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mere love of the animal life, find himself drawn in, surprised, and betrayed into, some curiosity concerning the intellectual.” The volume of Dr. Brodie gives many beautiful illustrations of the subserviency of psychological science to the science of mind and morals. It is written in the form of dialogues, and in a chaste, easy, flowing style. It contains many. just and wholesome views of psychological and ethical laws. We can give our readers no better idea of the volume, than will be suggested by the following references to some of its more important instructions.
Sir Benjamin treats, in a very judicious manner, the theory of Moral or Instinctive Insanity, “ a state of mind in which they say that there are no illusions, nor any affection of the intellect; but in which there is simply a perversion of the moral sentiments ; the individual laboring under an impulse to perform certain extravagant and outrageous acts, injurious to himself or others, such impulse being irresistible; so that he is to be held as being no more responsible for his conduct than an ordinary lunatic.” “It seems to me,” says our author, “ that juries have not unfrequently been misled by the refinements of medical witnesses, who, having adopted the theory of a purely moral insanity, have applied that term to cases to which the term insanity ought not to be applied at all. It is true, that the difference in the character of individuals may frequently be traced to difference in their organizations, and to different conditions as to bodily health ; and that therefore one person has more, and another has less, difficulty in controlling his temper and regulating his conduct. But we have, all, our duties to perform; and one of the most important of these is, that we should strive against whatever evil tendency there may be in us, arising out of our physical constitution. Even if we admit (which I do not admit, in reality) that the impulse which led Oxford (whom the jury acquitted, for his attempt to take the life of the Queen, on the ground of moral insanity) to the commission of his crime, was, at the time irresistible; still the question remains, whether, when the notion of it first haunted him, he might not have kept it under his control, and thus prevented himself from passing into that state of mind which was beyond his control, afterwards. If I have been rightly informed, Oxford was, himself, of this opinion; as he said, when another attempt had been made to take the life of the Queen, that “if he himself had been hanged, this would not have happened. We have been told of a very eminent person, who had acquired the habit of touching every post that he met with in his walks, so that at last it seemed to be a part of his nature to do so, and that if he found that he had inadvertently passed by a post without touching it, he would actually retrace his steps for the purpose. I knew a gentleman who was accustomed to mutter certain words to himself (and they were always the same words), even in the midst of company. He died at the age of ninety, and I believe that he had muttered these words for fifty or sixty years. These were foolish habits ; but they might have been mischievous. To correct them, at last, would have been a very arduous undertaking. But might not this have been easily done, at the beginning? And if so, if, instead of touching posts, or uttering unmeaning words, these individuals had been addicted to stealing or stabbing, ought they to have been considered as absolved from all responsibility ?” pp. 98—100.
On pages 122–133, are many interesting observations on the phenomena of death. It seems to be the opinion of Dr. Brodie, stated perhaps with too little qualification, that men, in their last hours, have ordinarily more of mental activity, and less of either physical or spiritual pain, than we are accustomed to suppose. With the exception of certain cases, as those of tetanus, delirium tremens, hydrophobia, and some others, the general rule is said (by Ergates, in the dialogue) to be, that “the mere act of dying is seldom, in any sense of the word, a very painful process.” “ Both mental and bodily suffering terminate long before the scene is finally closed. Then as to the actual fear of death: it seems to me that the Author of our existence, for the most part, gives it to us when it is intended that we should live, and takes it away when it is intended that we should die. Those who have been long tormented by bodily pain, are generally as anxious to die as they ever were to live.” “I have, myself, never known but two instances in which, in the very act of dying, there were manifest indications of the fear of death.”
On the phenomena of dreams, many valuable remarks are found on pp. 144—156. Lord Brougham is inclined to the opinion that “we never dream except in the state of transition from being asleep to being awake. But I own that this seems to me to be a mistake. First, there is no sufficient proof of its being so; and secondly, we have a proof of the contrary, in the fact that nothing is more common than for persons to moan, and even talk in their sleep, without awaking from it. Even in the case of a dog who is sleeping on the rug before the fire, if you watch him, you can scarcely doubt that he is sometimes dreaming, though he still remains asleep. I should, myself, be more inclined to doubt, whether we ever sleep without some degree of dreaming. At any rate, not to dream seems to be not the rule but the exception to the rule, for it rarely happens that we awake without being sensible of some time having elapsed since we fell asleep; which is, in itself, a proof that the mind has not been wholly unoccupied. That, in such cases, we have no distinct recollection of our dreams, proves nothing. Referring, again, to the instance of persons who talk in their sleep, we often find that they have not the smallest recollection of their having dreamed afterwards.”
