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1 View of the Arts and Sciences, from the earliest T'imes to the
Age of Alexander the Great. . By the Rev. James Bannister.
R. Bannister is, we find, the translator of the Select
Tragedies of Euripides,' which we reviewed in our fiftieth volume, page 161 : and he refers to the introduction to that translation, for his.. View' of Poetry. The arts and sciences here confidered are, Architecture, Aftronomy, Language, Heathen Mythology, Müral Philosophy, and Natural Philo. fophy. Indeed to review these subjects, during the period to which our author has confined his researches, with precision, would require an ample volume. It will appear probable, therefore, from the size of that before us, that he has simmed over the surface, rather than plunged into the deep; and, contented with the little generally known, has not been eager to pursue his researches. The fufpicion will be confirmed by an examination ; for, though at times, particularly on the subject of hieroglyphics, and the Eleusinian mysteries, he starts ' with brave disorder' from the beaten tract, we foon perceive whom he follows, and perceive that he follows with unequal steps. Dr. Warburton's opinion on these subjects has been often examined; and we are not now either to blame or praise, what the world has already decided on. To the celebrated Cudworth too he is deeply indebted. In other respects, Mr. Bannister may appear to have avoided error, because he thinks with the majority, but the learning of our younger days is encumbered with more fable than we have hitherto suspected; and it is now time to examine, instead of repeating without attention, or relating the ten-times told story without variety. Our author is classically right, and very often, we fear, essentially wrong: he creeps in one even tenor; and, though we cannot frequently blame, we are inclined to sleep. The following is a copy, but it is quaint and affected; and the author's judgment, if exerted, should have led him to have despised it.
• The Ionic pillar (invented by the Ionians of Asia-Minor Some time afterwards) represents a virgin in the bloom of youth its proportions are more delicate, its capital is more ornamented than the Doric, and its height is equal to eight diameters. The charasteristics of this order are, chastity, neatness, and elegance, and from the inventors it received its name.'
Again, when Mr. Bannister talks of geometry and arithmetic contributing to the comfort and ornament of life,' he Speaks from books, without examination of the real influence of
these scier.ces on the practical arts which contribute to either. As to ornaments,' we know not whether he means to alluda to the regularity with which the rays are refracted and reflect. ed in the diamond; but we suspect that the lapidary feldom studies this sçionce, or the lady who adorns herself with jewels, knows a prism from a parallelopiped.
We shall select one quotation, because it seems to contain fome original opinions ; perhaps it may appear more clear to the reader than, we confess, it does to us,
• They are likewise (viz. the Greeks,) jully chargeable with making the peace and happiness of society the ultimate end of all their philosophy; and we see them often facrifice morality to politics, truth ta utility. That truth is insepara, bly connected with real utility, and morality with found politics, cannot be denied; but to a being of such limited faculties 'as man, whose knowledge, even in what relates to his cu happiness, is imperfect and luperficial, cafes must frequently occur, in which his duty and apparent interest must be ac vasiance, if from an enlarged way of thinking, and a native elevation of mind, he is led to sacrifice private confiderations to the good of the society to which he belongs - Yet when the mistaken intereit of his country calls upon him to violate any of the moral duties, I see no principle to restrain him, as his views are bounded by what he supposes to be the general good. This will account for the lawless ambition, the injuftice, and even the cruelty of some of the greatest names in antiquity, who have been at the same time deservedly admired for ther humility, moderation, justice, and benevolence. They were fenfible whilit acting like private men and citizens, that a strict regard to morals was ablolutely necessary for the exiftfence and well-being of society : but when dazzled by the fplendour of conqueft, cr bewildered in the dark and intricate mazes of policy, as they loft fight of the utility of virtue, la they too often disregarded her dictates. It is remarkable that the ancient philosophers, even whilst they taught the most sublime truths, fo far from expresting any averfion to the fuperftition and idolatry of the national religion, encouraged, both by precept and example, an external conformity to its most absurd ceremonies.'
We ougit not to deny the aathor his proper praise. His observations are frequently just, and a wish to make us wiser and happier js often conspicuous; in morality and religion, we perceive no failing. His language is generally exact and perspicuous; it is always neat, and sometimes elegante
A Treatise on the Mineral waters of Balaruc, in the South of
France. By M. Pouzaire, M. D. With an English Translu. tion. By B. Pugh, M. D. 8vo. 35. Goldimith.
E were somewhat furprised at the • Approbation' an
nexed to this treatise, especially as it is not uncommon for the examiner to pay a slight compliment even to indifferent performances. Monfieur Lamure, on the contrary, tells us, that he has found nothing in it' but what led to the end which the author proposed to bimjelf ;' and, as we are not in his confidence in what he proposed, we must truly add, that we can find nothing at all in it. As a chemical work, it is extremely trifling, and, as a medical one, very erroneous. It might be expected that a physician, within twenty miles of the fountain, would have ascertained the contents of the water by analysis; of that a • Doctor of Physic of the faculty of Montpelier would, at least, have been informed what other chemists had done. On the contrary, he profetics to enquire into the contents of the water by its effects; but we at last find, that its properties are decided by an analysis of the author's own imagination. Dr. Pouzaire has not mentioned the opinion of Du Closy but seems to have followed him in thinking the saline contents of the water to be sea falt. He seems not to have examined the analysis of Messrs. Regis and Dedier, or that of Monsieur Viessens, who have, at least, hown that we ought not to suppose the question clear and decided ; for there are many reasons to think that the neutral is of a very different kind. These examinations he seems to overlook ; but evaporates the water, and tells us that it contains earth and salts; that the earth is felenite, and the salt marine ; without any experiment on the nature of the residuum. Powder of galls, he observes, makes no change in it, and, contrary to Messrs. Regis and Dedier, he asserts, that its fulphureous smell is fenfible only after it has been confined ; but very wisely adds, that it may contain iron and sulphur, though there is no indication of their existence, except in the sediment, which seems fulphureous. After thiş judicious conclusion, he determines that, as they contain mineral tonics, diuretics, aperitives, and diaphoreties, they ought to partake of all their virtues united. This is a miracle exceeding Lord Peter's, since almost every medical excellence is contained in selenite, and a neutral resembling fea falt; for there is not the flighteit evidence of any other impregnation, we mean from the account of our author. Perhaps the reader is already fatisfied with the learned labours of Dr. Pouzaire, and is not very willing to pursue him in the rest of his fancies.
