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ring, as the situation of the planet matter contained in the ring; at has hitherto not afforded me any least we ought to allow it a proper other. The southern one, which share in the effect, as we do not is lately come to be exposed to the deny but that the considerable equafun, will shortly be opened suffici- torial clevation of Saturn must alla ently to enable me to give also the join in it. situation of its belts, if it mould have The light of the ring of Saturn is
generally brighter than that of the From my observations it appears, planet, that the zone on the northern plane I come now to one of the most re. of the ring, is not, like the belts of markable properties in the con: Jupiter or those of Saturn, subject to ftruction of the ring, which is its variations of colour and figure; but extreme thinness. The fituation of is most probably owing to fome per. Saturn, for some months patt, has manent construction of the surface been particularly favourable for an of the ring itself. That however, investigation of this circumitance ; for instance, this black belt cannot and my experiments have been so be the shadow of a chain of moun- complete, that there can remain ng tains, may be gathered from its be- doubt on this head. ing visible all round on the ring; When we were nearly in the plane for at the ends of the anfz there of the ring, I have repeatedly seen could be no shades visible, on ac- the first, the second, and the third count of the direction of the sun's fatellites, nay even the fixth and leillumination, which would be in the venth, pass before and behind the line of the chain; and the same are ring in such a manner that they gument will hold good against sup- served as excellent micrometers to posed caverns or concavities. It is eltimate its thickness by. moreover pretty evident, that this I cannot leave this subject with. dark zone is contained between two out mentioning both iny own former concentric circles, as all the phæno- furmises, and those of several other mena answer to the projection of astronomers, of a supposed rough. such a zone.
ness in the surface of the ring, or With regard to the nature of the inequality in the planes and incliring, we may certainly affırın, that nations of its flat sides. They arose it is no less fólid and substantial than from seeing luminous parts on its the planet itself. The same reasons extent, which were supposed to be which prove to us the folidity of the projecting points, like the moon's one will be full as valid when ap- mountains; or from seeing one arm plied to the other. If we deduce the brighter or longer than another; quantity of matter, contained in the or even
from seeing one body, from the power whereby the when the other was invisible. I satellites are kept in their orbits, and was, in the beginning of this season, the time of their revolution, it must inclined to the same opinion, till be remembered, that the ring is in- one of these supposed luminous points cluded in the result. It is also in a very was kind enough to venture off the particular manner evident, that the edge of the ring, and appeared in the sing exerts a considerable force upon siape of a fatellite. Now, as I had these revolving bodies, since we find collected every inequality of this them strongly affected with many fort, it was easy enough for me af. irregularities in their motions, which terwards to calculate all such surwe cannot properly ascribe to any mises by the known periodical time other cause than the quantity of of the first, fecond, third, fixth, and
Leventh satellites; and I have al- her, detected the seventh satellite, ways found that such appearances when it was at its greatest preceding were owing to some of these satel- elongation. lites which were either before or By comparing together many obo behind the ring.
fervations of the sixth satellite, I I am, by imperceptible steps, find, that it completes a fidereal re, brought to the discovery of two volution about Saturn in one day, satellites of Saturn, which had eight hours, 53' 3''.
And if we escaped unnoticed, on account of suppose, with M. de la Lande, their little distance from the planet, that the fourth is at the mean dira and faintness; which latter is partly tance of 3' from the center of Saturn, to be ascribed to their smallnels, and and performs one revolution in 15 d. partly to being so near the light of 22 h. 34' 38", we find the distance the ring and disk of Saturn. Strong of the lixth, by Kepler's law, to be suspicions of the existence of a fixth 35",058. Its light is considerably satellite I have long entertained ; Itrong, but not equal to that of the and, if I had been more at leisure firit fatellite. two years ago, when the discovery
The most distant observations of of the two Georgian satellites took the seventh satellite, being compared me as it were off the scent, I should together, thew, that it makes one certainly have been able to announce fidereal revolution in 22 h. 40' and its existence as early as the 191h of 4.6'' : and, by the fame data which August 1787, when, at 22 h. 18' ferved to ascertain the dimension of 56'', I saw, and marked it down the orbit of the sixth, we have the as being, probably, a fixth satellite, distance of the seventh, from the which was then about 1 2 degrees pait center of Saturn, no more than its greatest preceding elongation. 27'366. It is incomparably smaller
In hopes of great success with my than the fixth ; and, even in my forty-feet fpeculum, I deferred the forty-feet reflector, appears no bigattack upon Saturn till that Mould ger than a very small lucid point. be finished; and having taken an I see it, however, also very well in early opportunity of directing it to the twenty-fcet reflector; to which Saturn, the very first moment I saw the exquitite figure of the speculum the planet, which was the 28th of not a little contributes. It must last August, I was presented with a nevertheless be remembered, that a view of fix of its satellites, in such a satellite once discovered is much situation, and so bright, as rendered easier to be seen than it was before it impossible to mistake them, or not we were acquainted with its place, to see them. The retrograde mo The revolution of this fatellite is sion of Saturn amounted to nearly not nearly so well ascertained as that four and an half minutes per day, of the former. The difficulty of which made it very easy to ascertain having a number of observations is whether the stars I took to be satel- uncommonly great; for, on account lites really were so; and, in about of the finallness of its orbit, the fatwo hours and an half, I had the tellite lies generally before and bepleasure of finding, that the planet hind the planet and its ring, or at had visibly carried them all away least so near them that, except in from their places. I continued my very fine weather, it cannot easily observațions constantly, whenever be seen well enough to take its place the weather would permit; and with accuracy:. On the other hand, the great light of the forty-feet the greatest elongations allow la fpeculum was now of so much use, much latitude for mistaking its truc shat I also, on the 17th of Septemą licuation, that it will require a con
fiderable time to divide the errors hares. This is the foundation of that muft arise from imperfect efti- the first cell. She labours incefmations.