We often read of surprising discoveries made in a state of sleep. “I have heard,” says Crites, in the dialogue before us, “ of mathematicians who bave solved problems, and of others who have composed poetry in their sleep. An acquaintance of mine, a solicitor, was perplexed as to the legal management of a case which concerned one of his clients. In a dream he imagined a method of proceeding which had not occurred to him when he was awake, and which he afterwards adopted with success.” To this, it is very judiciously replied: "Further, I suspect that, in many of the stories of wonderful discoveries made in dreams, there is much of either mistake or exaggeration; and that, if they could have been written down at the time, they would be found to be worth little or nothing. Knowing how imagina
tive a person Coleridge at all times was, I may, I hope, be excused for saying that it is more easy to believe that he imagined himself to have composed his poem of Kuhla Khan in his sleep, than that he did so in reality. I may here refer to the experience of a distinguished physiologist on this subject. “ Sometimes,” says Müller, “we reason more or less accurately in our dreams. We reflect on problems, and rejoice in their solution. But, on awaking from such dreams, the seeming reasoning is found to be no reasoning at all; and the solution, over which we had rejoiced, to be mere nonsense. Sometimes we dream that another proposes an enigma, that we cannot solve, and that others are equally incapable of doing so, but that the person who proposed it, himself gives the explanation. We are astonished at the solution, which we had so long endeavored to find. If we do not immediately awake, and afterwards reflect on this proposition of an enigma in our dream, and on its apparent solution, we think it wonderful; but if we awake immediately after the dream, and are able to compare the answer with the question, we find that it was mere nonsense. I have, at least several times, observed this in my own case.”
Dr. Brodie's treatment of phrenology is scientific and decisive. It is found on pp. 226—249. Several interesting facts are here detailed. When Dr. Gall visited Sir Francis Chantrey's studio, “ he pronounced the head of Sir Walter Scott (who had not the smallest turn for mathematics) to be that of a great mathematician; that of Troughton, the mathematical instrument maker, to be the head of a poet.” “ If ever there was a race of thoroughly remorseless murderers in the world, such were the Thugs of India. Generation after generation, they were born and bred to murders. They looked to murder as the source not only of profit, but of honor. Dr. Spry sent the skulls of seven of these demons, who had been hanged at Sauger, to some phrenological friends in Scotland. To their surprise, destructiveness was not a predominant organ in any one of them. But the anomaly was soon explained: the Thugs, it was said, had no abstract love of murder, but murdered for the sake of robbery.” “ Some very stupid persons, within my own knowledge, have had very large heads. On the other hand, if we may trust to the authority of the bust of Newton, in the apartment of the Royal Society, the head of that mighty genius was below the average size; and Moore describes the head of Byron as having been unusually small, with a narrow forehead; the fact being confirmed by an anecdote, related by colonel Napier, of a party of fourteen persons having tried to put on his hat, and having found that it was too small to fit any one of them.” “ A large development of the organ of destructiveness, in the head of Hare the murderer, explained how it was that he was led to murder sixteen human beings, that he might sell their bodies. But, in the head of another person, who never committed a murder, it is sufficient to find that it exists in combination with a disposition to satire, or to deface mile-stones ; and in the beaver and squirrel, it explains how it is that these animals are impelled to cut and tear in pieces the bark, leaves, and branches of trees, for the innocent purpose of constructing their cabins and nests. So the large size of the organ of acquisitiveness, not only leads one person to be a thief and another to hoard, but it also explains the habits of the spendthrift (who does not hoard at all); and it impels storks and swallows to return, after their emigrations, to establish themselves in the same locality.”
