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exercise your rural Mufe with a Sylvestrem tenui Musam meditaris avena Mender pipe.

NOTES. ciously received, and restored to his name of Tityrus among the Lacopoffeffions. It is reasonable to think, nians. This last quotation is errothat some of his neighbours, if not neous ; for the words of Servius are, all, obtained the same favour : “ Laconum lingua Tityrus dicitur though the Commentators seem al « aries (not hircus) major, qui grem most unanimous in representing Vir gem anteire consuevit.” I begil as the only Mantuan, that met "lieve the first reason is the true one ; with such good fortune. This is and that Virgil had no farther meanthe subject of the first Eclogue. ing, than to borrow the name of The Poet introduces two fhepherds a shepherd from Theocritus. under the feigned names of Meli I have already said, that the Comboeus and Tityrus; of whom the mentators generally agree, that the former represents the unhappy Man- Poet intended to describe himself úntuans, and the latter those who were der the feigned name of Tityrus. restored to their estates : or perhaps But to this opinion I think some maTityrus may be intended to repre- 'terial objections may be opposed. fent Mantua, and Meliboeus Cre- The Poet represents his Tityrus as

Meliboeus begins the dia an old man. In ver. 29. he menlogue with setting forth the miseries tions his beard being grey. of himself and his neighbours. 47. Melibocus expressly calls Tity

1. Tityre.] La Cerda produces three rus an old man, Fortunate senex, reasons, why the name of Tityrus, which words are repeated in ver. 52. might be applied to an Italian shep- Now Virgil could not call himself herd : J. Because the Poet imitated an old man, being under thirty, Theocritus, who gave that name to when he wrote this Eclogue, in a shepherd in the third Idyllium. which he calls Augustus juvenis, 2. Because a pipe made of reeds was who was but seven years younger called Tityrinus in Italy. 3. A shep- than himself: and at the end of the herd might be properly so called, as Georgicks he tells us expressly, that the word signifies dancing, an exer- he wrote it in his youth: cise much in use among shepherds ; εκ των τελερισμάτων, οίς χαίρουσι Σα

audaxque juventa Tupos, says Aelian.

To these he

" Tityre te patulae cecini sub tego adds a fourth reason; that Tity

- mine fagi.” rus fignifies a Goat in the African language, whence the name has In the fifth Eclogue Tityrus is menbeen ascribed to those who feed tioned as a servant to Mopsus : them. He concludes with observe ing, that Servius only says that the • Incipe, Mopse, prior, fi quos aut greater he-goats are called by the Phyllidis ignes,

« Aut

mona,

In ver.

Nos patriae fines, et dulcia linquimus arva;

We leave ebe, borders of our

country, and our freer fields,

NO TE S. « Aut Alconis habes laudes, aut Virgil always uses Sylvae, when he " jurgia Codri,

speaks of Shepherds, and Agri, “ Incipe : pafcentes fervabit Tityrus' when he is treating of Husbandry: " hoedos."

But this argument is not good : for

in a few lines below we find, In the eighth Eclogue he mentions Tityrus, as à contemptible shep- “ Ludere quae vellem calamo perherd :

“ misit agrefti.

“ Certent et cycnis ululae : fit Ti- And in the sixth Eclogue

tyrus Orpheus • Orpheus in fylvis ; inter delphi Agrestem tenui meditabor arunnas Arion.”

“6 dine musam."

« song.

If Virgil had called himself Tityrus Probably Quintilian intended to in the firft Eclogué, he would hard- quote the verse laft mentioned. ly have used the same name after 2. Meditaris. ] Servius interprets wards for a mean or contemptible this “ cantas, quasi melitaris, d pro perfon.

" I pofita." La Cerda interprets it 1. Fagi.] La Cerda contends, that exerces; which he confirms by sethe Fagus is not a Beech, but a fort veral authorities. Ruaeus renders of Oak or Esculus ; and quotes fe- it modularis. veral authorities to support his opi Lord Lauderdale tranflates this nion. This mistake has arisen from passage, an imagination that the Fagus is the same with the Qúyos of the Greek “ Under a beech, supinely laid along, writers, which is indeed a fort of “ Thou, Tityrus, enjoy'st thy rural Oak. But the description, which Pliny gives of the Fagus, can agree with no other tree; than that which Dryden's translation is, we call a Beech. “ Fagi glans “ nuclei fimilis, triangula cute in

“Beneath the shade, which beechen « cluditur. Folium tenue, ac le

boughs diffuse,

“ You, Tityrus, entertain your “ viffimum, populo fimile.” 2. Sylvestrem.] Quintilian, lib.

