« PreviousContinue »
he were but twenty-two years old, From what I have said, much light for the date of his life. This is comes in on this text, which before clear from 2 Kings, viii, 26 : other- has to me been always very dark. wise he will be made twenty years older than himself, and two years
Psalm xii, 5. older than his father !
Our ordinary translation is ;
the oppression of the poor, for the Psalm ii, 7.
sighing of the needy, now will I “ Thou art my son; this day arise, saith the Lord; I will set him have I brought thee forth”-not, in safety from him that puffeth at “ have begotten thee.”
him.' The last words are to be 1. That the Hebrew root as rectified thus ; " I will set him in commonly signifies to bear, to be salvation (or safety ;) He (meaning born, or to bring forth, we have not God,) will give breathing or respionly the assurance of Pagnin, who ration to him.” puts parere and parturire as its first Consult the Hebrew well. The and more usual interpretation; and Septuagint, the Syriac, the Ethiopic of Mercer, who says, “uk idem and Arabic, all refer it to God's est quod Græcis Tevvav, quod est in kindness to his oppressed people. lucem edere generaliter;" but we have also infallible examples of the
Isaiah viii, 22 and ix, 1. sacred text, as Gen. iv, 18; xvi, 11; xxix, 34; Deut. xxi, 15 ; (viii, 22.)“ And they shall look un1 Chron. ii, 46, 48; to which we to the earth; and behold trouble and might add many others.
• darkness, dimness of anguish; and 2. That the Greek word Tevyaw they shall be driven to darkness. (by which the Apostle quotes and (ix, 1.) Nevertheless the dimtranslates this place twice; viz. ness shall not be such as was in her Acts xiii, 33, and Heb. i, 5,) also vexation, when at the first he lightsignifies to bear or bring forth, we ly afflicted the land of Zebulun and have also many examples in the • the land of Naphtali, and afterward sacred text; as Matt. ii, 4 ; xix, 12; did more grievously afflict her by Luke i, 13, 35, 37 ; xxiii, 29; John the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, iii, 4, 6; ix, 2, 19, 20, 32, &c. ' in Galilee of the nations." The Septuagint also translate this The first thing here to be done, is text with the same word γενναω. to separate from the first verse of
3. The apostle Paul, quoting this chapter ix the following clauseplace“ Thou art my son, this day “ Nevertheless the dimness shall not have I begotten thee,”-applies it be such as was in her vexation"to the resurrection of Christ, when and to annex it to the last verse of God brought him forth out of the the preceding chapter. The next grave; (Acts xiii, 32, 33.) “ We thing is rightly to translate the declare unto you (saith Peter) glad whole, which will then stand thus:tidings ; how that the promise which " And one shall look unto the was made unto the fathers, God earth, and behold trouble and dimhath fulfilled the same unto us, their ness, so that he is obscured with children, in that he hath raised up affliction, and driven up and down Jesus again ; and that as it is writ- in darkness ; for he is not darkened ten in the second Psalm-Thou art so as to be shut up with it.” my Son, this day have I begotten thee." The Chaldee paraphrase, and the
hath the signification of הכביר
ancient Latin of Jerome, distinguish it means of light worth. And also ed these chapters, as I have done ; and I have translated them as you weight, yet here (as in Piel oft) it see, with good leave of the Hebrew signifies weight of glory. text. If, on the contrary, ther be Secondly, the history informs us left to be part and preface to the first (2 Kings xv, 29) that it was the sad verse of chap. ix, they confound the lot of Galilee, (or of Zebulun and sense thereof; insomuch that they Naphtali two main parts thereof,) puzzled the Septuagint (though to be the first in that calamity which Hebrews,) so that they made their befel their nation by the Assyrians ; Greek translation pure nonsense. on account of which calamity, then St. Matthew perceiving this, when newly acted, Isaiah comforts them he quoted verse 1 out of the Septu- with this prophecy; viz. that in reagint, (see Matt. iv, 16) makes no compence of that heavy disadvantage use of this former clause, but begins above the rest of their brethren, with—". The land of Zebulun and they should have the first and chiefNaphtali, &c." As to the meaning, est share of the presence and conI must leave them to judge that can verse of Christ, the Messiah, when weigh these things : yet to me it he should come in the flesh. For appears, that the Prophet, speaking the second verse continues ; “ The so much of darkness, might put people that walked in darkness (viz. in He is not darkened
in that darkness of affliction, deto be shut up with it,” in order to scribed chap. viii, last verse) have distinguish it from the darkness in
a great light; they that Egypt, which so confined the people dwelt in the shadow of death, upon that they rose not from their place "them hath the light shined. Thou for three days. (Exodus x, 22.) hast multiplied the nation, and
The remainder of verse 1 begins “hast increased the joy thereof. a new prophecy thus :
[How is this brought to pass ?-It “ As in the first time, he made • follows verse 6] For unto us a 'vile (ordebased) the land of Zebulun • child is born, to us a son is given, . and the land of Naphtali, so in the ' and the government shall be upon • latter time he shall make them glo- his shoulders, &c.” St. Matthew * rious ; viz. the way of the sea be- uses that portion which he quotes yond Jordan, Galilee of the Gen- directly in this sense, if
take the . tiles.” Or it may be read ;-—" As full context, beginning chap. iv, 12. the first time did make vile the land And that first clause of verse 3, in of Zebulun, and the land of Naph- which have left out the word not, • tali, so the latter time shall make is equally consonant with the He. them glorious, even the way of the brew, and more so with the sense.
