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A View of the Arts and Sciences, from the earliest Times to the Age of Alexander the Great. By the Rev. James Bannifter. 8v0. 35. Bell.
R. Bannifter is, we find, the tranflator of the Select Tragedies of Euripides,' which we reviewed in our fiftieth volume, page 161 and he refers to the introduction to that translation, for his View' of Poetry. The arts and sciences here confidered are, Architecture, Aftronomy, Language, Heathen Mythology, Moral Philofophy, and Natural Philofophy. Indeed to review thefe fubjects, during the period to which our author has confined his refearches, with precifion, would require an ample volume. It will appear probable, therefore, from the fize of that before us, that he has fkimmed over the furface, rather than plunged into the deep; and, contented with the little generally known, has not been eager to purfue his refearches. The fufpicion will be confirmed by an examination; for, though at times, particularly on the fubject of hieroglyphics, and the Eleufinian myfteries, he starts
with brave diforder' from the beaten tract, we foon perceive whom he follows, and perceive that he follows with unequal fteps. Dr. Warburton's opinion on thefe fubjects has been often examined; and we are not now either to blame or praise, what the world has already decided on. To the celebrated Cudworth too he is deeply indebted. In other refpects, Mr. Bannifler may appear to have avoided error, because he thinks with the majority; but the learning of our younger days is encumbered with more fable than we have hitherto fufpected and it is now time to examine, inftead of repeating without attention, or relating the ten-times told story without variety. Our author is claffically right, and very often, we fear, effentially wrong: he creeps in one even tenor; and, though we cannot frequently blame, we are inclined to fleep. The following is a copy, but it is quaint and affected; and the author's judgment, if exerted, fhould have ded him to have defpifed it."
The Ionic pillar (invented by the Ionians of Afia-Minor fome time afterwards) represents a virgin in the bloom of youth -its proportions are more delicate, its capital is more ornamented than the Doric, and its height is equal to eight diameters. The characteristics of this order are, chastity, neatnefs, and elegance, and from the inventors it received its name.'
Again, when Mr. Bannister talks of geometry and arithmetic contributing to the comfort and ornament of life,' he peaks from books, without examination of the real influence of $ 4
thefe fcierces on the practical arts which contribute to either. As to ornaments,' we know not whether he means to allude to the regularity with which the rays are refracted and reflect. ed in the diamond; but we fufpect that the lapidary feldom ftudies this fcience, or the lady who adorns herself with jewels, knows a prifm from a parallelopiped.
We fhall felect one quotation, because it seems to contain fome original opinions; perhaps it may appear more clear to the reader than, we confefs, it does to us.
They are likewife (viz. the Greeks,) juftly chargeable with making the peace and happiness of fociety the ultimate end of all their philofophy; and we fee them often sacrifice morality to politics, truth ta utility. That truth is infeparably connected with real utility, and morality with found politics, cannot be denied; but to a being of fuch limited faculties as man, whofe knowledge, even in what relates to his own happiness, is imperfect and fuperficial, cafes must frequently occur, in which his duty and apparent intereft must be at variance, if from an enlarged way of thinking, and a native elevation of mind, he is led to facrifice private considerations to the good of the fociety to which he belongs,-Yet when the mistaken intereft of his country calls upon him to violate any of the moral duties, I fee no principle to reftrain him, as his views are bounded by what he fuppofes to be the general good. This will account for the lawless ambition, the injuftice, and even the cruelty of fome of the greatest names in antiquity, who have been at the fame time defervedly admired for ther humility, moderation, juftice, and benevolence. They 'were fenfible whilst acting like private men and citizens, that a ftrict regard to morals was abfolutely neceffary for the exiftence and well-being of fociety: but when dazzled by the fplendour of conqueft, or bewildered in the dark and intricate mazes of policy, as they loft fight of the utility of virtue, fo they too often difregarded her dictates. It is remarkable that the ancient philofophers, even whilst they taught the most fublime truths, fo far from expreffing any averfion to the fuperftition and idolatry of the national religion, encouraged, both by precept and example, an external conformity to its most abfurd ceremonics."
We ought not to deny the author his proper praife. His observations are frequently just, and a with` to make us wifer and happier is often confpicuous; in morality and religion, we perceive no failing. His language is generally exact and perfpicuous; it is always neat, and fometimes elegant.
A Treatise on the Mineral Waters of Balaruc, in the South of France. By M. Pouzaire, M. D. With an English Tranflation. By B. Pugh, M. D. 8vo. 35. Goldimith. WE E were fomewhat furprifed at the Approbation' annexed to this treatise, especially as it is not uncommon for the examiner to pay a flight compliment even to indifferent performances. Monfieur Lamure, on the contrary, tells us, that he has found nothing in it but what led to the end which the author proposed to himself;' and, as we are not in his confidence in what he propofed, we must truly add, that we can find nothing at all in it. As a chemical work, it is extremely trifling, and, as a medical one, very erroneous. It might be expected that a phyfician, within twenty miles of the fountain, would have ascertained the contents of the water by analyfis; or that a Doctor of Phyfic of the Faculty of Montpelier' would, at leaft, have been informed what other chemifts had done. On the contrary, he profeflèsto enquire into the contents of the water by its effects; but we at last find, that its properties are decided by an analyfis of the author's own imagination. Dr. Pouzaire has not mentioned the opinion of Du Clos, but feems to have followed him in thinking the faline contents of the water to be fea falt. He feems not to have examined the analyfis of Mefirs. Regis and Dedier, or that of Monfieur Vieffens, who have, at least, shown that we ought not to fuppofe the question clear and decided; for there are many reafons to think that the neutral is of a very different kind. These examinations he feems to overlook; but evaporates the water, and tells us that it contains earth and falts; that the earth is felenite, and the falt marine; without any experiment on the nature of the refiduum. Powder of galls, he obferves, makes no change in it, and, contrary to Meffrs. Regis and Dedier, he afferts, that its fulphureoùs fmell is fenfible only after it has been confined; but very wifely adds, that it may contain iron and fulphur, though there is no indication of their exiftence, except in the fediment, which feems fulphureous. After this judicious conclufion, he determines that, as they contain mineral tonics, diuretics, aperitives, and diaphoretics," they ought to partake of all their virtues united. This is a miracle exceeding Lord Peter's, fince almost every medical excellence is contained in felenite, and a neutral refembling fea falt; for there is not the flightest evidence of any other impregnation, we mean from the account of our author. Perhaps the reader is already fatisfied with the learned labours of Dr. Pouzaire, and is not very willing to purfue him in the rest of his fancies.
