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that the prophet has said upon the same subject before us in one view, 1 fhall here repeat the subftance. It is there compared to " A GREAT EARTII“ QUAKE,” which literally means a great convulfion and revolution of a government. It is there faid, that sa tenth part of the city,” that is, of the nation, “ fell,” that " in the earthquake," or in the course of the revolution, “ seven thoutand men of name," or of men holding offices under the state, “ were Nain.” If so many officers of government are to be flain, it is not improbable that a tenth part of the nation will fall in the dreadful convulfion, and that “the remnant,though affrighted at the horrors of the scene, will not, even then, “ give glory to the God of Heaven."

However, it seems, that the distress and woes here described are to surpass, in an eminent degree, those which we have seen poured out upon this devoted nation, under two former vials : for, under the first, it was only to be “plagued" with

a noisome and grievous fore,” or with those lawless tumults and insurrections which we have seen come to pass before the destruction of the monarchy, and before it had become so loft to all truth, as to

as to establish the atheistical republic. Under the second period of its “plagues,” which gave rise to the republic, and the avowed establishment of atheism, it was to be, and literally has been,“ scorched with fire and great heat ;' that is, with those bloody factions and dreadful scenes of affaffinations, infurrections, and desolating massacres, which took place during “ the “reign of terror,” or despotic domination of RoberSpierre. But however agonizing the torments of these vials may have been, the woes which are to attend the fall of this monstrous power are to be far more excruciating ; for, we are here told, that


the people, (like men in the agony and fury of madness) thall gnaw their • tongues for pain," and despairing of pardon, “ because of their pains " and their fores,” shall

shall blafpheme the God of Heaven, “and repent not of their deeds.And thus it would seem, that the extreme sufferings of 'this monstrous enemy of God and man, are to keep pace with its increase in wickedness, until its final destruction.

Vial6.-Ver. 12.—“And the sixthangel pour" ed out his vial on the great river Euphrates; " and the water thereof was dried up, that the way of the kings of the East might be


This vial also refers to future events; and yet seems to point to the country and people on which it shall be poured out, whenever it shall be the divine pleasure. We have before foen Germany described by the metaphor of " rivers and fountains." Here the prophet describes the country. by k the

great river Euphrates,”: evidently. meaning the country watered by that river. : He had before * described the same country, by the same metaphor, where he foretels the rise and establishment of the Turkish or Ottoman empire, by " the four angels of “ the great river Euphrates," who: were loofed. or permitted, in the course of divine providence, to establish that empire. These angels were the four Sultans, or leaders of the Turks and Othmans; and this river has been in the possession of their fucceffors, the Einperors of Turkey, ever since. The Euphrates is the largeit river in Afiatic Turkey, and waters and enriches the whole country, and, therefore, it is a proper type for the Turkish or Othman empire itself. Here, then, the prophet again identifies the empire, upon which this vial should be poured out by the Tame metaphorical and descriptive appellation, the

* Chap. ix. 147 15


great river Euphrates.” Hence, and from the tenour of the Revelation, which, in lundry places, assures the church of the divine favour and ultimate triumph over all its enemies, may we not conclude, that this vial, of the wrath of God, is to be poured out upon the Turkish empire, and in it the Mohamedan apostasy, which has persecuted, or, as the prophet expresses it *, " trodden under foot the holy

city," or church of Christ, in the East, as the Papal hierarchy has done in the West, during the last twelve centuries ? And as the perfecutions of these unrelenting enemies of that church began about the same time, and the period limited for their continuance was the same, and as that period is now near expiring, it does not seem an improbable conjecture, that the fall of the Mohamedan will, in the course of a very few years, follow that of the Papal church.

This conjecture will appear yet more probable, from the sense of the following part of the verse. The prophet having described the empire, upon which this vial is to be poured out, proceeds to describe the state of the people when that event shall take place: “and the water thereof was dried Water, which is the element that forms and feeds those great bodies the rivers, lakes, and seas, and constantly is an accurate metaphor for the people, who form and maintain a civil society. And we have the authority of the prophet himself af, that; in prophetic language, “ waters" mean "peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues. The water of the great river Euphrates must then allude to the “ multitudes of people of different na


Rev. xi. 2.

+ Ibid. xvi. 35.

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tions and tongues, who compose and are subject to the Turkish empire: and these, aceording to the text, are to be dried up." But how dried up? The prophet could not mean, that the people should be dried up, and their fluids, as in a dried anima) or plant, be carsied off in vapour; but, pursuing the metapłior, his meaning is, that they shall become as atjeless and unserviceable to the fiate, as the bed of a river when dried up. Their loyalty and attachment to the state, which are as cilential to its exitience and preservation, as water is, to a river, thall be 1 dried up, or çeate to zhe, useful, and Icave the empire incapable of defending itself against an in, vading enemy. By what means the Turkish empire shall be reduced to this lethargię , and helpless flate (an empire formerly difiinguished for its enthusias tic loyalty; ferocity, and yalour, by which it laid wale more than one half of the Christian world, and is, even at this day, as populous as any other upon the earth, the Chinese execpted) are not even intimated in this verse; and, perhaps, will remain concealed, until the events themselves thall remove the veil. It may, in tomc measure, be occafioned by the way bitual practice of chewing opium, that deadly.poison, which, in the course of many succeeding ages, may have gradually and imperceptibly hypified and dried up, as it were, both their animal and intellectual faculties; or, by a general disaffeclion of the subordinate princes, bashaws, and people (hçre figuratively represented by the word water), to the terrible despotism of the Turkith government; or, by, tlie fame licentious and satanical: fpirit of liberty, equality, atheism, and anarchy, which has lo lately "dried up" the enthufiafiie loyalty and attachment of the people of France to their gransl - anoparchi, and prepared the way for the French revolution; or, by the intrigues and arms of the Paswan Oglou, aided by the French republic, which seems already to have be


gun the work; or by all these means together. However, this is certain, from the evident purport of the text, that a very extraordinary indifference or disaffection in the people, to the government of the empire, must take place to fulfil this part of the pro• phecy.

But to what end are the loyalty and attachment of the Turks to be thus alienated from their government. The text is explicit in answering this queliion. It is, “ that the way of the kings of the

Eaft may he prepared,” or, that the path to victory, and the conquett of an empire, fo extensive and populous, may be made easy, and take up little of their time. But who are these'“ kings of the East?" It has been an ancient opinion among the Turks, founded, as I imagine, upon this prophetic verse, that their empire would, in time, be destroyed by the Russians, a great part of whose widely extended dominions are contiguous and Eaftward of the Turkish territory. From all which it seems more than probable, that the Russians and the Afiatic princes, their dependants and allies, are the “ kings “ of the East,” mentioned in this verse, for whom the “ way" to conquest is to be “ prepared :" and that they will be the instruments of “ pouring out" this vial of the wrath of an all righteous God, upon the sensual and abominable apostary of the Mohamedan church, the most fo of all religious systems; that bloody and desolating enemy of the church of Christ, in the East.

Ver. 13.-" And I saw three unclean spirits “ like frogs, come out of the mouth of the

DRAGON, and out of the mouth of the
BEAST, and out of the mouth of the FALSE

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