sea: beyond Jordan, &c.” To justify The margin indeed gives it' to him ;' this; first,-it is well known to which would then thus read "Thou every Hebraist, that 57777 signifies hast multiplied the nation and to to make vile, or to debase ; and that him increased the joy ;" and if we 7237 signifies to make glorious. rather read “ to it” (viz. the nation) What reason then was there, for our the cense will be the same. translators to translate the first * lightly afflicted,' and the second, Matthew xxvii, 9, 10. • heavily aflicted ? For though 1777 Read, -- " Then was fulfilled that hath the signification of lightness, which was spoken by Jeremy the
' prophet, saying, And I (not they) commit some faults in some letters took the thirty pieces of silver, the and points, in penning some of the price of him that was valued, whom copies of their Hebrew Bibles : as they of the children of Israel had the most ancient Samaritan copy of ' valued, and I gave them for the the Pentateuch, and the Arcanum ' potter's field, as the Lord appoint- Punctationis (set forth by Erpenius) ed me.”
do clearly evince. Next, that the According to the common digest inspired Evangelists do correct some of our Bibles, there are no such of those faults : as in Psalm xxii, 16, words found, but in the Book of where the Hebrew copies read 1783 Zechariah ; (excepting that Jeremiah as a lion, and St. John (Rev. i, 7) also bought a field, chap. xxxii ;) reads it they pierced; and therewhereupon Origen is greatly per- fore our translators have boldly, but plexed. Jerome and Augustine justly, corrected the Psalm. So again think it a fault of the scribe, and so Isa. xxix, 13 is rectified by Matt. xv, do Eusebius, Erasmus, and Beza : 9;--Jer. xxxi, 32 by Heb. viii, 9; the last of whom conceives that and Amos ix, 12, by Acts xv, 17. either the Evangelist cited only " the May not therefore our Evangelist prophet,” (not naming which pro- Matthew rectify in this quotation phet,) as the ancient Syriac reads the wrong placing it by the Jews in it; or else that the Evangelists, or the volume of the prophet Zechariah, their scribes, anciently writing such when (as he here intimates) it well known things as names of pro- should be placed in the Book of phets by abbreviations, (as (8 for Jeremiah ? Zaxapis,) some later scribes heed- Now, whoever attentively weighs lessly turned Go into lv, whereby it, will at least perceive, that chap, the following scribes.wrote Jeremiah, ters ix, x, xi, commonly accounted instead of Zechariah. Others, con- part of Zechariah’s prophecies, beceiving it ought to be written Jere- long to more ancient times than miah, inasmuch as all the Greek those of Zechariah : namely, to the copies known to us have it so, do times before the Jews' captivity in conclude, that either this prophecy Babylon. For in chap. ix, 1, 2, &c. was at first delivered by Jeremiah, is pronounced the burden of the but preserved till the Apostles' times Lord on the land of Hadrach and only by tradition; or that Jeremiah, Damascus, and Hamath, and Tyrus, prophesying this thing, and not lay- and Zidon, and Askelon and Gaza, ing it up (as the manner was) in and Ashdod, &c. of the Philistines ; the archives of the temple, Zecha- the most of which peoples (if any riah afterwards prophesied the same, of the names of the places remained) and left it in writing among the were not extant after that return of sacred records; he being a great Judah from the Babylonish captivity, imitator in language and matter of performed in Zechariah's time. In Jeremiah, as Grotius gives many chapter x. is plainly prophesied the instances. Or, this quotation might carrying away of Judah into capbe taken out of both Jeremiah and tivity, with a promise of their subZechariah; Zechariah might sequent return; whereas now, in have two names.