Sylvan Muse.” 9. cap. 4. reads Agrestem. It is generally allowed to have been a slip

Dr Trapp has it, in Quintilian's memory; this read " Beneath the covert of the spreada ing not being countenanced by the

ing beech authority of any manuscript. La “ Thou, Tityrus, repos’dy art Cerda endeavours to prove that so warbling o'er,

A 2

“ Upon

We fly our caunery; wbilf you, Nos patriam fugimųs :. tuTityre-lentus in umbfa jpade, reach the woods to refound Formosam resonare doces Amaryllida sylvas. 5 i be beautiful Amaryllis. TIT O Meliboee, Deus nobis haec otia fecit.

TIT: O. Melibolus a God Namque erit ille mihi semper Deus: illius aram Mall always effeem' bim as a God:

me

NOTES.

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66 alta

" Upon a sender reed thy Silvan 66 Ulla dolum meditantur: amat lays.”

oli borus 'otia Daphnis :

9t" 2. Avena.] “ The musical instru- And in the second Georgick; « ments used by shepherds were at « first made of oat and wheat At secura quies, et nescia fallete “ straw;. then of reeds, and hol

vita, " low pipes of box ; ' afterwards of -- Divés opum variarum ; at latis “ the leg bones of cranes, horns of

cotia fundis, “ animals, metals, &c.

Hence

“ Speluncae, vivique lacus?" (“they are called avena, ftipula, calamus, arundo, fistula, buxus, And in the third ; 4.01"

tibia, cornu, aes, &C.". RUAEUS. --;

$. Amaryllida.] Those who un- was. Ipfi in defoffis fpecubus secura sub derstand this Eclogue in an allego

Stanto rical sense, will have Amaryllis to " Otia agunt terra.' (mean Rome. See the note on ver. 31.

Seriencia 6. O Melibdee, &c.] Tityrus in- It is plainly used also in the same forms his neighbour, that his feli. -fense in the fixth Aeneid. ****,! city is derived from a God, com- f":61. 1. plimenting Augustus with that 24 med Cuisdeinde fubibit, name.

Otia qui rumpet patriae, refidef* Deus The Poet Aatters. Au- ;)

. guftus, by calling him a God, fome 6. Tullus in arma viros.” years

before" divine honours were :. publickly allowed himn...! 7. Namque. erit ille mihi femper

Otiu.] Servius interprets it fecy- i Deus. 1 Servius, :fays, that this rerity of felicity, La Cerda will have - petition excludes all appearance of it to mean libertý. Ruaeus renders - Hattery which I must confess myit quies." Lord Lauderdale translates felf unable to understand. As 'to it, This Joft retirement's Dryden, what he mentions of Augustus: beThese blejmgs; and Dr Trapp, sing really deified in his life-time, it *This freedon. In the fifth Eclogue can bave no place here : since it is dur Poet ufesotia for peace.or ease; certain, that these honours were

: not given him, till several years af“Neclupus infidias pecori, ivec re- ter this Eclogue is faid to have been

..camposed. It was a common opi

que movebit

66 tia cervis

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Saepe tener noftris ab ovilibus imbuet agnus.

tender lamb from my folds Ille meas errare boves, ut cernis, et ipsum

mall often flain bis altar. He

bas permitied my kine to feed af Ludere, quae vellem, calamo permisit agresti. 10 large, as you fee, and myself to Mel. Non equidem invideo, miror magis: un-play wbas 1 bave a mind on my

Tural pipe. "dique totis

MEL. I do not envy you Ufque adeo turbatur agris. En ipfe capellas indeed, but ralber wonder i fes

ing ebere is so great a disturbance all over the country..