The difeafes to be cured by fea falt and felenite are all palfies, except thofe which come on gradually, difeafes of the stomach, bowels, and urinary organs, and obilructions in the chylopoetic vifcera; rheumatic pains, catarrhal flu&tions,' and external complaints. We are surprised that we do not meet with that difeafe, which would be most probably relieved by falt water, and for which many French authors recommend that of Balaruc, viz. fcrophula.
We cannot fpeak very highly of the tranflation; there are, particularly in the chemical part, many errors. Dr. Pouzaire tells us, that the Balaruc waters were firft ufed by Monf. de Chaume, pour une affection grave & confiderable, qu'il avoit a une cuiffe, que l'auteur citè ne specifie pas,' &c. the tranflator, that they were first used for a pain which the author does not fpecify. Perhaps it was not very easy to specify a pain, though it would have been easy to be more particular about a disease. A chemist alfo, converfant with the French language, would have tranflated'eaux thermales' by the words warm waters,' inftead of thermale waters.' After the evaporation, an oily liquor, called eau mere,' remained; this our tranflator has called 'fea water,' instead of mother water. Did he never read in Zuingerus, and in Hoffman, of matrix nitrata? or, in the English chemists, of mother lye, mother of nitre, &c, ? This term is applied to a lixivium, from which no falt can be procured by crystalli zation. Again, the author fays, Si nous employons vis a vis de la même eau minerale la voie de melanges ou reactifs,' &c. This the tranflator renders, On the contrary, if we employ the faid mineral water by way of mixture or reactive.' This might lead one to fufpe&t that he would examine any other mixture by means of thefe waters, and use them as a teft in the experiment. The meaning fimply is, it wể would examine this water by means of mixtures or reagents." But we shall not enlarge on this difagreeable part of our duty, though the faults are numerous.
When Dr. Pugh fpeaks from his own knowlege, he is more fatisfactory; and we fhall extract a rational account of the virtues of the waters, and a defcription of Balaruc. The internal effects are certainly to be confined to their cathartic power, and, cxternally, they are only equal to warm water of the fame denfity.
These waters are conveyed in large quantities to the cities of Paris, Vienna, Berlin, Lyons, and other great cities in Europe they are the finest purge in nature, and retain their purgative quality a long time; I think they may be drank in England with advantage, in jaundices; concretions in the
gall-bladder, and its ducts; gravel in the kidneys and urefers, with the affiftance of tepid bathings; depraved stomachs from hard drinking, and in many other cafes: in fpring-time and autumn, where purging may be thought neceffary, they have no equal. I think it is well worth trying the experiment whether the warm mineral waters of this country (at Bath, in Somersetshire) applied externally in the fame manner as at Balaruc, viz. bathing, douching, &c. and drinking the waters of Balaruc, at the fame time and in the fame manner they are drank at Balaruc, would not produce fimilar effects, efpecially in all paralytic cafes.
The village of Balaruc is fituated upon a peninsula, in the great lake of fea water called Tau, which is faid to be thirty miles long by about ten over, is fupplied by the Mediterranean sea; and near the upper end of this lake ftands the city of Beziers, where the famous royal canal of Languedoc begins; this village is a pleasant refidence in the Spring and autumn feafons, as the walks and rides about it are most delightful, and the little hill by the fide of it, called Pioch d'Aix, which is covered over with lavender, thyme, and other aromatie herbs, fhrubs, and flowers, commands a profpect of the whole lake, with the adjoining cities, towns, and villages, which afford the moft pleafing profpect imaginable; the lake abounds with excellent fish, as turbets, foals, the red mullet, &c. &c. and the country with excellent mutton, veal, fowls, and delicious fruits, grapes in particular, the finest and greatest variety in all France. Only three miles across the corner of the lake is the beautiful town and port of Cette, where much trade is carried on, particularly in wines and brandies, which are faid to be the best in France, and where a moft worthy English gentleman, a Mr. Burnet, has refided many years as a merchant and banker, by which he has acquired a handfome fortune, in whom the English are fure to find a friend and polite acquaintance.'
The heat of the Balaruc waters, which are here measured only by Reaumur's thermometer, are from 116° to 122° of Farenheit.
A Manual of Materia Medica. By James Aikin, M. D. 12mo, 2s. 6d. fived. Johnícn.
7HEN we lately wifhed for a Compendium of the Ma teria Medica, it was in order to include the very numerous facts, which were fo widely diffufed, not without fome little difcrimination of the value of each. In the mapual before us, we are at fome lofs to know by what plan the