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great offence to the Author, for whose talents, and still more, for whose principles, as they appear in this work, we entertain a high and sincere respect. At the same time, we cannot belp thinking, that this offence has arisen chiefly from a misconception of our meaning. We never dreamt of charging the Author with conduct inconsistent with morality, or with a wi'ful deviation from fidelity in delineating the character of the Roman Catholio Divines. Nevertheless, being of opinion that he had so deviated, it became our doty tu mark: the deviation, especially at this particular juncture, when it is doubly in portant that the real nature of the Roman Catholic Faith should be understood; and that the fascinarions of the “ Tour 10 Alet" should not lead its readers to consider the differences between Popesy and Prozestantism as trivial and unessential. When we made.use, therefore, of the ferry “ fabrication," " fomance." &c. we did not mean to use them in any invidious sense, but merely to intimate that the Author had exhibited a view of the sentiments of the Port-Royalists, which gave an unfair and inadequate representation of them; a representrtion, indeed, in some respects, very dissimilar. --We have weighed with altention, and we trust willi cunduur, the arguments and evidence advanced by the Author; and the conclusion has been the confirmation, with one or iwo modifications, of our critique. Our main objections were, first, that the characteristic features of the Port-Royal Writers were not accurately delineated ; secondly, that a great many conversations were given which never passed, but in the mind of the Author. Tle first objection, which was, in other worels, that the Roman Catholic Religion had been protestantized, lle Author attempis to ánswer by producing a series of passages from De Sacy, io shew that his views of the grand doctrine of Justification by Faith were persecily sound, and consistent with those advanced in the “ Tour to Alet.” The passages from De Sacy do not appear to us, however, to bear on the point at issue. They prove only the pious feeling with which M. de Sacy regarded the sacrifice of Christ, and that his views of the inestimable benefits resulting froiu it deeply influenced his whole religious system. They do not prove that he believed That " we are accounted righteous before God, only for the merit of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Chrisı, by taiidi, and not for our own works or deservings," and that he did not altech a njeriorivus efficacy to good works, as univing with the merits of Christ to justify the penitent. This doctrine is a distinguishing badge of genuine Protestantism, and it is the Divinity of the “ Tour 10 Alet”—but it is not the Divinity of the Port-Royal School, as we could easily prove by yumerous extracts. We will content ourselves with referring 19: the celebrated Nicole, to whom the Author himself especially refers on the subject of Justification. We beg Lim, therefore, to turn to the following passages, viz. vol. II. p. 214. vol. VI. p. 265, vol. VII. pp. 148, 205, and 207. The edition before us is that of La Haye, in 18mo. 1700, Those who possess Lancelot's Memoirs of St. Cyran, may find. additional lighthrown on this subject, by consulting vol. 1. pp. 456, 460, and 476.—The Author has succeeded in sliewing that the words put iute the mouth of the Bishop of Alet, gelative to the Bloly Scriptures, and which we censured, are sanctioned by M. De Sacy.; and we have pleasure in admiring this to be the case. A: the same time we are still of the opmion that those words are not consonant to the general spirit of the Port-Royal Writers. --The only delence rutenipled relative to the Author's representation of M. de St. Cyran's sentimients respecting absolution, is the production of the testimony of his enenics. This, however, cain jardly be considered as sufficient.-With respect to our second main objection; that the principal portion of the conversations, alleged w have passed between the Bishop of Alet and others, was not to be traced in the original; we really cannot perceive that it was overstated. Lancelot's Narrative contains sketches of the conversations which actually did take place during his visit 10 Alet. To these, the conversations given by the Author bear but little resemblance. They not only differ in the materials of them, but we regard them as not strictly characterestic. This difference we could vot but consider as at variance with the Author's promise in the preface, of "the most strict fidelity in point of fact.” Althe same time, in saying, that, in our view, this promise had not been allered tu, we were far from wishing to convey the impression that the deviation had been designed. We pass orer many other points of inferior moment, reserving, however, to ourselves the right of future explanation, should that be necessary. In the mean time, we assure the Author, that we feel no dispositiun, either to resent or 10 retort the severity of his animadversions. The only pain they occasion, arises from regret that any ill-weigbed expressions of ours should have, provoked them.--Before we conclude, we deem it due to the Author to re-stale, that the work he has produced is hozh able and interesting; and is distinguished no less by the pious sentimeots which it breathes, and the just views of Christian doctrine which it inculcates, han by the beauty of many of its descriptions. We still think, however, that he has not exhibited a tàithtul portraiture of the doctrinal opinions of the Port-Royal School ; and that, he has, in some instances, and particularly in the construction of his conversations, esceeded the licence claimed in his preface. But we disclaim the remotest idea of attributing ihese blemishes lo causes which in any degree affect the moral reputation of the Author, and we do most sincerely lanient that the slightest ground should have been afforded for such an impression. .
