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30. But Jesus called them, and saith unto them, Ye cor. know that they which are accounted to rule over the Gentiles erercise lordshift over them ; and their Mark v. Grea rowes exercise authority whom them. But so 42, 43. shall it not be among you: šut whosoever will be great among you, shall be your sgr. 3, axe ves] deacon:" and " whosoever will be the chiefest shall be servant of all. 31. How diametrically opposite appears the whole course of the Catholic order —The bishops lording it over the presbyters, the presbyters over inferior officers—and the lower class of rulers setting themselves up as great ones over the common people ; and priests and people tyranizing with relentless cruelty over reputed he retics, whose lives of virtue exposed them alone, as a common prey to the avaricious and beastly power of Antichrist. 32. This is the Church which has been represented as the bless od mother of saints, and of GREAT sa INTs, and even of CoNs ran PINE THE GREA or, under whose reign that great building, which had been erecting ever since the fall, arose to so great a height! This is that great hierarchy, and these the effects of that Catholic gospel, for which even President Edwards see Hicould affirm, that no other cause could be devised but Koo. the power of God. Doubtless that proverb is true. ... There is a way that seemeth right unto a man ; but the 12. end thereof are the ways of death. 33. Under the influence of a false education, and a deep rooted prejudice in favour of the chain of orthodoxy, the most sensible modern writers have laboured to prove that to be the work of God, which was evidently the work of wicked and aspiring men. 34. And lest the soundness of modern christianity should be called in question, the Protestant friesthood have universally laboured to establish the credit and authority of the Catholic church, in every age. But they have manifested the greatest degree of partiality, in charging the whole guilt of apostacy upon the Bishop of Rome, while they themselves claim a relation to that very sink of corruption, out of which he arose to the papal dignity. 35. Although these modern doctors would seem to content themselves with a less degree of power than the bishop of Rome attained, and support their

vants

*

* union only with such of the fathers as preceded him; – yet, in claiming and supporting this relation, they

show that if they had the same opportunity, they
would not stop short of universal supremacy, any
more than their fathers did.
36. Hence that very way, which was invented by the
.Alerandrian firiesthood, and established by Constantine,
seemeth even to this day, to be right; and kindred
bishops and doctors love to have it so, and by false ar-
guments and bold assertions, try to prove it to be so.
37. Each improving upon his predecessor, furnish-
es new arguments for those that follow. So this an-
cient way of mixing religion and politics, still see meth
to be right, although after so long a proof, even accord-
ing to their own accounts, it has evidently branched out

into many ways of confusion, persecution and death.

Feel. His

tory *

, vol.

p.28

38. Under all their pomp and vain glory, their compound of civil and ecclesiastical tyranny, their confu. sed and contradictory jargon, which they called orthodory, it is plain that a subtle priesthood were aspiring to the entire headship over both church and state. 39. In the fifth century, Mosheim says, “The vices * of the clergy were carried to the most enormous * lengths. The writers of this century are unanimous “in their accounts of the luxury, arrogance, avarice, ‘ and voluptuousness of the sacerdotal orders.” And further observes that, “These opprobrious stains, in * the characters of the clergy, would never have been * endured, had not the greatest part of mankind been * sunk in superstition and ignorance.” 40. What was there, then, to prevent these bases: of all deceivers from setting up a false god, a false christ, false teachers, false saints, and the like 2 The superstitious and ignorant multitude were at their con. troul ; the civil authority was on their side ; the heretics were rooted out from among them, and were either banished, or voluntarily retreated to mountains or deserts, where they might enjoy the free exerciss of piety and uninterrupted peace, remote from this Babylonish mixture of confusion. 41. Nothing in fact remained to prevent this synagogue of satan from establishing any religion or government which they could agree upon among them