NOTES. nion among the Ancients, that doing " Russet lawns, and fallows grey, good elevated men to divinity. Ti " Where the nibbling flocks do tyrus therefore, having received fo

“ stray.” great a benefit from Auguftus, declares, that he hall always efteem Lord Lauderdale has translated era him as a God. If divine honours rare in the full sense of wandering, had then been ascribed to Auguftus, or going aftray. ; : the Poet would not have mentioned him as a Deity peculiar to himself;

Do you not see my cattle wanerit ille mihi semper deus. But it is

d'ring roam

o At their own pleafüre, yet come no great wonder, that the Poet thould Aatter Augustus with the title

"" safely home?

6 He'tis that suffers them to ge of a . God; since Julius Caesar, whose adopted son he was, had al

astray.ready received divine honours, a chapel being dedicated to him in Dryden's translation is better; the Forum, about ten months before " He gave my flocks to graze the the decisive battle at Philippi.

“ Aow'ry plain,”. 7. Illius aram, &c.] Pope has imitated this, in his fourth Pastoral ; 11. Non equidem invideo, &c.] “.To thee, bright. Goddess, oft a

Meliboeus, apprehending that Tia ** lamb fhall bleed,

tyrus might imagine he envied his " If teeming ewes increase my does not, but only wonders at his

good ", fleecy breed."

:) enjoying peace in the midft of the 9. Errare.] id eft, pasci, says greatest confusions and disturbances, Servius. It is certain, that by er

and concludes with inquiring, who rare the Poet cannot mean to wants that God is, from whom his trander or stray, in one senfe of the quillity, is derived, word, which fignifies to go aftray, 12. Turbatur,] Pierius found or be left. Therefore, to avoid turbamur in some ancient manuambiguity, I have translated it to fcripts, '; Servius found the fame feed at large, which is the true reading, but justly prefers turbatur. meaning of the word. Our Poets Quintilian also reads turbatur, in a frequently use stray in the same quotation of this passage, and it is fenfe: thus Milton

generally received by the editors. ::

A 3

13. Pion

Lo! I drive my goats being protinus aeger ago : hanc etiam vix, Tityre, duco. quite fick myself; and am bard. dy able, my Tityrus, to drag this along.

NOTES.

" Exequar.

13. Protinus.] Servius reads pro- felf has used protinus or protenus in tenus, and interprets it porro tenus, other parts of his works. The geid eft, longe a finibus. Pierius ob- neral-signification of it is immediateserves that most manuscripts have ly, next, or presently afterwards. protinus ; but that it is protenus in Thus it is used in the fourth Georthe Oblong and Medicean manu-' gick: scripts. He observes, that Caper makes a difference between them, 6. Protinus aërii mellis caelestia dona making protenus an adverb of place, and protinus an adverb of time, Nonius Marcellus interprets protinus, And in the second Aeneid; valde. In the Medicean manuscript, according to the edition printed at Protinus ad fedes Priami clamore Florence in 1741, it is protinus. “ vocati;". The same reading is in the Paris edition of 1541.

But in that of Where Servius reads protinus, and 1540, under the care of Suffannaeus, interprets it ftatim; as he does also it is protenus. In the Venice edi- in another passage of the fame tion by Aldus, in 1576, it is proti- book ; nus. Rob. Stephens reads protenus. In the old edition, printed by Pyn- «. Sic fatus senior, telumque imbelson, it is protinus, as also in the " le fine ictu Milan edition of 1539, and in the « Conjecit : rauco quod protinus Antwerp edition of 1543. But in “aere repulsum.” that of 1540, it is protenus. La Cerda reads protinus ; but Heinfius, In the same sense it is used in the and after him most of the editors third Aeneid; have protenus. Dr Trapp contends for protenus, in the sense which Ser « Protinus aërias Phaeacum abscon. vius gives it, and accordingly tran 66 dimus arces.” Nates this passage,

And in the fourth; & Lo! I far hence my goats, just fainting drive."

Protinus ad regem cursus detor

quet Iarbam.” Burman also is positive in the same

And in the fifth ; interpretation.

In this diversity of opinions, our ça Protinus Aeneas celeri certare fürest way will be to consider the different fenfes in which Virgil him, “ Invitat, qui forte velint."!!

And

" fagitta

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