APPEAL ON BEHALP OF THE SUFFERING ramparts; the oppressive order to lay GERMANS.
in provisions for nine months; the
plundering of the peasants by armed N our Number for February last men, in ihe most wanton manger, of our readers to the dreadful cala. During the week before Christmas, mities to which Germany bad been more extensive measures were adoptsubjected by the war, and urged ed. All the suburbs, and adjacent upon them the duty of endeavouring villages and beautiful country seats, 10 alleviate the severity of their were burnt down, after only eight pressure. Mucb additional in- hours' warning. At Christmas and formation bas since been received; New-Year's Eve, large bodies of inand we feel that we cannot make a habitants were turned out: young and better use of a few pages of the stout persons, as being dangerous ; present Number than in communi. and old and infirm ones, as being use
cating a part at least of this in- less consumers. Soldiers and police. formation, with the view of inte officers entered the houses by night, resting their hest sympathies, and dragged the unbappy people from exciting their best efforts, in behalf their beds, suffered them hardly to of our suffering brethren in Ger- dress themselves,' much less to take many.
any thing with them, contined them For ample details of the miseries for some hours in churches, and under which they groan, we must turned thousands of them, at dayrefer to three Reports of the Ger- break, out of the gates, exposing man Committee in the City of them to the inclemency of the weaLondon, which may be obtained on ther. The property of the banished application either at the City of .fell to the share of the soldiers and London Tavern, or at Mr. Acker- of the populace. The orphan-house man's, No. 101, Strand. It is to was evacuated, and upwards of four these Reports we are indebted for hundred children driven out of the the following authentic statements. Dam Gate to Eppendorf. From the
Hamburg and Altona were in hospitals and infirmaries, old and vested in the middle of December, weak persons were driven in herds by Russian corps, at the distance of out of the Altona Gate: dressed in two miles from the city. It would their festival habits, the only ones be endless to detail all the oppreso that were left them, they were seen sions which the unhappy inhabitants wandering and tottering about in of Hamburg. suffered from the the streets of Altona. Four of them French, even before the present were upwards of a hundred years blockade. A contribution of about old. Some, having been unactwo millions and a half sterling, the customed for a length of time, to the plunder of the bank; requisitions air, and exposed, half naked, to a amounting 10 upwards of iwo mil. cold of 19 degrees (Reaum, lost lions sterling; the destruction of all their reason. Scenes were wita houses within 4,500 feet round the nessed, which filled even French CHRIST, OIsEkv. No. 148:
Sens d'armes with horror and den ple set down from dung carts, testation. The sick were next to and left to the commiseration of be disposed of: they were trans. the benevolent, or utterly to perish. ported in many waggons, attended The inhabitants of Altona, as well by officers of the police, to Altona ; as the wealthy Hamburgers who have but there being a great scarcity of taken refuge here, do all they can provisions, fuel, straw, &c. occa- to alleviate the distress; but the sioned by the interruption of all number of sufferers is so great that intercourse with Holstein, some of it is impossible to relieve all. The these waggons were refused admite orphan-house, the public baths, the tance; on which the poor unhappy small church of the United Brewretches were thrown upon the high thren, and a large manufactory, have roads, where they must have perish- been made receptacles for the exed miserably, had they not been iles ; in addition to which all corultimately received, and carried into ners and recesses in Allona are Altona. In the first week of the filled with them. These poor creanew year,