Zechariah's time, they are already To all these, let me add my sug- returned. And in chapter xi. is gestion. · And first, note, that it is foretold the destruction of Jeruconfessed of all, that the Jews might salem, and also the captivity of the
people of the land; which is alto- in express grammar requires it to gether inconsistent with Zechariah's be the first person, if we would be time, in which they are encouraged faithful to the text. Secondly, the by him to rebuild the temple. And same reasons are ready to justify therefore what can we rationally my translating “ I gave. For (1.) conclude, but that this quotation by Edwkav, in the first aorist, which the Matthew is out of Jeremiah ? For Evangelist here uses, may be as there is no Scripture saith, they are well the first person singular, as the the words of Zechariah ; but here third plural ; the v at the end being is Scripture, (viz. the words of St. commonly paragogical. (2.) The Matthew,) to assert that they are Hebrew 750 Ni compels us to transthe words of Jeremiah. As for late,' and I gave.' Note further the their being placed among the pro- congruity of the sense and context : phecies of Zechariah, that no more for Matthew closes both phrases demonstrates that they are his, than with this, Kafa ouveraĚe poi Kvthe inserting Agur's Proverbs within pros, “as the Lord appointed me;" the body of Solomon's evinces them but what sense can this be—“they to be Solomon's; or that all the took, and they gave, as the Lord Psalms are David's, because joined appointed me?” Therefore it must in one volume. And this misplacing of necessity be as I have translated, might easily come to pass during I took, &c. and after the captivity; which so But it may be objected, it is not totally routed all things, that all the in the Hebrew of Zechariah (alias distinct sermons of the prophets, Jeremiah,)“ as the Lord commanded fixed in writing upon some pillar of me :". but,“ in the house of the the temple for a sufficient time of Lord.” That is the very question next publication to every eye, (as Calvin to be discussed. Surely it appears collects from Hab. ii, 2, in which by the Apostle, that instead of sense it is also said, 1 Tim. iii, 15, 17, the house of the Lord (now “The Church is the Pillar of Truth,”) in our ordinary Hebrew copies) it and afterwards laid up in the ar- was formerly in the ancient copies chives of the temple, might not be 77 77 as the Lord appointed, or so distinctly kept, and taken out, commanded. That 77 signifies a and set together. Which scruple command, and 77) according to of misplacing may not be made upon command, none will doubt, that is any Scripture, to serve our own acquainted with the Hebrew : (see views; but only where we have Esther i, 8, and oft in that book, other sacred Scripture (as here we and elsewhere.) And that no may have Matthew) to testify and rectify easily by the pen be changed into that misplacing
na any eye is able to see.
On The next thing I have to defend the contrary, to read it,
" I cast is, the proposed alteration of the them to the potter in the house of Translation. First, “ They took" the Lord,” makes little less than (as our translators render it) must nonsense ; and therefore I am bolder be, “ I took :” for which I briefly to follow St. Matthew's reading, give two reasons- -(1.) The Greek than any Masorites whatsoever : bears it : for glasov, being the se- more especially as the Hebrew text cond aorist, may be as well the first begins the verse, so as it appears to person singular, as the third person require some such ending. For it plural. (2.) The Hebrew 777 begins,—" The Lord said unto me.
cast it unto the potter, &c." To should be defiled; but that they
hold: but it signifies an ox or ram,
offered at the same time that the Mark xi, 13.
Lamb was, and which might be
eaten two days. Unless this be so Instead of_" For the time of distinguished, Christ will be configs was not yet,” read—“ For demned of a breach of the law, as if where he was, was a time of figs." he had not eaten the Passover.
That the Greek will bear this, note that the body of the words is,
Galatians ii, 20. 8 γαρ ην καιρος συκων. Now the ancient Greeks did not write the "I am crucified with Christ : aspirates, accents, &c; and why our • nevertheless I live ; yet not I, but later scribes, copying out the Greek · Christ liveth in me : and the life, Testament, have been so bold as to · which I now live in the flesh, I accents thus, où, which signifies not; live by the faith of the Son of and did not rather write it où, which • God.” signifies where ; I can see no reason. Read the last clause,
-“ I live by All reason indeed pleads, that it must ' faith on (or concerning) the Son of be read as above written: for our · God.” As if the Apostle should say, Saviour had as much reason to curse “I live, spiritually, by what I believe all the fig-trees in that country, as concerning the Son of God;"well as that one, had it not been • by that, my faith, which is foundthen a time of figs in that region. ed on the Son of God.” This order But it was a time of figs then and of words is exactly justified by the there in general; though this fig-tree, Greek; and the change of the word by its backwardness, merited the of into on or concerning is constraincurse : for the time of this miracle ed by the sense. For we do not live was that of the Passover, (our by Christ's personal faith, (as some, Easter,) when, even in so cold who are scholars have erroneously a climate as England, young figs said,) First, because Christ's perappear ; but in the hot country of sonal faith, does not advantage us, Judea figs are the forward sign of unless there be in us a faith to rethe spring, as may be seen from ceive Christ; as the Scriptures abunCant. ii, 12, 13.
dantly testify. Secondly the just As for making one verb nv to must live by his faith,” that is by serve to two nouns, it is not worth his own faith which is in himself." mention to any scholar.
Thirdly the Apostle speaks in the
very text, of Christ living in him ;John xviii, 28.
which is, by faith in the believer :
see Ephes. iii, 17. So that this gen“ And they themselves went not itive case (“ of the Son of God,") into the Judgement Hall, lest they is not active, to signify Christ as the