all men. 18 If it be possible, as much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all men. 19 Dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto

wrath: for it is written, Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the

Lord. 20 Therefore if thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst, give him

drink: for in so doing thou shalt heap coals of fire on his head. 21 Be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good.



13 instant in prayer: Forward to help Christians in want, ac14 cording to their necessities ; given to hospitality. Bless them 15 who persecute you: bless, and curse not. Rejoice with them 16 that rejoice, and weep with them that weep.

Be of the same mind one towards another. Do not mind only high things; but suit yourselves to the mean condition and low concerns of

persons beneath you. Be not wise in your own conceits, 17 Render to no man evil for evil : but take that

your car18 riage be such as may be approved by all men.

If it be possible, 19 as much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all men. Dearly

beloved, do not avenge yourselves, but rather leave that to

God. For it is written, “Vengeance is mine, and I will 20 repay it, saith the Lord." Therefore, if thine enemy

hunger, feed him; if he thirst, give him drink : if this prevail on him, thou subduest an enemy, and gainest a friend : if he persists still in his enmity, in so doing thou heapest

coals of fire on his head, i. e. exposest him to the wrath of 21 God, who will be thy avenger. "Be not overcome and pre

vailed on, by the evil thou receivest, to retaliate ; but endeavour to master the malice of an enemy in injuring thee, by a return of kindness and good offices to him.

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