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HEADS,

gold, and this is never either refused of the beasts and entitled to the or delayed. All the different spe- premium. cies of game, however, are not Many nations of perfect blacks equally rated. He that slays a inhabit the low country, which is Galla, or Shangalla, man to inan, called Kolla; they are all Pagans, is entitled to two rings ; he that and mortal enemies to the Abyssiniani flays an elephant, to two; a rhino- government. Hunting these misers ceros, two; a giraffa, on account of able wretches is the next expedition its speed, and to enco

courage horse- undertaken by a new king. The manship, two; a buffalo, two; a lion, season of this is just before the rains, two; a leopard, one ; two boars, while the poor lavage is yet lodged whose tusks are grown, one ; and under the trees preparing his food one for every four of the deer kind. for the approaching winter, before

Great disputes constantly arise he retires into his caves in the mounabout the killing of these beasts; to tain, where he paffes that inclement determine which, and prevent feuds season in constant confinement, but and quarrels, a council fits every as constant security ; for these na. evening, in which is an officer call. tions are all Troglodytes, and by the ed Dimíhafha, or Red Cap, from a Abyssinians are called Shangalla. piece of red filk he wears upon his forehead, leaving the top of his CURIOUS FORM GIVEN BY CERTAIN head bare, for no person is allowed

PEOPLE TO THEIR CHILDREN'S to cover his head entirely except the king, the twelve judges, and digni- HIPPOCRATES speaks of a fied priests. This officer regulates very ancient people, who inhabited the precedence of one nobleman over the borders of the Black Sea, whom another, and is possessed of the hif- he calls Macrocephates, or Long tory of all pedigrees, the nobleft of Heads. These people had the which are always accounted those strange practice of preffing the head nearest to the king reigning. out in length of their new-born chil

Every man pleads his own cause dren; and this method, repeated before the council, and receives im- from generation to generation, at mediate sentence. It is a settled length rendered this conformation of rule, that those who strike the animal the head hereditary, and seemingly first, if the lance remain upright, or natural. in the same direction in which it en- The greater part of the ifanders ters the beast, are understood to be in the Archipelago, fome of the the flayers of the beast, whatever people of Asia, and even some of number combat with him after. ihofe of Europe, still press their wards. There is one exception, children's heads out lengthwise. We however, that if the beast, after re- may observe also that the Epirots, ceiving the first wound, though the and many people of America, are lance is in him, fhould lay hold of a all born with some fingularity in the horse or man, fo that it is evident conformation of their heads; either he would prevail against them; a a flatness on the top, two extraorbuffalo, for example, that should toss dinary protuberances behind, or one a man with his horns, or an elephant of each side ; fingularities which that should take a horse with his we can only regard as an effect of an trunk, the man who shall then flay ancient and strange mode, which is the beast, and prevent or revenge become at length hereditary in the the death of the man or horse at. nation. According to the report of tacked, shall be accounted the flayer many travellers, the operation of

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compressing the head of a child expressly prohibits it. But if it
lengthwise, while foft, is with a has been repressed one way, the free
view to enlarge insensibly the in- negrocs and Maroons, although
terval between the two eyes, so that Africans, have adopted it, fince
the visual rays turning more to the they have been established among
right and left, the sight would em. the Caribs, solely with the view of
bráce a much larger portion of the distinguishing their children, which
horizon ; the advantage of which are born free, from those who are
they are well acquainted with, either born in slavery.
in the constant exercise of hunting, The Omaquas, a people of South
or on a thousand other occasions. America, according to P. Veigh,
Since the fixteenth century, the press the heads of their children fo
miffionaries establified in the coun- violently between two planks, that
tries inhabited by the favages of they become quite Marp at the top,
America, have endeavoured to de- and flat before and behind. They
stroy this custom; and we find, in very wisely say they do this to give
the fefsions of the third council of the head a greater resemblance to
Lima, held in 1585, a canon which the moon!

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PHILOSOPHICAL AND NATURAL HISTORY,

OF

ITH

HERSCHEL'S ACCOUNT THE arduous undertaking of constructing

DISCOVERY OF А SIXTH · AND this instrument.
SEVENTH SATELLITE OF THE

The planet Saturn is, perhaps,
PLANET SATURN, &c.

one of the most engaging objects [From Philosophical Transactions, Vol.

that aitronomy offers to our view. LXXX. Part 1. just published.]