The The diseases to be cured by sea falt and selenite are all palsies, except those which come on gradually, diseases of the stomach, bowels, and urinary organs, and cbilructions in the chylopoetic vifcera; rheumatic pains, catarrhal flucions,' and external complaints. We are surprised that we do not meet with that disease, which would be most probably relieved by falt water, and for which many French authors recommend that of Balaruc, viz. fcrophula.
We cannot speak very highly of the translation ; there are, particularly in the chemical part, many errors. Dr. Pouzaire tells us, that the Balaruc waters were first used by Monf. de Chaume, 'pour une afection grave & considerable, qu'il avoit a une cuisse, que l'auteur citè ne specifie pas,' &c. the translator, that " they were first used for a pain which the author does not specify.? Perhaps it was not very easy to specify a pain, though it would have been easy to be more particular about a disease. A chemist also, conversant with the French language, would have translated ' eaux thermales? by the words · warm waters,' instead of thermale waters.'
After the evaporation, an oily liquor, called ! eau mere,' remained ; this our translator has called 'Jea water,' instead of mother water. Did he never read in Zuingerus, and in Hoffman, of matrix nitrata ? or, in the Engliih chemists, of mother lye, mother of nitre, &c. ? This term is applied to a lixivium, from which no falt can be procured by cryftallization. Again, the author says, “Si nous employons vis a vis de la même eau minerale la voie de melanges ou reactifs,' &c. This the translator renders, « On the contrary, if we employ the said inimeral water by way of mixture or rea&tive.' „This migặt lead one to suspeat that he would examine any other mixture by means of these waters, and use them as a teft in the experiment. The meaning fimply is, is wé would examine this water by means of mixtures or reagents." But we shall not enlarge on this disagreeable part of our duty, though the faults are numerous.
When Dr. Pugh speaks from his own knowlege, he is more satisfactory; and we fall extract a rational account of the virtues of the waters, and a description of Balaruc. The internal effects are certainly to be confined to their cathartig power, and, cxternally, they are only equal to warm water of the fame density.
• These waters are conveyed in large quantities to the cities of Paris, Vienna, Berlin, Lyons, and other great cities in Europe : they are the finest purge in nature, and retain their purgative quality a long time; I think they may be drank iş England with advantage, in jaundices ; concretions in the
gall-bladder, and its cues; gravel in the kidneys and urehers, with the assistance of tepid bathings; depraved ftomachs from hard drinking, and in many other cases : in spring-time and autumn, where purging may be thought necessary, they have no equal. I think it is well worth trying the experiment whether the warm mineral waters of this country (at Bath, in Somersethire) applied externally in the same manner as at Balaruc, viz. bathing, douching, &c. and drinking the waters of Balaruc, at the same time and in the same manner they are drank at Balaruc, would not produce fimilar effects, especially in all paralytic cafes.
The village of Balaruc is situated upon a peninsula, in the great lake of sea water called Tau, which is said to be thirty miles long by about ten over, is supplied by the Mediterranean sea ; and near the upper end of this lake stands the city of Beziers, where the famous royal canal of Languedoc begins ; this village is a pleasant residence in the spring and autumn seasons, as the walks and rides about it are most delightful, and the little hill by the side of it, called Pioch d'Aix, which is covered over with lavender, thyme, and other aromatie herbs, shrubs, and fiowers, commands a prospect of the whole lake, with the adjoining cities, towns, and villages, which afford the most pleasing prospect imaginable ; the lake abounds with excellent fith, as turbets, foals, the red mullet, &c. &c. and the country with excellent mutton, veal, fowls, and delicious fruits, grapes in particular, the finest and greatest variety in all France. Only three miles across the corner of the lake is the beautiful town and port of Cette, where much trade is carried on, particularly in wines and brandies, which are said to be the belt in France, and where a moit worthy English gentleman, Mr. Burnet, has resided many years as a merchant and banker, by which he has acquired a handsome fortune, in whom the English are sure to find a friend and polite acquaintance.'
The heat of the Balaruc waters, which are here measured only by Reaumur's thermometer, are from 116° to 122° of Farenheit.
A Manual of Materia Medica. By James Aikin, M. D. 12mo,
25. 6d. fiwed. Johní n. WHE 7 HEN we lately wished for a Compendium of the Mi.
teria Medica, it was in order to include the very numerous. facts, which were so widely diffused, not without some little discrimination of the value of each.
In the mapyal before us, we are at some loss to know by what plan the