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Itance therefore it would have been for " Of the innumerable streams that the king to be fo liberal of his queen's feed ilo lake of Tzana, there is one charms, while he covers his own face that ends in a bog, to which Mr. Bruce with blue taffeta ; but to jinagire that was conducted by Woldo, a lying the Abuna, a Coptish monk bred in the guide, who told him it was the source desert of St. Macarius, would expose of the Nile. Mr. Bruce, in a matter himself naked among naked women, of far less importance, would not have contrary to the usual cultom of the taken Woldo's word; but he is percelebration he observes in his own fuaded that, in this instance, he fpoke church, is monstrous, and mult exceed truth, because the credulous barbarians ail belief whatever. As the Abuna of the neighbouring district paid fomeMark too was of the reafonable age of thing like worship to this brook; which, one hundred and ten years, he might, at the distance of fourteen miles from I think, have difpensed at that time of its fource, is not twenty feet broad, and life with a bathing gown, especially as no where one foot deep; (vol. iii. p. it was froji.

580) and again, (p. 593 of Mr. Bruce, Qui crediderit et baptizatus fuerit and 194 of this Magazine) he says, it is falvus erit,' says Alvarez. • You-lay hardly tit to turn a mill, being less than right, answers the king, as to baptifmi ; four yardsover, and not four inches deep. these are the words of our Saviour; but “ Now, it is almost unnecessary to this present ceremony was lately in- observe, that the natives of that counvented by a grandfather of mine, in try being, according to Mr. Bruce's favour of such as have turned Moors, report, pagans, might be expected to and are desirous again of becoming worship the pure and falutary stream, to Christians.'

which, with other extraordinary quali“ I should think, in the first place, ties, their superstition ascribed the power this answer of the king, should have of curing the bite of a mad drg. Had let Alvarez see no baptifu was intended he traced to this source any of the other there; or, if it was'a le-baptisin, it only rivulets, which run into the lake of took place in favour of those who had Tzana, it is not unlikely that he might turned Moors, and must therefore have have met with fimilar instances of crebeen but partial. If this was really duliiy among the ignorant inhabitants the case, what had the king, queen, and of their banks. Yet this would not Abuna to do in it? Sure they had prove any one of them in particular to neither apostatized, nor was the com be the head of the Nile; which, indeed, pany of apostares a very creditable fo- from his own and froin preceding maps ciety for them.'

of the country, appears, like the hydra, The next matter of importance to have many heads. We Mall not passing over the historical parts of this dispute with Mr. Bruce, that he is the work, which, relating to a barbarous fift European that topographically depeople, can be of little importance—is scribes the spot which he marks out for Mr. Bruce's discovery of the Source of this peculiar honour; but to his whole the Nile, and this we have already ex- 13th chapter of book vi. we shall oppole tracted *. This being the direct object an authority, which our readers of all of Mr. Bruce's celebrated journey, it claffes have an opportunity of consultmay be expected by our readers, that ing. This authority is nothing more we hould comment on the credibility learned than the map of Africa, in or incredibility of the expedition; and the fourth quarto edition of Guthrie's it was our intention to do so : but our Grammar. The reader will there find own reflections on this lubject having the head of the Nile laid down in the already been anticipated by a great and uith degree of N. lat. precisely as in respectable critic, we frall give such exó Mr. Bruce's map; he will find the tracts from bim as meet our own ideas ; river running into, as well as out of, and which may justly be considered as the lake, jp the same directions as laid two opinions, consequently less liable to down by Mr. Bruce; and he will then crror or partiality. The critic proceeds- see it winding its course northward, * See page 193 et seq.

exactly as Mr. Bruce describes.

