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courses, and which will be found of particular use from the variety of manner in the different writers. We confels, however, that, from the situation of the writers, we were led to expect more efforte, in the way of impaflioned eloquence, than we have found. This, in part, is no doubt owing to the rareness of talents for so high a walk of composition, and in part, perhaps, to the example which the leading writers of our church have set, in whose writings little of this quality is to be found; and that little, although from those evidently capable of attaining success, seems rather the effect of accident than of intention. It is said of the French tragedians that they are afraid of being too tragical ; and it is equally true of the Engliih divines that they seem afraid of being eloquent. A prejudice against specimens of this kind of writing still appears to prevail in this country *.

We wished to find more of the discourses in this volume turning upon living manners and characteristic preaching. These are the chief desiderata in preaching. We are sensible of the difficulties to be encountered here; but it should be remembered that in this field there is more fame to be acquired than in any other; and perhaps the scarcity of labourers in it may be owing more to inattention and want of early direction to the importance of the object, than to want of abilities for the task. In this view, it is with pleasure we recommend to the perufal of all who have lately entered, or are about to enter into holy orders, the eleventh fermon of the volume before us, upon the end of preaching, and the way to attain it. The importance and superior excellence of characteristic preaching are there set forth; and we join in sentiment with the author respecting the utility of recurring frequently to particular views and personal delineations; and in short to making what he properly calls characteristic preaching a chief endeavour. Yet we are of opinion that he has not done full justice to the views he has taken up; at least that his illustrations are not immediately obvious; for he requires a second and a third reading before we can follow him. Too little indulgence also is shewn to other modes of public teaching. To what size must we reduce the great mals of modern divinity, if we retain no more than falls within the author's plan? We nevertheless acquiesce in his observations upon a pulpit style.

* It was lately asked in a company of divines, at one of our universities, in what manner the bishop had preached the charity sermon? It was answered, that his discourse appeared sensible, but conveyed in a manner that was flat and unengaging. What! réplied the querist with some marks of contempt, would you have had a bishop attempt to make you cry? As if it were universaliy confessed that all aid from the pallions to bring us to a sense of our duty ought to be carefully rejected.


ve neve The peculiar idioms and phrases of our northern neighbours, are gradually disappearing. Of these we have found here less than we expected; and while, in the graver subjects of philosophy, history, and sermons, they are setting a distinguished example of parts and judgment, they seem no less ready to excel in the purity of their diction. But in the lighter walks of composition it is found they are not so happy. It has long been remarked that the Scotch are deficient in works of humour. To account for this, natural and local causes have been assigned. But if we may judge from our intercourse with many individuals of that country, the Scotch are not deficient in humour; and perhaps their difficulties in the language will alone account for their having produced few works of humour, which, beyond any other, require facility of expression, and an intimacy with the language employed. Their modes of expression in converfation, as well as their accent, are still different from the conversation of their English neighbourse

Art. III. Archeologia ; or, Miscellaneous Tracts relating to Anti

quity. Published by the Society of Antiquaries of London. Vol. VIII. 4to. il. is,

White. London, 1787.

[ Continued. ]

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XIV, Account of the Discoveries in digging a Sewer

. in Lombard-Street and Birchin-Lane, 1786. In a Letter to Mr.

Gough.' IN the interval between those houses, in Lombard-Street,

which are numbered from 82 to 85; at the depth of about nine feet from the surface, a pavement was found composed of 4 small rough ftones; the paving of a back-court, we fuppose. • And about three feet below this, that is, about twelve feet « from the surface, another pavement was discovered of the kind

usually supposed to be Roman, and composed of small irregular

bricks; most of them red, but some few black, and some white;' a teffelláted pavement, and the Hooring of some Roman parlour,

that had been afterwards buried, covered with three feet of earth, and then påved as a back-court. " Though they were of irregular form; they did not differ much in lize; being in length


about ZÁG. REV. VOL. XV. JAN. 1789.

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about two inches, and in breadth about one inch and an half. * They were roughly cemented with a yellowish mortar, and

were laid in a thick bed of coarse mortar and stones.' This confirms them to have been a teflellated pavement. This pavement from west to east-extended about twenty feet.' But

near this payement eastward, on the north fide, parallel with the fide of the sewer, stood a wall composed of the smallerfized Roman brick, about ten feet high and eighteen feet long; in ? which were two flues near each other, one semicircular, the

other rectangular and oblong : the top of this wall, was about
ten-feet below the surface of the street.'. This was another
house built in the Roman faihion. The flues, as they were

called, appear in p. 127. to have been perpendicular, and
were therefore very like our present chimnies; being air-holes to
'the shallow room under the flooring, in which a fire was lighted

for warming the room above. And from the depth of the
wall below, we may be sure there was a cellar under both.

Near the post-office, on the north side of the fewer, about
fourteen feet under the surface, was found a wall of the usual
Roman structure. From the top for about two feet down,

was rough work, and then regular layers of Alat bricks at
** fmaller intervals ;' the common wall of the house, and the
sides of the hypocuuf below. Near this wall, but not more
4 than nine feet below the surface, was a pavement of fat tiles.'
This was at the same depth as the pavement of the back-court
before, and ferved for the flooring of some outhouse.
... These concur to fhew the rise, which has been given to the
ground of London, as well as of Rome, and which has taken
off considerably from the height of the hills of both. Then fol-
lows a list of articles found, and five plates of the articles ac-
company it." And next comes an account of the coins found.
*?-XV. Account of the Discoveries before mentioned, from Mr.

