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and when it had taken root, it thou madest so strong for thyfilled the land.

self. 10 The hills were covered with 16 (i) It is burnt with fire and the shadow of it : and the boughs cut down : and they shall perish thereof

were like the goodly cedar- at the rebuke of thy countenance. trees.

17 Let thy hand (k) be upon 11 She stretched out her the man of thy right hand : and branches unto the sea (h) : and

upon the son of

man, whom thou her boughs unto the river. madest so'strong for thine own self

, 12 Why hast thou then broken 18 And so will not we go back down her hedge : that all they from thee :: O let us live, and we that go by pluck off her grapes ? shall call upon thy Name.

13 The wild boar out of the 19 Turn us again, O Lord wood doth root it up : and the God of hosts : shew the light of wild beasts of the field devour it. thy countenance, and we shall be 14 Turn thee again, thou God whole.

L. of hosts, look down front heaven:

Psalm lxxxi. (1) behold, and visit this vine;

15 And the place of the vine- Sing ye merrily unto God our yard, that thy right hand hath strength : make a cheerful noise planted : and the branch, that unto the God of Jacob.

v. 16.


over (b) Sea," i. e. the Mediterranean, and thanksgivings to God, reminding

and “the river," i.e. the Euphrates. See them of the deliverance from Egypt, and Ps. lxxij. 8. It is said of Solomon, insinuating that it was nothing but their 1 Kings iv. 24. that “ he had dominion disobedience which kept them from God's

over all the region on this side the protection and from his choicest blessings. “ river," i.e. between the Euphrates and According to Numb. x. 10. " In the Jerusalem, which lay nearly upon the “ days of their gladness, in their solemn Mediterranean.

“ days, and in the beginnings of their () Dr. Kennicott' reads

“ months, they were to blow with their o with fire those who are destroying it,

trumpets over their burnt-offerings

, and “ let them perish, &c.;" and Mr. Street, the sacrifices of their peace-offer« Those that burn it with fire and con- “ ings;" but in “ the seventh month, on

sume it, let them perish," &c. Its “ the first day of the month, they state had been described before.

“ to have an holy convocation ; they 0.17

(k) “ Let thy hand,” &c. This seems were to do no servile work, it was to capable of two meanings ; either, ist, ! be a day of blowing the trumpets." Give thy assistance as before to thy cho- Numb. xxix. 1.-Levit. xxiji. 23, 24. sen people, the Jews, whom thou hadst And this day was accordingly called the distinguished as though thou hadst placed Feast of Trumpets. On the tenth day them on thy right hand, and whom thou of the same month was the day of atonehadst made so strong, &c.; or, 2dly, Let ment, Lev. xxxiii. 27 to 32.-Numb. thy vengeance fall upon those to whom xxix. 7 to it, and from the 15th to the thou hast given strength for no other 22d, after they had gathered in the fruit purpose but to be the instruments of thy of the land, was the feast of tabernacles. wrath. In Ps. xvii. 13, 14. the ungodly Levit. xxiii

. 34 to 43.-Numb. xxxix

. are called " sword of God's,' and

12 to 39. The object of this Psalm might “ the men of God's hand ;” and see be to fix their minds upon God and the

favour he had always shewn them, ex(1) An hymn for the Feast of Trum

cept in times of disobediente, before the pets, the first day of the seventh month, great day of atonement. calling upon the people to join in praises


Isaiah x. 5.

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up unto

2 Take the psalm, bring hither “ god be in thee : neither shalt the tabret : the merry harp with “ thou worship any other god. the lute.

11 “ I am the Lord thy God,

trumpet in the

“ who brought thee out of the new moon (m) : even in the time

“ land of Egypt : open thy appointed, and upon our solemn « mouth wide, and I shall fill it. feast day.

12 “But my people would not 4. For this was made a statute “ hear my voice ; and · Israel for Israel : and a law of the God “ would not obey me. of Jacob.

66 So I


them 5 This he ordained in Joseph 6 their own hearts' lusts : and for a testimony : when he came “ let them follow their own ima. out of the land of Egypt, and had “ ginations. heard a strange language.

14 “O that my people would 6“I (n) eased his shoulder o have hearkened unto me : for " from the burden (0) : and his “ if Israel had walked in my " hands were delivered from

ways, making the pots.


có I should soon have put 7 “ Thou calledst upon me

“ down their enemies : and turn" in troubles, and I delivered “ed my hand against their ad" thee : and heard thee, what 6

versaries. “ time as the storm fell upon

16 « The haters of the Lord

“ should have been found 8 " I proved thee (P) also : at “ liars (r): but their time should “ the waters of strife.

“ have endured for ever. 9 “ Hear (9), O my people, 17 “ He (s) should have fed " and I will assure thee, O

" them also with the finest wheat “ Israel : if thou wilt hearken 66 flour : and with honey out of

“the stony rock should I have 10 “ There shall no strange

" satisfied thee."

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6 thee.

unto nie,

Pref. XX.