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“ It would be trifling with the pa. many large rivers which Aow south tience of our readers to say one word into Ethiopia, and then, according to more on the question, whether the Por- the inclination of the ground, fall into Huguele jesuits or Mr. Bruce discovered the Indian or Atlantic oceans. Among what they erroneously call the head of those which fall into the latter, Mr. the Nile. Before either they or he had Bruce, vol. iii. p. 724. erroneously indulged themselves in a vain triumph reckons the Niger, which on good over the labours of antiquity, they grounds is believed, (see the proceedought to have been sure that they had ings of the African Association, and effected what antiquity was unable to particularly Major Rennel's Memoir) accomplish. Now, the river described not to run into the sea, but to lose itself by the jesuit Kircher, (who collected in the sands of Tumbuetoo. Such the information of his brethren) as then, according to the Egyptian priefts, well as by Mr. Bruce, is not the Nile is the true and philosophical source of of which the ancients were in quest. the Nile, a source discovered above three This is amply proved by the prince of thousand years ago *; and not, as Mr. modern geographers, the incomparable Bruce and the jeluits have supposed, d'Anville, (at least till our own Ren- the head of a paltry rivulet, one of the nell appeared) in a copious memoir innumerable ftreams that feed the lake published in the twenty-sixth volume of of Tzana." the Memoirs of the Academy of Belles We shall now give Mr. Bruce's foLettres, p. 45. To this learned differ- lution of the cause which occasions tation we refer our readers, adding only the overflowing of the Nile. to what M. d'Anville has there ob " The opinion of Democritus was, served, that it seems probable, from that the overflowing of the Nile was Diodorus Siculus, 1. i. c. 23. sub init. owing to the sun's attraction of snowy compared with Herodotus, l. ii. c. 28. vapour from the frozen mountains of that the ancients had two meanings the north, which, being carried by the when they spoke of the head or wind southward, and thawed by warmer source of the Nile; first, literally, the climates, fell down upon Ethiopia in head or source of that great western deluges of rain ; and the fame is adstream, now called the White River, vanced by Agatharcides, of Cnidus, in which contains a much greater weight his Periplus of the Red Sea. This of waters, and has a much longer opinion of Democritus, Diodorus atcourse, than the river described by the tempts to refute, but we shall not join jesuits and Mr. Bruce; and secondly, him in his refutation, because we are metaphorically, the cause, whatever it now perfectly certain, from observawas,

of the Nile's inundations. This tion, that Democritus and Agatharcause they had discovered to be the cides both of them had fallen upon the tropical rains which fall in the extent true causes of the inundation. of 16 deg. on each side of the line, " Whatever were the conjectures which made the Sacristan of Minerva's of the dreamers of antiquity, modern temple at Sais, in Egypt, tell that in- travellers and philosophers, describing quisitive traveller Herodotus, that the without fyftem or prejudice what their waters of the Nile run in two opposite eyes faw, have found, that the inundadirections from its source, north into tion of Egypt has been effected by Egypt, and south into Ethiopia ; and natural means, perfectly confonant the reports of all African travellers with the ordinary rules of Providence, serve to explain and confirm this ob- and the laws given for the government servation. The tropical rains, they of the rest of the universe. They have acknowledge, give rise to the Nile, and found, that the plentiful fall of the all its tributary streams, which Aow tropical rains produced every year at northward into the kingdom of Sen- the same time, by the action of a vionaar, as well as to the Zebec, and to lent sun, has been uniforinly, without

*“ Long before Herodotus, Homer and fed by raiņs. Vid. Apollon. Lexicon gives to the Ægyptus, or Nile, the epithet Homeri, p. 280, voc. AbAETEOS." SUITETUG: qui cælitus decidit, a river produced


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miracle, the cause of Egypt being re same purposes; and we are warranted gularly overflowed.

to say this, till we receive from the hand “ There are three remarkable ape of Providence a work of such imperpearances attending the inundation of fection, that its destruction can be calthe Nile ; every morning in Abyssinia culated from the very means by which is clear, and the sun Mhines. About it was first formed, and which were the nine, a small cloud, not above four feet apparent sources of its beauty and prebroad appears in the east, whirling vio- eminence. Egypt, like other counfently round as if upon an axis, but, tries, will perish by the fiat of Him arrived near the zenith, it first abates that made it, but when, or in what its motion, then lotes its form, and ex manner, lies bid where it ought to be, tends itself greatly, and seems to call inaccessible to the useless, vain inup vapours from all opposite quarters. quiries, and idle speculations of man." These clouds, having attained nearly The concluding chapters of this vo. the same height, rush against each other lume are-Inquiry about the pollibility with great violence, and put me always of changing the course of the Nile in mind of Elisha foretelling rain on And, Account of the author's recepMount Carmel. The air, impelled tion among the Agows *, with their before the heaviest mass, or swiftelt trade, character, &c. mover, makes an impression of its own

[To be continued.] form in the collection of clouds opposite, and the moment it has taken por. session of the space made to receive it, LETTERS FROM the most violent thunder possible to be PEROR JOSEPH II. TO GENERAL conceived instantly follows, with rain ; D'ALTON. WRITTEN BETWEEN after some hours, the sky again clears, DECEMBER 1787 AND NOVEMBER with a wind at north, and it is always 1789. FROM THE FRENCH. disagreeably cold when the thermome BINSONS. 38. ter is below 63 deg.

