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The umbre, the pratincole, and the fheath-bill, are new The firft is found on the coaft of Africa, and was genera. unknown to Linnæus; but is fcarcely diftinguishable for any remarkable properties. The pratincole is taken from the paffere. It is the hirundo pratincola of Linnæus, and partakes of the nature of the aquatic walking fowl. In general we think it better not to deftroy genera, the most natural affociation for any mode of claffification; but this instance is so ftriking, where the fpecies differs effentially in manners from its companions, that we dare not accufe our refpe&table author of temerity. The account of the fheath-bill we fhall felect, from its novelty; the umbre has been already described by Buffon and Brown; but this bird has not yet shared the attention of any ornithologist.
• White Sheath-bill.
Bill ftrong, thick, a little convex; the top of the upper mandible covered with a corneous fheath.
Noftrils fmall, juft appearing beyond the sheath.
Tongue round above, flat beneath, and pointed at the end.
Legs ftout, gallinaceous, bare a little way above the knee; toes edged with a thick membrane, the middle one connected to the outer as far as the first joint; claws channelled beneath.' Size of a large pigeon: length from fifteen to eighteen. inches, Bill black at the bafe; over the noftrils a horny appendage, which covers them, except just on the fore part; and defcends fo low on each fide, as to hang over part of the under mandible; this is movable, and may be raised upwards, or depreffed fo as to lay flat on the bill: round the bafe, between that and the eyes, and round them, the parts are bare, and covered only with warty excrefcences, of a white, or pale orange-colour; over the eye a brown or blackish one, larger than the reft: irides dull lead-colour; the plumage is all over as white as fnow at the bend of the wing is a blunt blackish knob the legs are bare a little way above the knees, and are two inches long, ftout, and of a reddish colour: claws black. In young birds the tubercles round the eyes are very small, or wholly wanting.
• These inhabit New Zealand, and feveral other parts explored by our late circumnavigators; and are apt to vary in regard to the colour of their extremities, as well as fize, in the different places in which they have been feen. In those from Kerguelen's land fome had brown legs, with the toes black; and others the legs white, or a pale blue. In one met with at Staaten Land, the legs were black; and the bill, in some fpecimens, of a pale brown.
"Thefe birds haunt the fea-fhores in flocks, and feed on shellfish and carrion. In respect to their being used for food, our
voyagers differ greatly; fome of them put it in competition with the duck; while others tell us that it is worse than carrion; for it had fuch a horrid offenfive fmell, that they could not venture to taste the flesh, and that at a time when they were not eafily difgufted we may therefore venture to conclude, that thofe who praised it as a delicacy, were at leaft very hungry.'
Many of the Linnæan genera are divided, fo as to form others; and our author's genera are, on that account, fomewhat multiplied. To this we do not object: the fame may probably be done with advantage in other departments of natural hiftory. The Scolopax, Lin. is divided between the curlew and fnipe: the g. gallinule, of our author, comprehends the rallus grex, Lin. and the other fpecies are taken from the fulica. The remaining fpecies of the fulica are comprehended under Mr. Latham's genus of coot. The phalarope is comprised in the order of birds with pinnated feet; and the fpecies are taken from the tringa, Lin. The colymbus, Lin. makes the grebe, the guillemot, and the diver. The penguin of Mr. Latham is almost a new genus, in confequence of the additions to this part of zoology. It borrows only the phaeton demerfus, and the diomedea demerfa from the old fyftems; and is a natural and proper affociation. In the genus of petrel, late obfervations have difcovered an anomaly, which injures part of the definition of Linnæus. • Mares cylindro fupra bafin roftrì decumbente, truncato.' Some fpecies of the procellaria have, however, been examined, which have the noftrils diftin&t; and this difference forms a convenient method of arranging the fpecies.
We have thus mentioned a few of the principal variations from the more common fyftems. They will evince the judgment and attention of the author, and teach our readers how much they may expect from the work itself. It would be endlefs to mention all the new fpecies, and ufeless to remark every minuter deviation. The wild and tame fwan are, in our author's opinion, diftinct fpecies. This diftinction partly arifes from the diftribution of the afpera arteria, which, in the wild kind, seems to penetrate the breast bone, This conformation is observed in many birds; and is particularly mentioned by our author, in different fpecies, whofe cry is loud and fhrill. One fpecies of this kind has attracted the attention of monf. Daubenton, who exprefsly fays, in his differtation on that fubject, in the last volume of the French Memoirs, that in the wild fwan, the trachea paffes along the fternum, enters a cavity placed in the fpine of that bone, and rifes again to pafs, at laft, into the cheft.' (Hift. de l'Academiè Royale des Sciences, pour l'annee, 1781, p. 12). The memoire
moire by monf. Daubenton contains many curious obfervations, and we would refer our author to it. The final caufe of this structure is not certain; for it is found in fome fpecies, whofe note is low and foft.
The last volume of Mr. Latham contains more general entertainment than the former ones; and we wished to extract fome parts of this kind; but our article is already fufficiently extended, and we are willing to preferve the distinction between the goofander and the dun-diver, which have been hitherto confounded.
An opinion has prevailed among later authors, that the goofander and dun-diver were male and female only, and not diftinct fpecies; but perhaps this conjecture may not be fo firmly established as not to admit of the intrufion of a different fentiment: and the following facts lead us again to separate thein into different fpecies.