fantly for five or fix days, till the • The orbits of these two satellites, whole be completed, when it resemas appears from many obfervations bles the figure of a thimble. Before of them, are exactly in the plane of the cell is entirely finished, the ma. the ring, or at least deviate so little fon-bee collects from the flowers, from it, that the difference cannot be and deposits in the cell, a large perceived. It is true, there is a quantity of farina, and afterwards possibility that the line of their nodes disgorges upon it as much honey as may be in, or near, the present dilutes it, and forms it into a kind of greatest elongation, in which cafe paste or fyrup. The egg is now the orbits may have some small in- inclosed on all sides in a walled habiclination ; but as I have repeatedly tation. feen them run along the very mi The honey-bee has in all ages nute anns of the ring, even then the been the subject of wonder. That deviation cannot amount to more order and subordination so conspithan perhaps one or two degrees ; cuous seem to argue a degree of in if, on the contrary, the nodes should telligence, and suggest the idea of a bé situated near the conjunction, republic, governed by fixed laws. this quantity would be so confider In the formation of their combs, able that it could not have escaped bees seem to resolve a problem which my observation.
would not be a little puzzling to 'In our next, we shall proceed some geometers ; namely, a quanwith this great astronomer's obser- tity of wax being given to make of vacions on the planet itself.
it equal and fimilar cells of a determined capacity, but of the largest fize in proportion to the quantity of matter employed, and disposed in
such a manner as to occupy in the [From Smellie's Philosophy of Natural hive the least possible space. Every History.]
part of this problem is completely THE nests of the mason-bee are executed by the bees. fixed to the walls of houses, and The cells of bees are designed for appear like irregular prominences different purposes. Some of them formed by chance. The fagacity are employed for the accumulation and skill of this infect are astonishing, and prelervation of honey; in others, She goes to a bed of fand, and fe. the female deposits her eggs, and lects, grain by grain, the kind which from these eggs worms are hatched, is best to answer her purpose. With which remain in the cells till their her teeth, which are as large and as final transformation into flies. The îtrong as those of the honey-bee, fhe drones or males are larger than the examines and brings together feve. common or working bees; and the ral grains. From her mouth the queen, or mother of the hive, is pours out a viscid liquor, with which much larger than either. A cell the moistens the firit grain pitched destined for the lodgment of a male upon. To this grain Mhe cements a or female worm must, therefore, be second, which she moistens in the considerably larger than the cells of fame manner, and to the former the smaller working bees. The two she attaches a third, and so on, number of cells destined for the retill she has formed a mass as large as ception of the working bees far ex: the shot usually employed to kill çeeds those in which the males are
lodged. The honey cells are always the ancients. Pliny mentions it made deeper and more capacious under the name of propolis, or beethan the others. When the honey glue. This glue is not like wax collected is fo abundant that the procured by an animal pracess; the vefsels cannot contain it, the bees bees collect it from different trees, as lengthen, and of course deepen the the poplars, the birches, and the honey-cells.