(m) “ New moon." The reading Herald perhaps be," the beginning of the month.” See


Shuckf. Connect. 3. (n)**1," &c. From hence to the end

of the Psalm, God himself is supposed

to be the speaker. 26 (6) * The burden.” According to

Exod. i. 11. the Egyptians set taskmasters over the Israelites, “ to afflict

them with their burdens.” And according to Exod. v. 4. Pharoah ordered them to their burdens," viz. the making of

Meribah, because the Children of Israel
strove with the Lord, and he was sancti-
fied in them. Numb. XX. I to ! 3.
xxvii. 14.-Deut. xxxiii. 8.

( ) " Hear," &c. This (probably) v.9.
was only calling to their recollection the
assurances he had made their fathers, in
Exodus, (see Exod. xix. 5, 6.-XX. 2,
3, 23:--and xxiii.

24 to 26.) And he reminds them, in verse 12. that it was to their disobedience that the calamities they had experienced were to be imputed.

(r) * Liars," i.e. in insinuating that v.16. he was not the true God. The same expression occurs, Ps. lxvi. 2. “Through “ the greatness of thy power shall thine “ enemies be found liars unto thee."

() For “he," the reading should v. 17. probably be “ 1.”

bricks. 18.

“ Proved thee,” i.e. (perhaps) saye you a proof of my power and watchfulness over you. When the Israelites murmured for want of water in the wilderness, and Moses smote the rock and produced a supply, he called the place

Lessons for the Sixteenth Day of the Montb throughout the Year.

January 16.

April 16.

Morn. Gen. xxix.

Matt. xiv. Even. Gen. xxx.

Rom. xiv.

February 16. March 16.
Morn. Numb, xx. Morn. Josh xxiv,
Mark. xvi. (1)

John ü. (2)
Even. Numb. xxi. Even. Judges i.
2 Cor. xii.

2 Thess. ii.

Morn. 2 Sam. ir.

Aas xiu (3) Even. 2 Sam. T.

James v.

August 16.

May 16
June 16.

July 16.
Morn. 2 Kings xiv. Morn.Jobxxvi. xxvii. Morn. Eccles. xi.
Matt. xiv. Mark xvi. (5)

John iv. (6)
Even. 2 Kings xv. Even. Job xxviii. Even. Eccles. xii.
Rom. xv.(4)
2 Cor. xüi.

2 Thess. iii.

Morn. Ezek, vi.

Acts xiv. Even. Ezek. vi.

1 Pet. i.

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() A rebuke to the judges for corruption and partiality. In 2 Chron. xix. 6, 7, (896 years before the birth of Christ), Jehoshaphat

gave this exhortation to the judges : “ Take heed what ye do, for ye “ judge not for man, but for the Lord, «* who is with you in the judgment : « wherefore now let the fear of the Lord “ be upon you: take heed and do it, “ for there is no iniquity with the Lord “ our God, nor respect of persons, nor

taking of gifts." "And Isaiah's complaint (about 760 years before our Sa. viour's birth) was this: “ Thy princes “ are rebellious ; every one loveth gifts, “ and followeth after rewards; they

judge not the fatherless, neither doth " the cause of the widow come unto “ them.” Isaiah i. 23. And it was pro

bably in Isaiah's time that this Psalm was written.

(u) • Standeth in," &c. i. e, a i el 2 Chron. xix. 6. he is with them in the judgment.

(*) “ Princes,” and “ gods," highest earthly tribunals.

(y) “ Accept the persons." This 6... is a Scripture phrase for “ deciding paro

tially, out of regard to one of the coto " tending parties." See Levit. xix. 16– Deut. i. 16, 17.—Job xiii. 7, 8.10.xxxii. 21.–Luke xx. 21.-Gál. ü.6.and James ii. 9.

(z) “ Foundations of the earth," ic. (probably) the principles of justice, rectie tude, &c. the basis of all government

. It is probably in the same sense that the expression is used, Ps. xi. 3. "The funds

“ gods (a): and ye are all the may be no more in remem" children of the Most Highest;"

“ brance." 7 But ye shall die like men : 5 For they have cast their and fall like one of the princes(6), heads together with one consent :

8 Arise, O God, and judge and are confederate against thee; thou the earth : for thou shalt 6 The tabernacles of the take all heathen to thine inhe. Edomites, and the Ishmaelites : rilance.

the Moabites, and Hagarens;

7 Gebal, and Ammon, and Psalm lxxxiii. (c)

Amalek : the Philistines, with Hold not thy tongue, O God, them that dwell at Tyre. keep not still silence : refrain not 8 Assur also is joined with thyself, O God.

them : and have holpen the chil. 2 For lo, thine enemies make dren of Lot (f). a murmuring : and they that hate 9 But do thou to them as unto thee have lift up their head. the Midianites (g) : unto Sise

3 They have imagined craftily ra (b), and unto Jabin, at the against thy people : and taken

brook of Kison; counsel against thy secret(d) ones. 10 Who perished at Endor :

4 They have said, “ Come, and became as the dung of the " and let us root them out, that earth. " they be no more a people : 11 Make them and their princes " and that the name of Israel (e)

like Oreb and Zeb (i) : yea,

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and out of Zoba; and they hired 32,000
chariots, &c. See 2 Sam. x. 6. and
1 Chron. xix. 6. It is observable, that
the instances referred to in the 9th and
11th verses all occured before David's

imagens e Secret," i. e. chosen ; such as, 4.3.