In the first place, the dun-diver is ever lefs than the goof ander; and individuals of that bird differ greatly in fize among themfelves: and, if we admit the laft-defcribed as a variety only, in an extreme degree, we may alío add, that the creft is confiderably longer and fuller in the one efteemed as the female, than in that thought to be the male; a circumftance obferved in no other bird that is furnished with a creft at all; for in fuch the females, in many cafes, have not even the rudiment of one. Again, fome of the dun-divers have been proved to have a labyrinth, as well as the goofander: by this is meant an enlargement of the bottom of the wind-pipe, just before the entrance into the lungs and as it is only found in the males of the duck kind, we have a right to conclude the fame in refpect to the birds in queftion, efpecially as they are the nearest link to the duck genus. But a far more interesting cir cumdance than any of the above-noted is, that fome of the larger dun-divers have really proved, on diflection, to be males. This difcovery I owe to the attention of Dr. Heysham, who informs me that he has more than once found it to be fo. The latt he met with of that fex, was at Carlisle, in the month of December. He likewife obferves, that the dun-diver is infinitely more common in Cumberland than the goofander, at leaft ten or fifteen of the first to one of the last, which indeed is fo fcarce there, that he never had an opportunity of diffecting more than one, which, however, turned out to be a male. Having faid thus much, there is no way to reconcile the prefent opinion of authors, but by fuppofing the poffibility of the young birds of both fexes retaining the female plumage for a certain number of years, before they attain that of the male, as is the cafe in fome birds: but in allowing this circumftance, we must fuppofe them likewife capable of propagating their fpecies; which, if true, is not very ufual in animals before they arrive at maturity.'
We need fcarcely repeat our opinion of this valuable work. These last volumes, inftead of difgracing the author of the 1 Former ones, add another leaf to his wreath; and the little which is wanting, will probably be fupplied in the Appendix. We shall then boast of an ornithology in English, complete in its feveral parts, and equally accurate in its arrangement and diftinctions.
Remarks on the Difeafe lately defcribed by Dr. Hendy, under the Appellation of the Glandular Disease of Barbadoes. By John Rollo. Small 8vo. 25. Dilly.
T is an humorous mistake, probably of the printer, when this disease is said to be of a Sceptic * tendency.' Indeed when doctors differ, the patients are generally in doubt, and unable to decide. In the remarks before us, Mr. Rollo examines Dr. Hendy's history at fome length, and endeavours to show, that the fever precedes rather than follows the glandular affection. For this purpofe, he adduces the teftimony of Dr. Hillary, and the particular cafes described by Dr. Hendy, In our review of that work †, we were of opinion, that the fever was really secondary; and, after a very careful examination of these Remarks, we fill think fo, because it is distinguished by no peculiar type; it fometimes is not terminated by fweating; and, as the difeafe proceeds, it is lefs diftinguishable, respecting the time of its attack, from the exacerbation of the local difeafe. In every explanation of the fymptoms, the pain in the inguinal gland is fubfequent to fome other effect on the lymphatics of the limb, and that is prior to the fwelling; whatever, therefore, may be the primary caufe, we should not, at the first occurrence, expect any local appearance before the general difeafe. Mr. Rollo feems much embarraffed to fupport his own opinion of the nature of the disease, on the one fide, and to avoid the depofition of morbid matter on the other. He feems to think, that the lymphatic glands fuffer as a part of the whole fyftem, from the fame caufe which produces fever; therefore the local affection, according to his own opinion, is coeval in existence with the fever, though pofterior in appearance.
On the whole, we think our author too fevere on Dr. Hillary and Dr. Hendy, to whom he is obliged for a very large fhare of the bulk of his pamphlet. We fhall felect what is more peculiarly his own, remarking only that we do not recollect any authority for this effect of falt marshes.
* Page 86.
+ Critical Review, vol. lvii. p. 478.
Along the windward fea-coaft of Barbadoes, from Oiftins to Bridgetown, the ground is in many places low and marfhy. The marfhes are occafionally covered with the fpray of the fea in formy weather. In moderate and dry weather they drain, but I believe never become thoroughly dry. Many of the inhabitants of the island repair to thefe marshes to fport with the lives of different fpecies of birds, that annually vifit, and are found to hover chiefly over thefe places, and it is aftonishing to fee with what induftry, and perfeverance, this game is purfued. Parties are formed, tents are erected near the marsh, and the bowl circulates with potent punch, until the fignal is given for appearance of birds; then every one gets flowly out of the tent in a bended pofture, or creeps along the ground to watch an opportunity to fire. After which, they retire to the tent until another fignal is made, and thus they spend a whole day inebriated, or much fatigued, and often wetted, they retire in the evening to their refpective homes, and they return early next morning to the sport.
May not the effluvium of thefe marshes, as impregnated with fea-falt, produce a febrile difeafe, remarkably different from that produced by the effluvium of marthes not impreg nated with it? and may not this effluvium act in producing our difeafe in people pre-difpofed? This will be rendered fomewhat probable by obferving, that among thofe people who are fond of fowl-gaming, or thofe who accompany them for focial purpofes, or for fervice, this difeafe will be found very generally to happen. Also, to my knowlege, the gentleman in Dr. Hendy's N° 19, lived in a fituation near the river, and a marthy ground to windward of Bridgetown. This river is chiefly formed by the fea; every tide raises it; but its edges in different places are fwampy and flimy. I have been fenfible of a difagreeable fmell from this river, when I have had the pleafure of being in the gentleman's houfe. Two of this gentleman's family have unfortunately had the complaint; and, befides thefe, the mulatto woman of the 14th cafe was a servant in the family.'
In a town, on the fouthern coaft of this island, we have been informed, that there is a peculiar kind of irregular intermittent, called from the name of the place the Seaton-fick; (the ficknefs, we fuppofe, peculiar to Seaton), and that this town is in the neighbourhood of falt marshes. Though we have heard this account from good authority, our fituation is too remote to enable us to afcertain it by a particular enquiry. We mention it, chiefly to enable our author to add an additional fupport to, if the fact fhould appear capable of fupporting, his fyftem. To others it may be a fubject worth examination.