John Jackson, of Clement's-Lane.'
This confirms the preceding account.

The tessellated pave-
inents above are thus described. This pavement, as well as

noft of the rest, was laid on three diftinet beds of mortar; die lowest very coarse, about three inches thick at a medium, and « mixed with large pebbles; over this is fine mortar, very hard, Land of a reddith colour, being mixed with powdered brick (This is about one inch thick, and on it the bricks are laid in (a very fine white cement.' It also improves on the 'account before. <Opposite Abchurch-Lane, there appeared two walts i of unhewn stone, their direction across the street, at the dif(tance of about eight or ten feet from each other; between them

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4 was much black wood, apparently burnt; and indeed many things

dug up hereabouts, discovered plain marks of.conflagration. This shews a street to have run in the direction of Lombard-Street, during the early period of the Romans. And the burnt wood, &c. is the evident relic of one of the many fires, from which London has suffered.

" In many parts of Lombard-Street and Birchin-Lane (which

was afterwards opened), a very large quantity of oyster-Shells was I found at the same depth as the pavements, &c. with a few muscler

Shells; both of the common English kinds,' and both the remains of our muscles and our oysters eaten by the Romans. Between the houses No. 21 and No. 22, another pavement was met ? with of the common sort; and by this there were fragments of

plaifler walls, painted red, with a black border.' But when

the workmen proceeded up Birchin-Lane, they found a fine ! tessellated pavement of very small bricks and stones, nearly

opposite No. 12. Of this only a corner appeared, which is composed of black, red, green, and white stones and brick, forming a beautiful border. It seems by the men's description, that this pavement runs under the footway and the houses there

abouts, if not destroyed when they were built.' And · both ( in Lombard-Street and Birchin-Lane there were found, great quantities of Roman earthen ware, bur chiefly fragments;

coins of gold, silver, and copper, of Claudius, Nero, Galbus, . and other emperors down to Conftantine ; several handles and • fragments of glass urns, bottles, &c.; Roman keys, horns and ( bones of different animals: and, in the upper part of the soil,

Nuremberg counters, coins of Queen Elizabeth, and other (relics of modern times": -no remains of Saxon antiquity hava ing been found, that could be ascertained to be such.

The whole of these discoveries is very judiciously summed up thus : ' A large trench,' fays John Henniker, Esq. F.R.A.S. in a letter, has been excavated sit should be, dug] in Lombard- Street for the first time since the memory of man, which is • funk about sixteen feet deep. The foil is almost uniformiy di(vided into four strata : the uppermoft, thirteen feet fix inches

thick, of faétitious earth; the second, two feet thick, of brick, * apparently the ruins of buildings; the third, three inches thick,

of wood-ajhes, apparently the remains of a town built of wood 6 and destroyed by fire; the fourth, of Roman pavement, com

mon and tessellated. On this pavemerit the coin in question, a gold one of Galba, was discovered; together with several - other coins, and many articles of pottery. Belozü the pavement

the workmen find virgin earth.'

This essay is accompanied with two plates- of vefsels and coins found. B2

• XVI.

« XVI. Obfervations on a Piature by Zuccaro, from Lord Falk

land's Collection. By the Hon. Daines Barrington.' This picture, according to tradition in the family,tepre? sented Lord Burleigh playing at cards --with three other per

fons, who from their dress appear to be of distinction.' But the cards are marked as at present; and differ from those of more modern times, only by being narrower and longer. And there are also considerable heaps of gold and silver on the table ; so that these dignified personages seem to have played, for what

would not at present be called a chicken stake. Mr. Barrington thinks the game a Spanish one, called Rimero. This probably, he says, might have been introduced by Philip the

Second or some of his suite' (an affected word for train] while he was in England.' 'He snews it to have been much in

vogue, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth ; from this passage in Shakespeare,

I left him at Primero
With the Duke of Suffolk.

He then shews from Duchat’s notes on the 22d chapter of the ift book of Rabelais, how Primero was played, and how the picture suits, the account. And he adds that our word flush,

which, when applied to cards, imports that they are all of the “fame colour,' and which is used at Primero as well as other games, is only the Spanish term flux' of the fame import, as

in that language hath the power of h, or nearly so.'


6 land.

( XVII. Observations on the Antiquity of Card-playing in Eng

By the Hon. Daines Barrington.' In this pleasing account, Mr. Barrington finds the first inti

, mation concerning the use of cards in France, under 1426; when no person was permitted to have in his house, tabliers, eschi

quiers, quartes,'&c. tables, chequers, or cards; and under 1404, when, in a fynod held at Langres,--the clergy are forbid the use (of cards.' These two facts, however, we beg leave to observe, prove decisively the much earlier introduction of cards. What was expressly interdicted by a law, must have become very extensive in its practice. What was specifically forbidden to the clergy, must have been common among the laity. And what was thus common and extensive at the beginning of the fifteenth century, could not but have been long known. This observation carries us back to the evidence in Menustrier, which Mr. Barrington too hastily rejects ; of three packs of cardi, 'trois jeux


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