« tions will be cast down ; and what hath " the righteous done ?”'

(a) “Gods," i. e. as gods ; supreme in power, &c.

(6) For “princes," the reading should probably be, “poor," "outcasts.” It is saying nothing, (at least nothing in unison with the context,) to say of the princes, that they should fall like one of the princes,

(c) A prayer to God for assistance, at the time of some powerful combination of the heathen nations against Israel or Judah. It is generally supposed to have been written in the time of Jehoshaphat, (about 896 years before the birth of Christ), when the children of Moab, and the children of Ammon, and others, came up against him to battle, and he pro. claimed a fast, and all Judah gathered themselves together to ask help of the Lord. See 2 Chron. xx. It might perhaps belong to an earlier period, before the people were divided into two kingdoms, and passed under the general name of Israel, see verse 4; possibly to David's time, about 1035 years before the birth of Christ, when the children of Ammon sent to hire chariots and horses out of Mesopotamia, and out of Syria Maachah,

according to Psalm xxvii. 5. he would
“ hide in his tabernacle in the time of
“ trouble, and in the secret place of his
“ dwelling,' &c.

(e) • Israel.” Jehoshaphat was king v.4.
of Judah only. The kingdom of Israel,
or of the ten tribes, was in his time under
Ahab, and under Ahaziah his son.

(f) “ Children of Lot," i.e. the 8. Moabites and Ammonites.

(8) “ Midianites." All their males v. 9. and part of their women were slain ; the rest were carried away captive; their cities were burnt; and their cattle and goods spoiled. This was in the time of Moses, about 1452 years before the birth of Christ. See Numb. xxxi.

(b) “ Sisera,” and “ Jabin." occurrence was about 1316 years before the birth of Christ. See Judges iv. .

“ Oreb and Zeb,” “Zeba and v. II. “ Salmana.” About 1249 years before

This v. 9.


make all their princes like as 2 My soul hath a desire and Zeba and Salmana;

longing to enter into the courts 12 Who say, 66 Let us take of the Lord : my heart and my

to ourselves : the houses of flesh rejoice in the living God. « God in possession.”

3 Yea, the sparrow hath found 13 O my God, make them her an house, and the swallow like unto a wheel (k) : and as the a nest, where she may lay her stubble before the wind;

young : even thy altars, O Lord 14 (1) Like as the fire that

of hosts, my King and my God. burneth up the wood : and as 4 Blessed are they that dwell the flame that consumeth the in thy house : they will be alway mountains (m).

praising thee. Persecute them even so 5 Blessed is the man whose with thy tempest : and make strength is in thee : in whose them afraid with thy storm.

heart are thy ways. 16 Make their faces ashamed, 6 Who going through the vale O Lord : that they may seek of misery, use

it for å well (0) : thy Name.

and the pools are (1) filled with 17 Let them be confounded and vexed ever more and more : let 7 They will go from strength(9) them be put to shame, and perish. to strength : and (r) unto the God

18 And they shall know, that of gods appeareth every one of thou, whose Name is Jehovah : them in Sion. art only the Most Highest over 8 O Lord God of hosts, hear all the earth.

my prayer : hearken, O God of

Psalm lxxxiv. (n)

9 Behold,

O God our de O How amiable are thy dwell- fender : and look upon the face ings : thou Lord of hosts! of thine Anointed.


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the birth of Christ. See Judges vii.
24; 25. and viïi. 4 to 21.

(k) For “a wheel” read “ chaff.”
See Ísaiah xvii. 13.

(1) The Bible translation omits “ that and “ that ;” and then the meaning is this : “ Destroy them with thy tein

pest and storm as effectually as fire “ destroyeth wood, and flame desolateth of the mountains.”

(m) “ The mountains," i.e. the dry
wood or grass upon

(n) Upon the blessings of attending
the temple. It is supposed to have been
written when David, or some other

son, was prevented attending the temple
worship ; or it might have been written
to be used by the people at the stated
times of their going up to Jerusalem to
worship, to animate them on the way,
See the note on the 122d Psalm.

(0) “Use it for a well,” &c. i. e. pero haps, “turn to good account even the “ hardships with which they meet;" Of it may be,

go through the vale of misery,” (remarkable for drought); “ with as much spirit as if it abounded “ with wells, and was filled with pools o of water."

“ And the pools are,” i.e. and as if the pools were.

(9) "Go from strength," &c. i. e. constantly gain fresh strength and vigour; advancing from one degree to another: or it may mean' from one fastness or resting place to another.

(r) “And,” &c. i.e. perhaps, until. The meaning of the 6th and 7th verses probably is: “Who go through the vale “of misery as though it abounded with wells, and were filled with pools of “ water : they gain strength as they ad.

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