Davoust ordered the tures mostly lie on damp straw, infirmary without the town to be withoul having any thing to cover burned. During that night, the them in this rigorous season : the sick were thrown on the snow, in wanı of fuel, linen, and blankets the neighbouring field, where they causes great want of cleanliness and lay till waggons arrived ; on which imminent danger of disease. Alas! the nervous, blind, maniacs, and we have to contend with great diffithose amicted with infectious dis- culties: Altona being surrounded on eases, were promiscuously laden. one side by the French, on the other Eight hundred of these wretches by the Russians, the supply of all were carried to Eppendorf, where kinds of provision is rendered exno previous notice had been sent, tremely difficult. Bread and meat and consequently where no prepa- have risen to an enormous price: ration had been made for their several kinds of food are not to be reception; so that three days after had. Our houses are daily betheir arrival, many of them were sieged by crowds of beggars, who without shelter, and maniacs ran on their knees implore a morsel of about the streets, at the very time that black bread, made of rye mixed this place was taken by assault by with bran : their clamour in the the Russians. “The number of per- streets is most affecting" sons driven away from Hamburg, The sufferings of Dresden have amounts, at this momen!, to twenty- been scarcely less deplorable : six thousand, besides which, twenty « Its environs," we are told, thousand have lost their houses and lately so remarkable for their naproperty by fire in the suburbs ; tural beauties, are now marked by and yet, daily, more are expelled unexampled desolation. Since the and more houses burned."
retreat of the French from Russia, A subsequent account from Al- this city has been incessantly intona, dated 8th February, adds : volved in the storms of war." It four
" It is impossible for you and times changed its masters, and for your London friends to form any several months was the head-quaradequate idea of the number of the ters of Bonaparte and the centre of unbappy Hamburg exiles or their his operations. In consequence of extreme distress. Thousands are this, " most of the beautiful walks rive here without clothes, with- were destroyed, many of the inhacut money, without shelter-per- bitants turned out of their houses, sons of every age, from the suck- which were pulled down, and whole ing babe to the tottering old man woods felled for pallisadoes. Many of ninety: I myself saw from my wounded were brought in, and the wa windows, aged decrepid peo. already impoverished inhabitants
had to provide for ten or twelve institutions established in this city thousand sick and helpless objects. for supporting the poor, widows and The engagement, which extended to orphans; and of the public hospitals the very walls of the city, aggra- and workhouses While the solvated the general misery. The diers, on their march, are fed and beautiful country-seats in the vi- made comfortable in their quarters, cinity were burned to the ground. Our streets exhibit numbers of our All the streets were crowded with wretched fellow-subjects wandering sick and wounded, whom the hospic about like spectres, pale from huntals were incapable of receiving; at ger, and shivering with cold; and the same time, provision was to be many others, who, stretched on their made for the whole French army, bed of sickness, fervently pray to which was concentrated there. Not God to send death to release them a loaf,” adds the writer," was to from their misery. But what is be had; and I well remember, that still more affecting, young persons, for several days I was under the hitherto virtuous, plunge into vice necessity of applying to friends for to gain some few pence from the my scanty pittance. How many foreign military, to satisfy the dewretched citizens did I then meet, mands of hunger, or to assist their from whom absolute want extorted starving parents.' bitter tears! In spite of this mi- A letter froni the Rev. M. Oldensery, the iron-hearted Napoleon ob- dorp, of Quickborn, on the Elbe, stinately persisted in his resolution, dated 18th February, states :and continued near two months “ That his father, who was senior longer in the city, while sanguinary minister, in the same parish, had actions were incessantly transform- died from the effects of horror and ing the adjacent villages into heaps suffering occasioned by the war. of asbes. As famine at length The old clergyman had often fifty drove him away, you may judge of the military quartered in his what must have been the state of house, and had been plundered in a the wretched citizens and country dreadful manner. His parish church people. After the departure of the bad served as a fortress to the French army, a garrison of 33,000 French; and his parsonage for outmen was left behind at Dreslen. works. He has left eight children The city was now doomed to endure unprovided for. Abbot Salfeld the horrors of a siege ; and of these adds, that no class of his Majesty's some conception may be formed, Hanoverian subjects have suffered when it is considered that a general more from the calamities of the war famine at last compelled the French than the clergy and their widows. to surrender."