We have rarely seen a more satisfactory reply to the phrenological theories, than is contained in the following paragraphs :
“ There are two simple anatomical facts, which the founders of this [phrenological] system have overlooked, or with which they were probably unacquainted, and which of themselves afford a sufficient contradiction of it: First, They refer the mere animal propensities chiefly to the posterior lobes, and the intellectual faculties to the anterior lobes of the cerebrum. But the fact is, that the posterior lobes exist only in the human brain, and in that of some of the tribes of monkeys, and are absolutely wanting in quadrupeds. of this, there is no more doubt than there is of any other of the bestestablished facts in anatomy; so that, if phrenology be true, the most marked distinction between man on the one hand, and a cat or a horse or a sheep on the other, ought to be, that the former has the animal propensities developed to their fullest extent, and that these are deficient in the latter. Secondly, Birds have various propensities and faculties in common with us ; and, in the writings of phrenologists, many of their illustrations are derived from this class of vertebral animals. But the structure of the bird's brain is essentially different, not only from that of the human brain, but from that of the brain of the mammalia generally.” “ In the mammalia, the name of corpus striatum has been given to each of two organs, of a small size compared with that of the entire brain, distinguished by a peculiar disposition of the gray, and the fibrous or medullary substance, of which they are composed, and placed under the entire mass of the hemispheres of the cerebrum. In the bird's brain, what appears, to a superficial observer, to correspond to these hemispheres, is found, on a more minute examination, to be apparently the corpora striata developed to an enormous size; that which really corresponds to the cerebral hemispheres, being merely a thin layer expanded over their upper surface, and presenting no appearance of convolutions. It is plain, then, that there can be no phrenological organs in the bird's brain, corresponding to those which are said to exist in the human brain, or in that of other mammalia. Yet birds are as pugnacious and destructive, as much attached to the localities in which they reside, and as careful of their offspring, as any individual among us; and I suppose that no one will deny, that if there be any special organs of tune or of imitation in man, such organs ought not to be wanting in the bullfinch and parrot.”
The preceding quotations indicate the popular style in which the work of Dr. Brodie is written. The reader will not expect to find, in such a volume, those recondite discussions which are the staple of Sir William Hamilton's Essays. Sound sense, however, and healthy sentiment, expressed in plain language, reward the perusal of almost every page in the volume.
III. LIPPINCOTT's Pronouncing GAZETTEER OF THE WORLD.
This is a volume of over two thousand pages, containing notices of over one hundred thousand places, in every portion of the globe. After a somewhat careful examination of this work, we are prepared to give it the preference over all others of the kind, with which we are acquainted. It bears marks of thorough editing and compilation upon every page. The editors, Messrs. Thomas and Baldwin, of Philadelphia, have been assisted by other gentlemen specially competent for the task, and particularly by persons connected with the bureaus at Washington. Among the features of the work we notice the following:
1. Special attention has been given to orthography and orthoëpy. The pronunciation of the foreign name is given as spoken by the native, and also as Anglicized by the best authorities. Much labor has evidently been expended upon this part of the subject, especially with regard to European and Asiatic names.
2. The descriptions are remarkable for the comprehensiveness and density of their detail. As examples we would refer to the immense amount of statistical matter embodied in the eighteen pages devoted to “ The United States;” in the nine pages devoted to the “ British Empire,” together with three additional pages upon “ England;” in the eight pages devoted to “ France," and the seven allotted to “ London.”
3. Particular attention has been paid to our own country. Full accounts are given of each State, making this Gazetteer a valuable reference book for all kinds of information pertaining to the past growth of the United States.
4. The work is remarkable for the distinctness of the type, and the general elegance and nicety with which the publishers have performed their task.
IV. BAUMGARTEN's History OF THE APOSTOLIC CHURCH.? This is an expansion of the Acts of the Apostles, for the purpose of obtaining a connected account of the apostolic church, from the only reliable document now in existence relating to it. The author, a Doctor of Philosophy and Theology in the University of Rostock, has performed his work with good judgment and fidelity. His idea of inspiration is higher than is common in his own country, and his general attitude towards the supernaturalism of the early church more firm and decided than that of many investigators in this branch of church history. The work maintains a constant reference to the hypotheses, and conjectural criticism, of the Tübingen school, and is very satisfactory in its refutations of them. It will
1 The History of the Apostolic Church by M. Baumgarten. Clark's Foreign Theological Library. 3 Volumes.