LETTERS and Memoirs of Princes “ The second thing remarkable is the variation of the thermometer ;

are always interesting to the Public;

the present collection is particularly so, when the sun is in the southern tropic,

as being written at a time when Europe 36 deg. distant from the zenith of Gon

was nearly in a general flame, and when dar, it is seldom lower than 72 deg. but it falls to 60 and 59 deg, when the wildered in their conjectures. In our

even the foundest politicians were be-, fun is immediately vertical; so happily extracts we shall endeavour to give the does the approach of rain compensate true character of Joseph, in the affair of the heat of a too-scorching fun. • The third is that remarkable stop preserve his opinion of other important

the Netherlands, and at the same tinie in the extent of the rains northward, political concerns. The Belgians como: when the sun, that has conducted the plain heavily of the Letters of January vapours from the line, and should seem,

30, and February 7, 1788. now more than ever, to be in possession of them, is here over-ruled suddenly,

" Vienna, Jan. 30, 1788. till, on its return to the zenith of Gerri, My dear general d'Alton, I have again it resumes the absolute command received your letter, and saw with great over the rain, and reconducts it to the satisfaction the adequate manner in line to furnish distant deluges to the which you made your dispositions on southward."

the 22d of January. After a variety of reasoning, which “ It is essential that the public have our limits will not permit us to detail, been convinced that the military will no on the origin of Egypt, Mr. Bruce longer suffer insult; and that they are concludes, * I hope I have now fatis- determined to maintain, by force of fied the reader, that Egypt was never

arms, that which I have a right to dean arm of the sea, or formed by fedi. mand. mients brought down in the Nile, but

* The Nile rises in the country of these that it was created with other parts of people, who were, once, the most con. the globe at the same time, and for the liderable nation in Abystoia.

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* I am exceedingly obliged to you of his subjects ! Testifying his gratitude for it, and I request you to preserve the to the assallins! Fromising them refame firmness in every initance which wards, and eager to fulfil his promay present itself; although I think mise !" this example, however moderate it might

“ Vienna, Feb. 7, 1788. have been, will produce its effect. “ My dear general d'Alton, I have

“ You did well in occupying the received your letter of the 28th of Jaguard-room at the town-house, of nuary, and I approve 'every step you which

you will endeavour to keep pof- have taken on this occasion to establish feffion.

order and subordination, as well as the « Adieu, my dear general, I am steadiness you have Mewn in repressing desirous by this very post, to testify to

insolence.' The dispositions you have you my approbation of your conduct. made for future accidents are very You will also inform the officer of the proper; it is better to anticipate than to regiment of Ligne, who commanded be anticipated. You may, therefore, the patrole which fired, that I am very detain the regiment of Bender as long svell pleased with his presence of mind, as you think proper. I perceive bow and the manner in which he conducted happily you turned into ridicule the himself, and that he may expect promo. youth who boasted his design of assaffi. tion on the first vacancy.'

nating you, by, going and speaking to “ Could it be believed !” fay the him yourself; it is the best manner of Belgians in their Preface to these inter- exposing and disconcerting such infolent cepted Epistles" This letter is in boys. answer to the dispatches of d’Alton,

66 Vienna, Dec. 29, 1788. relative to the 22d of January 1788; a

My dear general d'Alton, I have day memorable in the history of Austrian received your letter of the 7th instant. cruelty; a day that ought eternally to " However desirous I


be to fuce be erafed from the Belgic annals; a

cour the indigent, and alleviate the fufday of blood, in which citizens of every ferings of human nature, I yet cannot age, drawn by curiosity into the great think it any part of the duty of the mi{quare of the city, were inmolated to litary to attend to these objects ; ftill the rage of military affaffins. This less do I think it belongs to them to was the atrocious act which the emperor hunt after applause in this manner. applauded! His praises were bestowed If any regulation be necessary, it is for on the vile fatellites of despotisin; who, the government to consider of the means regardless of the rights of man, fired of affifting these poor wretches, and to the blood of fo many innocent vi&tims, the government you will commit this assembled unarmed, and defenceless !