The heaviest burthens of the quarNor do these heart-rending pic. tering of foreign troops fell upon tures of calamity apply exclusively them ; their houses being the best to such places as Hamburgh, or in the villages, and their chief emoDresden, or Leipsic*; we could luments depending on the prospeexhibit details equally amicting, rity of their parishioners. He likefrom almost every district in Ger. wise deplores the miserable situation many. We shall merely give a of many bundreds of deserving specimen of them :
schoolmasters, who, with a very “ The most distressing effect of low income, had to sustain the the calamities under which Hanover greatest hardships.” has suffered for these ten years past
“ That part of Saxony lying beis the entire ruin of the excellent tween the Bohemian frontier and
Dresden, including nearly all its * For some account of the sufferings at villages, bas of late been visited by and near Leipsic, see our Number for Fe. the most direful calamities. Nume bruary, p. 129.
rous armies over-ran this envied ter
ritory during several months; and the and poor Wittenberg, to which despair of the enemy of German your benevolent attention has been freedom drove him to the com. already directed, has, together with mission of the most outrageous ex- the adjacent country, been very secesses, Dwellings were burnt or verely handled. The monsters have destroyed: cattle were driven away committed the greatest abominaand perished by famine ; for pro- tions there, not even sparing the vender of all kinds was exhausted, venerable monument of the immortal and not even corn left to sow for the Luther, which they have almost ene coming year. The tenantry of tirely destroyed. these once flourishing districts, · We shall give only one extract houseless and without bread, are more. It is from a letter dated now suffering under the most fatal Erfurt, January, 14, 1814, and contagious sickness ; of 36,000 in. addressed to the Rev. Dr. Schwabe. habitants, 10,000 are afflicted with “ The whole of last year was for infectious fevers, and 6000 have us a time of distress, a succession of already fallen victims to their dire- scenes of horror. In the early part ful effects. More than fourteen hup- of it we saw, daily, thousands of dred families (for twenty-five villages sick and mutilated soldiers arrive are wholly destroyed) are exposed, here, in the most wretched condialmost naked, to the inclemency of tion, emaciated with hunger and winter, and have not even straw eaten up by vermin.
It was a enough to lie upon. We have made dreadfulscene:-many had died on the a collection in our town (Prague), road; others died in the street; and to supply these unfortunate people however exasperated the minds of for a few days. But Bohemia bas the people were against the French syftered too severely to spare much. . in general, no one could deny pity We wished to be enabled to pure to the suffering individuals. At chase some necessaries for their first the sight occasioned the most use, such as straw, vegetables, and painful feelings, but by the fremedicine, and if possible some corn quent repetition the mind became for sowing; the fields at present all more callous." Jying waste. If this cannot be ac- After relating, in a lively and complished, the misery must in- feeling manner, the dreadful opcrease.
pressions and enormous exactions In a letter from the Committee to which the inhabitants of Erfurt which has been appointed at Leip- were subjected during the summer sic, to relieve the inhabitants of and autumn of 1813, the writer prothat town and ils vicinity, is the ceeds to state their subsequent suffollowing passage ;
ferings on the retreat of the French “ You wish us to inform you from Leipsic. what places bave more particularly « On the 22d of October we besuffered. Besides our own weigh- held the dreadful retreat, or rather bourhood, the environs of Lützen flight of the French, which lasted were dreadfully ravaged, on occa- three days and two nights. On the sion of the battle of the 2d of May; 25th the Allies advanced before several villages were burned, toge. our town, and our misery reached ther with the churches and schools. its summit. The first measure of The vicinity of Grimma and Meis-. the garrison was the removal of all sen was likewise cruelly laid waste; the salt in the town to the fortress, and the country contiguous to and such immense requisitions were Dresden, as far as beyond Piroa, is made of all kinds of provisions, Jittle better than one wide desert. that the greatest want arose. Every In Upper Lusatia, the whole tract head of caule was taken away for between Bautzen and Görlitz has the use of the garrison, so that not a been desolated ig an equal degree; single one remained to the inhabi,