As such it drew my attention so early. T may appear remarkable, that as the year 1974; when, on the

these fatellites should have re- 17th of March, with a five feet and mained so long unknown to us, an half reflector, I saw its ring re. when, for a century and an half duced to a very minute line. On past, the planet to which they be the 3d of April, in the same year, I long has been the object of almost found the planet as it were stripped every astronomer's curiosity, on ac- of its noble ornament, and drelled count of the fingular phænomena of in the plain fimplicity of Mars. I its ring. But it will be seen pre- pass over the following year, in

sently, from the uation and size of which, with a feven feet reflector, I
the fatellites, that we could hardly saw the ring gradually open.
expect to discover them till a tele- It should be noticed, that the
scope of the dimensions and aperture black disk, or belt, upon the ring of
of my forty-feet reflector should be Saturn is not in the middle of its
constructed ; and I need not observe breadth ; nor is the ring subdivided
how much we members of this fo. by many such lines, as has been re-
ciety must feel ourselves obliged to presented in digers treatises of aftro.
our royal patron, for his encourage- nomy; but that there is one single,
ment of the sciences, when we per- dark, considerably broad line, belt,
ceive that the discovery of these fa- or zone, upon the ring, which I
tellites is entirely owing to the have always permanently found in
liberal support whereby our most the place where my figure represents
benevolent king has enabled his it. 'I give this, however, only as a
humble aftronomer to complete the view of the northern plane of the

ring,

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anv.

ring, as the situation of the planet matter contained in the ring; at has hitherto not afforded me any lealt we ought to allow it a proper other. The southern one, which share in the effect, as we do not is lately come to be exposed to the deny but that the considerable equafun, will shortly be opened fuffici- torial clevation of Saturn must allo ently to enable me to give allo the join in it. situation of its belts, if it Mould have The light of the ring of Saturn is

generally brighter than that of the From my observations it appears, planet, that the zone on the northern plane I come now to one of the most re. of the ring, is not, like the belts of markable properties in the con: Jupiter or those of Saturn, subject to ftruction of the ring, which is its variations of colour and figure ; but extreme thinness. The fituation of is most probably owing to fome per. Saturn, for some months palt, has manent construction of the surface been particularly favourable for an of the ring itself. That however, investigation of this circumitance ; for instance, this black belt cannot and my experiments have been lo be the shadow of a chain of moun- complete, that there can remain ng tains, may be gathered from its be- doubt on this head. ing visible all round on the ring ; When we were nearly in the plane for at the ends of the ansz there of the ring, I have repeatedly seen could be no shades visible, on ac- the first, the second, and the third count of the direction of the sun's satellites, nay even the fixth and reillumination, which would be in the venth, pass before and behind the line of the chain ; and the fame ar. ring in such a manner that they gument will hold good against sup- served as excellent micrometers to posed caverns or concavities. It is estimate its thickness by. moreover pretty evident, that this I cannot leave this subject withdark zone is contained between two out mentioning both my own former concentric circles, as all the phæno- furmises, and those of several other mena answer to the projection of astronomers, of a supposed rough. such a zone.

ness in the surface of the ring, or With regard to the nature of the inequality in the planes and incliring, we may certainly affirm, that nations of its flat fides. They arose it is no less fólid and substantial than from seeing luminous parts on its the planet itself. The same reasons extent, which were supposed to be which prove to us the folidity of the projecting points, like the moon's one will be full as valid when ap- mountains; or from seeing one arm plied to the other. If we deduce the brighter or longer than another ; quantity of matter, contained in the or even from seeing one body, from the power whereby the when the other was invisible. I satellites are kept in their orbits, and was, in the beginning of this season, the time of their revolution, it must inclined to the same opinion, till be remembered, that the ring is in- one of these supposed luminous points cluded in the result. It is also in a very was kind enough to venture off the particular manner evident, that the edge of the ring, and appeared in the ring exerts a confiderable force upon shape of a fatellite.' Now, as I had thele revolving bodies, since we find collected every inequality of this them strongly affected with many fort, it was easy enough for me af. irregularities in their motions, which terwards to calculate all such lurwe cannot properly ascribe to any mises by the known periodical time other cause than the quantity of of the first, fecond, third, fixth, and

feventh

arm

Leventh satellites; and I have al- her, detected the seventh satellite, ways found that such appearances when it was at its greatest preceding were owing to some of these fatelo elongation. lites which were either before or By comparing together many obbehind the ring.

servations of the sixth satellite, I I am, by imperceptible steps, find, that it completes a fidereal re, brought to the discovery of two volution about Saturn in one day, satellites of Saturn, which had eight hours, 53' 3''. And if we escaped unnoticed, on account of suppose, with M. de la Lande, their litěle distance from the planet, that the fourth is at the mean dir and faintness; which latter is partly tance of 3' from thecenter of Saturn, to be ascribed to their smallness, and and performs one revolution in 15 d. partly to being so near the light of 22 h. 34' 38'', we find the distance the ring and disk of Saturn. Strong of the tixth, by Kepler's law, to be suspicions of the existence of a fixth 35",058. Its light is considerably fatellite I have long entertained į Itrong, but not equal to that of the and, if I had been inore at leisure first fatellite. two years ago, when the discovery The most distant observations of of the two Georgian satellites took the seventh satellite, being compared me as it were off the scent, I should together, thew, that it makes one certainly have been able to announce fidereal revolution in 22 h. 40' and its existence as early as the 19th of 46''; and, by the fame data which August 178.7, when, at 22 h. 18' ferved to ascertain the dimension of 5611, I saw, and marked it down the orbit of the fixth, we have the as being, probably, a fixth satellite, distance of the seventh, from the which was then about 1 2 degrees palt center of Saturn, no more than its greatest preceding elongation. 271366. It is incomparably smaller