selves. The only difficulty they had to surmount, was,
to determine which of them should be the greatest.
, 42. Mosheim says, that even, “the office of a fires-
byter was looked upon of such a high and eminent na-
‘ture, that Martin, bishop of Tours, was so audacious
* as to maintain, at a public entertainment, that the Em-
‘peror was inferior, in dignity, to one of that order.”
How then must the bishops have appeared 3
43. Nor were the bishops themselves, at this time
the highest order of ecclesiastics. Five were distin-
guished from the rest, under the name of Patriarchs,
namely, the bishop of Rome, Constan'inchle, Aler-
andria, Antioch and Jerusalem ; whose office it was
to consecrate inferior bishops, assemble yearly coun-
cils in their respective districts, and regulate the as-
fairs of the church universal.
44. But Antichrist must needs have a supreme
head; and as this had hitherto been vested in the em-
perors, and the ecclesiastics were now aspiring after
the supremacy, it became necessary that one of that
order should have power to rule the rest. Hence
ambitious quarrels, and bitter animosites arose among
the patriarchs themselves, which produced the most
bloody wars, and the most detestable and horrid crimes.
45. It would be endless to trace the artful meas-
ures which these ungodly tyrants pursued, from time
to time, to supplant one another, in order to attain
the last and highest degree of pre-eminence. How-
ever, “None of the contending bishops, (says 410-
‘sheim.) found the occurrences of the times so fa-
“vourable to his anbition as the Roman pontiff.”
46. And—“Among all the prelates who ruled the
‘ church of Rome during this century, there was none
* who asserted, with such vigour and success, the
‘ authority and pretensions of the 18 oman pontiff, as
* LEo," commonly surnamed the GREAT ;” whose su-
preme authority was particularly owned by the gen-
eral council assembled at Chalcedon, A. D. 451.
47. About this time a new controversy arose, occa-
sioned by certain doctrines advanced by Eutyches, a
monk at Constantinople. Eutyches maintained, that
in Christ, there was but one nature, viz. that of the
incarnate word: for which he was accused of heresy,

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Ecel. History, vol. ii. p. 29.

ibid. p. 26.

ibid. p. 27.

* i. e.

the Lion.

Fecl. His, tory, vol. ii p. 73.

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in a council assembled at Constantinofile, A. D. 448,
by Flavianus, the Patriarch of that city.
48. By a decree of this council, Eutyches was or-
deled to renounce the above mentioned opinion. He
obstinately refused ; for which he was excommuni-
cated and deposed. He appealed to a general coun-
cil, which was, accordingly, by order of the empe-
ror THEoposius, assembled at F/hesus, A. D. 449,
in which Lioscorus, the Patriarch of Alexandria, pre-
sided, who was of the same opinion with Eutyches.
49. By the order of this council, Eutyches was
acquitted of the charge of error ; and the patriarch
1 avianus, publicly scourged in the most barbarous
manner, and banished to F/i/ias, a city of Lydia,
where he soon after died of his wounds. But pre-
vious to his death he appealed to Leo the GREAT,
who took up the cause, and demanded of THEopo-
sius, another general council, which this Emperor
could not be prevailed upon to grant.
50. Upon his death, however, his successor MAR-
c 1AN us consented to LFo’s demand, and called, in
the year 45 1, the council of Chalcedon. In this coun-
cil the legate, or representative of LEo presided; the
decrees of the council of F/hesus were annulied ; an
epistle, which Leo had written to Flavianus on the sub-
ject of debate, was received as a rule of faith; Eutyches
was condemned ; and the following doctrine, “ which
‘(says Moshi, m.) is at this tinie almost generally receiv-
‘ed, was inculcated upon Christians [i. e. Catholics]
‘as an object of faith, viz. Bo “That in Christ two
distinct natures were united in one fierson, and that
“without any change, mixture or confusion.”
51. “A great number of Oriental and Egyptian
‘doctors, united in opposing, with the utmost vehe-
‘mcnce, the council of Chalcedon, and the epistle of
‘LEo, which it had adopted as a rule of faith.—
* Hence arose deplorable discords, and civil wars,
* whose fury and barbarity were carried to the most
* excessive and incredible lengths.”
52. “But the Roman pontiff, far superior to them

‘ali, in wealth and power—daily added new degrees

‘ of influence and authority to the Roman see, ren‘dered it every where respected, and thus im/herces‘fibly cstablished its su/iremacy.”

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THE precise period in which Mntichrist began his char. reign, has been a matter of great search ; and *- : there are but few subjects on which the learned are more divided. What has rendered this point so extremely difficult to ascertain, was the great length of time that was taken up in laying the foundations of his kingdom, and the gradual manner in which his dominion arose to its greatest height. 2. Although the intimate connexion and resemblance between the preparatory work, and actual reign of Antichrist, has rendered the precise beginning of his reign a matter of such various conjecture; it has notwithstanding been agreed to by all, that there was such a period, and that the beginning of his dominion would finally be ascertained by the end, and confirmed by corroborating circumstances. 3. It is further agreed, that the reign of Antichrist began with the Pastal hierarchy, or supremacy of the bishop of Rome ; but it is evident, that they must be greatly mistaken, who fix the date of this hierarchy at the period when the bishop of Rome had gained the entire ascendancy, and exercised all the power of a temporal monarch, on the supposed grant of Saint Peter and Constantine the Great. Y

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