willows. It is a complete produes By a long and attentive observa- tion of Nature, and requires no adtion, Reauinur found that the bees dition or manufacture from the aniactually eat the farina which they fo mals by which it is employed. industriously collect; and that this Bees extract the honey by means farina, by an animal process, is con- of their proboscis or trunk, which is verted into wax. This digestive a kind of rough
cartilaginous tongue, process, which is necessary to the from the nectariferous glands of formation of
wax, is carried on in flowers. After collecting a few finall the second stomach, and perhaps in drops, the animal conveys them to the intestines of bees. When a bee its mouth and swallows them. From comes to the hive with its thighs the æsophagus, or gullet, it pafles filled with farina, it is often met near into the first stomach, which is more the entrance by some of its compa- or less swelled in proportion to the nions, who first take off the load, and quantity of honey it contains. When then devour the provisions so kindly empty, it has the appearance of a brought them. But when none of fine white thread; but when filled the bees employed in the hive are with honey, it affumes the figure of hungry for this species of food, the an oblong bladder, the membrane carriers of the farina deposit their of which is so thin and transparent, loads in cells prepared for that pur- that it allows the colour of the liquor pose. To these cells the bees re- it contains to be distinctly feen. It fort when the weather is so bad that not unfrequently happens that, when they cannot venture to go to the on its way to the hive, it is accosted fields in quest of fresh provisions. by an hungry companion, which, After the farina is digested and con- with the point of its trunk, sucks verted into wax, the bees poffefs the the honey from the other's mouth.' power of bringing it from their sto Mr. Reaumur discovered several machs to their mouths. The instru- important facts with regard to the ment they employ in furnishing ma- natural history of bees; but in some terials for constructing their waxen he was mistaken. Mr. Schirarchcells is their tongue, which is fitu. and Mr. Debraw have, by their ated below the two teeth or fangs. recent observations, thrown great
Bees, from the nature of their light upon this curious subject. constitution, require a warm habi. The drones are the males of the tation. They are likewise extremely hive. The working bees are not solicitous to prevent insects of any neuters, as was formerly supposed, kind from getting admittance into but are really females in which the their hives. To accomplish both distinction of lex is obliterated. The these purposes, when they take pof- queen-bee is the only perfect female, feffion of the hive they carefully and is the mother of her subjects. examine every part of it, and, if She deposits the eggs, which are of they discover any small holes or two kinds, in cells that are previchinks, they immediately paste them oufly prepared ; and, while these firmly up with a resinous substance, are in the gelatinous state, the which differs considerably from wax. drones inject upon them the feminal This substance was not unknown to liquor, and impregnate them. The
form and size of the cell; and the oned the Swallow, who, when friot nature of the food furnished to the by its enemy, almost always indiworms, determine the rank which cates its usefulness, by the number they are afterwards to hold. The of dead spiders with which its mouth cell in which the worm is lodged and belly abound. I may mention which is destined to fill the thrones the Tom Tit as the next injured is large and spacious. The plebeian sufferer, who in reality never de race are confined in narrow apart. Aroys the plum or cherry, but as ments, the expansion of parts is his endeavours are necessary in de prevented, and, after they have ac- stroying a worm, which inhabits and quired a certain age, they are for kiils the bud. While I am on the ever deprived of tasting the sweets of subject, let me beseech the clemency love! When bees lose their queen, of the vulgar towards that poor, they are able, however, to provide forlorn, and proferibed animal, the a successor. They enlarge a com- Hedge-Hog, condemned to persemon cell, and supply the fortunate cution, and a prize put upon its caterpillar with nutricious food, and head by every parish in the kinge foon confess obedience to their in- dom, and I believe by law, under fant fovereign. Hence a fingle an erroneous idea that it sucks and brood.comb is sufficient in a short injures cows. I have kept several, time to furnih a new hive. By and do not know a more inoffensive, this discovery we are taught an easy simple animal. By my observations, mode of multiplying without end I found them to feed on beetles, swarms or new colonies of these worms, small snails, &c. they ger useful insects. Beside the great in- in gardens, and not on milk, or crease of honey, if this discovery apples, as is generally supposed. I were sufficiently attended to, con- have placed bread, milk, checse, fiderable fums annually expended apples, flesh, raw and dressed, and in importing wax into this kingdom never found them to touch either ; from the continent might be saved. but every evening after sun-set, they The practice of this new art, says crept out (never stirring in the day. Mr. Schirarch, has already extend- time) and ran under the margins of ed itfelt through Upper Lusatia, my borders where any edibles grew, the Palatinate, Bohemia, Bavaria, and there took their food. In the Silesia, and Poland.' In some of fall of the year, when that nourishthese countries it has excited and ment ceased, they crept aniongit old acquired the attention of govern- mats, that were under cover, rags,
The emprefs of Kuliia has Itraw, or any thing that would make sent a proper person to Klein Baut- a nest, and there lay until fummer zen to be initructed in the general produced their natural food ; like principles of this new and important the tortoise, but not torpid, never art.
once stirring from their nest. Now,
was inilk their food, it could be THE HEDGE-HOG INNOXIOUS.
found in winter as well as summer.
On the whole, I am certain that [In a Letter to the Editor.]
they are useful, instead of noxious. THERE are many
animals When I felt in their neft, they were marked, by vulgar prejudice, for warın, and free from filth of any instant destruction ; because they fort, as not having any evacuations, are, in themselves, considered as like other beings that lived, or what unfit to rank as delicacies for the only the sun brought forth, such as table. Among these may be reck- swallows, swifts, bats, tortoises, &c.