In hopes of great success with my than the sixth ; and, even in my forty-feet speculum, I deferred the forty-feet reflector, appears no bigattack upon Saturn till that should ger than a very small lucid point. be finished; and having taken an I see it, however, also very well in early opportunity of directing it to the twenty-feet reflector ; to which

Saturn, the very first moment I saw the exquilite figure of the fpeculum I the planet, which was the 28th of not a little contributes. It must

last August, I was presented with a nevertheless be remembered, that a view of fix of its fatellites, in such a satellite once discovered is much fituation, and so bright, as rendered easier to be seen than it was before it impossible to mistake them, or not we were acquainted with its place, to see them. The retrograde mo- The revolution of this satellite is sion of Saturn amounted to nearly not nearly so well ascertained as that four and an half minutes per day, of the former. The difficulty of ụhich made it very easy to ascertain having a number of observations is whether the stars I took to be satel. uncommonly great; for, on account liteş really were so; and, in about of the finallness of its orbit, the fatwo hours and an half, I had the tellite lies generally before and bepleasure of finding, that the planet hind the planet and its ring, or at had visibly carried them all away least so near them that, except in from their places. I continued my very fine weather, it cannot easily observations constantly, whenever be seen well enough to take its place the weather would permit; and with accuracy, On the other hand, the great light of the forty-feet the greatest elongations allow sa fpeculum was now of so much use, much latitude for mistaking its true shat I also, on the i7th of Septem• ficuation, that it will require a con

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fiderable time to divide the errors hares. This is the foundation of that must arise from imperfect esti- the first cell. She labours incefmations.

fantly for five or fix days, till the • The orbits of these two fatellites, whole be completed, when it resemas appears from many observations bles the figure of a thimble. Before of them, are exactly in the plane of the cell is entirely finished, the ma. the ring, or at least deviate so little son-bee collects from the flowers, from it, that the difference cannot be and depofits in the cell, a large perceived. It is true, there is a quantity of farina, and afterwards poffibility that the line of their nodes disgorges upon it as much honey as may be in, or near, the present dilutes it, and forms it into a kind of greatest elongation, in which cafe paste or syrup.. The egg is now the orbits may have some small in- inclosed on all sides in a walled habi. clination ; but as I have repeatedly tation. feen them run along the very mi- The honey-bee has in all ages nute arms of the ring, even then the been the subject of wonder. That deviation cannot aniount to more order and subordination fo confpithan perhaps one or two degrees ; cuous seem to argue a degree of in. if, on the contrary, the nodes ihould telligence, and suggest the idea of a be fituated near the conjunction, republic, governed by fixed laws. this quantity would be so consider- In the formation of their combs, able that it could not have escaped bees seem to resolve a problem which my observation,

would not be a little puzzling to In our next, we shall proceed fome geometers ; namely, a quanwith this great astronomer's obser- tity of wax being given to make of vations on the planet itself. it equal and fimilar cells of a deter

mined capacity, but of the largest fize in proportion to the quantity of matter employed, and disposed in

such a manner as to occupy in the [From Smellie's Philosophy of Natural hive the least possible space. Every Hiftory.]

part of this problem is completely THE nests of the mason-bec are executed by the bees. fixed to the walls of houses, and The cells of bees are designed for appear like irregular prominences different purposes. Some of them formed by chance. The fagacity are employed for the accumulation and skill of this infect are astonishing, and prelervation of honey; in others, She goes to a bed of fand, and fe- the female deposits her eggs, and lects, grain by grain, the kind which from these eggs worms are hatched, is best to answer her purpose. With which remain in the cells till their her teeth, which are as large and as final transformation into flies. The Itrong as those of the honey-bee, the drones or males are larger than the examines and brings together seve, common or working bees; and the ral grains. From her mouth she queen, or mother of the hive, is pours out a viscid liquor, with which much larger than either. A cell the moistens the firit grain pitched destined for the lodgment of a male upon. To this grain the cements a or female worm must, therefore, be second, which she moistens in the considerably larger than the cells af fame manner, and to the former the smaller working bees. The two she attaches a third, and so on, number of cells destined for the retill she has formed a mass as large as ception of the working bees far ex: the shot usually employed to kill ceeds those in which the males are

lodgode

OF

INTERESTING PARTICULARS

THE BEE.

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