“ This blood, which will everlast. ingly call for vengeance against those

6 Vienna, May 14, 1789. by whom it was spilt, and against him My dear general d'Alton, I have under whose command they acted, could just received your letter of the 4th of not glut the rage of the tyrant, which this inonth, and am extremely obliged it did but irritate : " I requelt you to to you for the interest which you take in preserve the same firmness,' said he; my health. It is not yet in the situation * I am defirous, by this vecy post, to I could wish, to permit me to join the testify to you my approbation of your -army: A continual intermitting fever, conduct. You will also inform the together with a complaint in the liver, officer of the regiment of Ligne, who have confined me five days to my bed, commanded the patrole which fired, except that I rise for an hour or two in that I anı very well pleated with his presence of mind, and in the manner in I approve your dispositions with which he conducted himself, and that respect to the brigades, and have sent he may expect promotion on the first that which you have transmitted to me vacancy.'

for Luxemberg, to the Council of War, CanCan fuch things' find credit with in order to fee if they can find any posterity? What! a sovereign rejoicing, means of arranging these matters with congratulating himself, at the massacre the department of the Netherlands.



each day.

" It mortifies me to see discontents picion among the people. Be persuaded, spring up anew. As the assembly of iny dear general, that it were better to the states will be held in a few days, I be lets minutely informed, than to emhope the affirmative or negative of the ploy a number of agents, more capable celebrated theological question will lead of embroiling affairs, than of restoring every thing to order. If not, decisive thein to order. measures must be taken to put an end “ Adieu, my dear general. I im. to it for ever.

patiently expect to hear in wliat man. I observed, with pleasure, the good ner the deliberations of the assembly of conduct of general Happoncourt (of the Nates will end ; and I beseech you which you express your satisfaction) as to be zealous in strengthening Mr. de well as the testimony which he gives of Trauttmansdorff in all his measures. the real and steadiness of Rantonnet.

“Semlin, June 1, 1788. Provided good is dope, it is of little " You did very right in still keeping import, whether or not he assumes the the regiment of Bender. If the major title of administrator ; for prejudice at Mons * had opposed force to the new often renders a name odious.

volunteers who dared more than once “ With this, I return the original to present themselves, I think the matletter, for which you will have occa ter had been finished, at least for some fon.

tinc, as at Bruffels. "The design of employing officers “ I approve of the arrangements in the open country to learn the dispo- which you deem to be necessary during fitions of the farmers and peasants, and the meeting of the states of Brabant, ia to lead them to our wilhes has its ad- which every thing must be definitively vantages, but it is also defective, and settled, or embroiled yet more than even dangerous. For, it is difficult, ever. I expect you will know the use on all occasions, to find persons quali. of the military when occasion shall refied to enforce truth, and who pusless quire them. the ability and patience necessary to Adieu, my dear general. We produce conviction in the mind. Yet are here anxiously waiting the approach, each wishes for the reputation of having of the grand vizir, who choosing to made fome discovery, forms his own give us the preference, advances with particular judgment of it, and finishes all his suite. There are thirty thousand, by making falle reports, which induce of his forces already at Vidin, and as error, and at the same time beget fuso many more at Nissa, which has induced

* “ Had the same assassinations been innocent blood of their fellow-citizens. committed at Mons," say the Belgians in Louvain, Malines, and Antwerp in partitheir Preface, “ as had been at Brussels, cular, beheld these scenes of horror. Antthe major would have had the approbation werp saw its wretched vi&ims fall t, the of the emperor; who, on the ift of June, inhabitants still thudder, when they pafs contents himself with only blaming his the places where they beheld armed men conduct, for not having shed the blood of murder, without distinction or pity, men, the citizens !

women, and children! The emperor heard “ The regret of the emperor was not of the news; it was sent by his own troops ; long duration. General d'Alton quickly he knew that, at Malines, the mother and gratified the wishes of this cruel monarch: the infant, clinging to her bofom, both fell he found agents vile enough to be eager to by the same blow. He shuddered not at become the executioners of his sanguinary such cruelties ! On the contrary, they were will, and who steeped their hands in the his delight; as appears in his letters."

+ "On the 4th of August : 788, the sol- tizens were in arms; no one opposed the diers, assembled in the city of Antwerp, ' violent orders of government; one single that they might, in case of need, aslift by proteitation only, by notary, had been read; main force those who were deputed to cxe- the utmost tranquility reigned through the cute the orders of government, concerning city, when this officer, covetous of promothe episcopal seminary of that city, had the tion, and excited by the example of ensiga cruelty to fire on the pasling citizens. Wucherigh, imagined that the more people More than forty innocent persons, men and he !hould murder, in Antwerp, the greater women, were killed by a company com- might his hopes of reward be, from his manded by one Rom. None of the cio kind master, Joseph II."

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