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and freedom of our wills; but allowing the government or superiority to the grace of God, let the will of man be admitted to be its handmaid, but such an one as is free, and freely obeys; by which, when it is freely excited by the admoni tions of preventing grace, when it is prepared as to its affections, strengthened and assisted as to its powers and faculties, a man freely and willingly co-operates with God, that the grace of God be not received in vain (t).”—“ All men are also to be admonished, and chiefly preachers, that in this high matter, they, looking on both sides, so temper and moderate themselves, that they neither so preach the grace of God that they take away thereby free-will, nor on the other side so extol free will, that injury be done to the grace of God (u)."" Thus do the doctrine of divine grace, and the doctrine of free-will or human liberty, unite and conspire, in a friendly manner, to our everlasting good. The first is adapted to excite in us gratitude, faith, and humility; the second to awaken our caution and quicken our diligence (x).”

(t) Veneer.

(u) Necessary Doctrine; supposed to be written by Archbishop Cranmer.

(x) Jortin.

ARTICLE THE ELEVENTH.

Of the Justification of Man.

WE ARE ACCOUNTED RIGHTEOUS BEFORE GOD, ONLY FOR THE MERIT OF OUR LORD AND SAVIOUR JESUS CHRIST, BY FAITH, AND NOT FOR OUR OWN WORKS OR DESERVINGS, WHEREFORE THAT WE ARE JUSTIFIED BY FAITH ONLY, IS A MOST WHOLESOME DOCTRINE, AND VERY FULL OF COMFORT, AS MORE LARGELY IS EXPRESSED IN THE HOMILY OF JUSTIFICATION.

JUSTIFICATION, in the language of Scripture, signifies the being accounted just or righteous in the sight of God; or the being placed in a state of salvation. "When God justifies a man," says Mr. Veneer," it is by forgiving him his trespasses, and accepting, esteeming, and rewarding him as a righteous person, although he is not really and strictly such. To justify, in the common spiritual notion of it, is to absolve from guilt, to discharge from punishment."

The word justification, or justify, when applied to Christians in the New Testament, always refers to the present life, as in this passage, Being now justified by his blood, we shall be saved from

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wrath through him (a);" here Justification is spoken of as having already taken place, but Salvation is mentioned as being future; that is, Justification is in this world, Salvation in the next. Justification is the remission of sins here on earth; Salvation is the attainment of happiness in heaven. In this article it is said, "We are accounted righteous," and "We are justified,” which are synonymous expressions, both in the present tense, and referring to the present life. And the following article speaks of "Works which follow after Justification," which still more clearly shews that justification refers to the present life.

This article was directed against the Popish doctrine of Human Merit, which our Reformers, with reason, considered as inconsistent with the whole scheme of Redemption through Christ alone, and in particular as striking at the very root of the Christian duty of humility. Let us attend to the words in the Latin, which is much clearer than the English; Tantum propter meritum Domini ac Servatoris nostri Jesu Christi, per Fidem, non propter opera et merita nostra, justi coram Deo reputamur. Observe, that Faith is not opposed to Works, but the merit of Christ is opposed to the merit of our Works-propter meritum Christi-non propter opera et merita

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(a) Rom. c. 5. v. 9.

VOL. II.

nostra-and it is per Fidem, not propter Fidem (b). It is here asserted that WE ARE

DESERVINGS.

ACCOUNTED RIGHTEOUS BEFORE GOD, ONLY FOR THE MERIT, that is, on account of the merit, OF OUR LORD AND SAVIOUR JESUS CHRIST, BY FAITH, that is, through our faith, AND NOT for, that is, not on account of, OUR OWN WORKS OR Our works never can have any merit towards procuring pardon of our sins, from their own intrinsic worth; they cannot justify, or tend to justify us. Nor has our faith any merit of this kind; we are not said to be justified propter meritum Fidei or propter Fidem, but per Fidem. Fidem. The blood of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ is the meritorious cause of our justification; but it operates through our faith, faith being the means or condition upon which it has pleased our Almighty Father to offer to his sinful creatures forgiveness of their past offences. And this is the express declaration of Scripture: "The righteousness

(b) Wherever the justification or salvation of man by faith is mentioned in Scripture, the expression πίσει, ἐκ πίσεως, διὰ πίςεως or διὰ τῆς πίςεως, but never διὰ πίςιν or dià tñv mísw. Vide Rom. c. 1. v. 17. c. 3. v. 22. 28, and 30. Gal. c. 3. v. 3. Eph. c. 2. v. 8. It is well known that when it governs a genitive case signifies per, and when it governs an accusative case it signifies propter; that is, in the former case it indicates the means, in the latter the cause.

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259 righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe; for there is no difference; for all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God; being justified freely by his Grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God; to declare, I say, at this time his righteousness, that he might be just, and the justifier of him who believeth in Jesus (c)." By the faith, which in this passage, and also in our article, is said to justify, we are to understand that lively "faith, which worketh by love (d)," which purifieth the heart, which keepeth the commandments of God. The doctrine of Justification by Faith was maintained. by the early Christians: Clement of Rome, after speaking of the Jews, says, "And we also, being called by the same will in Christ Jesus, are not justified by ourselves, neither by our own wisdom, or knowledge, or piety, or by works which we have done in the holiness of our hearts, but by that faith by which God Almighty has justified all men from the beginning (e)." Upon these grounds our Church declares that the merit of

OUR

(c) Rom. c. 3. v. 22-26. (d) Gal. c. 5. v. 6.

(e) Ep. 1.

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