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SELF, with ridicule and contempt, yea, with defiance. All laws, both human and divine, were considered, by them, as non-entities. In this state of more than Egyptian darkness, nothing was criminal, and every thing lawful, which an unlimited gratification of their ambition, and their lufts, could fuggeft. With minds thus loosened from all restraints of religion and morality, the most resolute, wicked, and ambitious split into different factions, each having their plan of arbitrary rule. Thefe struggled for mastery in the great national council, which they divided and distracted, by oppofing one another in every measure, except such as happened to be proposed, and tended to restore the state to its former health and vigour : in rejecting these they always united. At length, finding that their diffenfions obstructed their measures, and that the monarchy must first fall before they could hope for success, they united in the Jacobin club, for the purpose of removing that bar to their ambition.

All historians of the French revolution speak with horror of the injustice and fanguinary measures of this monstrous conspiracy. A brief description of it by one of them is fo apposite to my purpose, that I cannot forbear repeating it in his own words *. “ This monster,” says he, “ took upon itself alone, “ to carry on our revolution; it directed, it ex“ ecuted all the operations of it, all the explosions " and outrages. It every where appointed the most \ active leaders, and, as instruments, employed the “ profligates of every country. Its power far fur“ paffed that which has been attributed to the Inquijition, and other fiery tribunals, by those who « have spoken of them with the greatest exaggera" tion. *Its centre was at Paris, whilf clubs in every town, in every little borough, overspread the fur:

* F. Page's Hift. F. Revolution.

66 town,

face of the whole kingdom. The constant cor

respondence kept up between those clubs, and “ that of the capital, was as secret and as speedy as " that of free-masonry. In a word, the Jacobin club “ had prevailed in causing themselves to be looked

up to, as the real national representation. Under “ that pretence they censured all the authorities “ in the most imperious manner. And whenever " their denunciations, petitions, or addresses failed " to produce immediate effect, they gained their


To pass from this general view, to a detail of all the villainous enormities of this COLOSSAL HYDRA, in such a brief differtation as this, is as impoffible as it is unnecessary. Let it then suffice to say, that if, by the collision of their different plans, and the dreadful action and re-action of the several factions, the ignorant and already corrupted people were impelled, before the coalition, as ulcers through the Ikin, to break through the laws, into tumults, infurrections, affaffinations, and massacres ; ' these poli. tical ulcers were now, augmented a hundred fold, and covered the whole political body. Become allpowerful and frightful, religion, law, morality, hu. manity, and political order filed at the terrific nod of the Jacobin club, as from a hideous spectre. At its nod the “great city,” Paris, as an historian expresses it*, became, ff of a sudden, without government, « without a head, without guards, police, patroles, "justice, or public worthip, or even public amuse

ment."!. At its nod, a horde of banditti started up in the several provinces, plundering, prostrating, and burning the caftles and archives of the feignoral no

F. Page's F. Rev. vol. i. p. 104.



bility, and the mansions of men of all ranks*. At
its nod the great councils of the nation bent the
knee, bowed obedience to its despotism, and gave
their sanction to every measure, however unjust and
tyravnical, which it waspleased to dictate, by paff-
ing them into decrees of At its pod, the most
bloody civil wars were kindled, in which no quarter
was given on either side, in all parts of the coun-
try, until France became a “ noisome and griev-
"ous sore," all over ulcerated, a mafs of putrid
corruption, bleeding at every pore; a " field of blood;"
or, as another historian, when labouring for lan-
guage to describe the dreadful scene, expresses it,
until France was made 66 ONE GREAT TOMB.'

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All opposition appalled and filenced by these bloodthirsty means, the tyrants hastened to put an end to their royal victim. They now threw off the mask, broke out into open rebellion, seized upon, imprisoned, and dethroned their sovereign ; destroyed a monarchy the mof ancient and splendid in Europe, and established a revolutionary republic upon its ruins :ą republic, which, in the course of divine Providence, is to be the instrument of pouring out upon this apoftate and blasphemous nation a yet greater portion of his wrath, as will hereafter appear, from the events foretold under the fourth vial.

Vial 2.-Ver. 3.--" And the second angel " poured out his vial upon the fea, and it be

came as the blood of a dead man: and every

Living foul died in the fea."

From the destruction of the French monarchy, and the rise of the republic, the prophet

, I humbly


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* F. Page's F. Rev. vol. i. p. 151,
+ Bertrand's Annals, Introd. xvi.



apprehend, passes to the next great and important events which were to follow, in which the charch of Chrift in the West was to be materially concerned. Į mean to those judgments and scourges of divine wrath, which have been lately poured out upon the apoftate ltates of Italy, but principally upon the church of Rome, which has long held them estranged from the pure word of God, in an idulatrous captivity.

To understand this verse aright, it will be necessary to consider each sentence of it apart; because each of them foretels a separate fact, and those facts are veiled in mysterious allegory; and those allegories must be literally explained, before they can be properly applied to their appropriate events. Here Then we are first told, that“ the second angel poured “ out his vial upon the sea." He could not intend that we should understand the word in a literal sense, because, to pour out a vial of his wrath merely on the “ fea,” could answer no purpose of God's justice and providence. We must then search for it in allegory, And in doing this we shall consider the nature and qualities of the fea; and then find out a Power whose nature and offices bear a fimilitude to them: for it is upon such fimilitude between the moral, religious, and political worlds, that the language of allegory has been formed; and therefore it is thence alone that we can obtain the literal sense of

any figurative expression or type. Let us examine this beautiful figure in all its branches. The sea is a great body in the natural world, which supplies the Jakes, rivers, and fountains, with water, and they return their streams to it; fo the church of Rome, a great ecclefiaftical body, supplies the kings, princes, and states, with her idolatrous doctrines, dier waters; and they in return pay her their obedience and homage. The sea, by its vapours, supplies the lakes, 5


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rivers, and fountains, in a filent and invisible manner; fo the church of Rome has, by her arts, frauds, and myfteries, in a secret'manner seduced and converted many nations to her faith. The fea, when moved by gentle breezes, fends forth its vapours in genial showers of rain ; and when moved by violent gufts of wind, in hurricanes and storms, to the Jakes, rivers, and fountains, disturbing their waters, and overwhelming their banks; and they, in return, pour out their floods, their fish, and their treasures, into the bosom of the sea, to fupport and maintain it. Exactly in like manner the church of Rome, while nations remained obedient to her will, fent forth her genial showers of indulgences, licenfes, pardons, and benedictions, but when disturbed and irritated by their refractory difobedience, her hurricanes and storms of interdictions, penances, bulls, and anathemas, to the nations of the earth ; ineiting their fubjects to fedition and insurrections, and to overturn their governments, until they submit to pour into her lap their aids, fees, and bribes, to support her power and grandeur. Here then we find, that in this beautiful hieroglyphic, the fimilitudes of the prototype exactly correspond with the type itself, and therefore that this prototype is the church of Rome.

But it is not in the figurative sense only that this vial alludes to the church of Rome; the allufion is as strong in the literal sense of the word “fea.” For the fituation of Rome is upon a long, narrow ftrip of land, running into the sea; and surrounded on every fide, except one, by the fea; and upon the river Tiber, near the fea; and therefore, when com pared with inland powers, is, as it were, upon, or in the fea. Hence we find the prophet elsewhere, when foretelling the decline of the power of Rome in the

West, 2.

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