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upon the elders of the Jews, that they could not cause them to cease.” Thus fulfilling the prophecy upon which we are now commenting ; " who hath despised the day of small things ? for they shall rejoice and shall see the plummet in the hand of Zerubbabel, with those seven; they are the eyes of Lord, which run to and fro through the whole earth,” and who is now in the most special and irresistible manner superintending and prospering the work : overruling the machinations of all who oppose the completion of the building of the house of the Lord; which we read (Ezra vi.) was finished in the sixth year of the reign of Darius, (ver. 15,) through a decree made by that potent monarch. (ver. 12.)
This survey has, we think, justified the premised observation, by eliciting that the occasion on which these glorious types, the candlestick, bowl, lamps, and olive-branches were displayed, was precisely that which renders it most highly probable, if not certain, that they were designed to represent the blessed Trinity.
We know that the usual interpretation of these magnific types suppose the two olive
anches, branching forth from the golden candlestick, to be representative of Zerubbabel and Joshua; but as, on heavenly authority, we are informed that the candlestick symbolised the Lord of the whole earth, we cannot but think that such an interpretation is wholly dissonant with the real meaning. The branches conjoined to the candlestick might have been, with perhaps equal probability, supposed to typify the prophets Haggai and Zechariah ; and though Zerubbabel the governor of Judea, and Joshua the high priest, were certainly the two leading men in rebuilding the temple, yet the history, in several instances, mentions, and even commences by speaking of them on terms of equality with the chief of the fathers of Judah and Benjamin. (Ezra i. 5.) In the third chap. ver. 1, it is said that “the people gathered themselves together as one man to Jerusalem,” and that “then stood up Jeshua and Zerubbabel;" and ver. 8 runs as follows: “ In the second month began Zerubbabel and Jeshua, and the remnant of their brethren the priests, (who were all anointed persons,) and the Levites, to set forward the work of the house of the Lord.” In the 4th chapter, when the adversaries of Judah opposed the work, they addressed themselves unto Zerubbabel and the chief of the fathers. These recitals show, that though Zerubbabel and Jeshua were the leading men, yet that they only set forward the important work of re-erecting the temple at Jerusalem, in conjunction with the other chiefs of Judah and Benjamin ; and that, therefore, there is little or no reason to suppose that the typical olivebranches, branching from the Lord of the whole earth, could be intended as representative of them.
But there is also a further consideration which materially weakens, if it does not altogether do away, the justness of the supposition on which we have been descanting. For in the Apocalypse we find the evangelist St. John describing a vision almost exactly similar to that beheld by the
“ And there was given me a reed, like unto a rod : and the angel stood, saying, Rise, and measure the temple of God, and the aitar, and them that worship therein. But the court which is without the temple (that is, the probationary heavens) leave out, and measure it not; for it is given unto the Gentiles : and the holy city shall they tread under foot forty and two months. And I will give power unto my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and threescore days, clothed in sackcloth. These are the two olive-trees and the two candlesticks (the two glorious luminaries) standing before (and, as Zechariah viewed them, conjoined unto) the God of the whole earth. And if any man will hurt them, fire proceedeth out of their mouth and devoureth their enemies : and if any man will hurt them, he must in this manner be killed. These have power to shut heaven, that it rain not in the days of their prophecy: and have power over waters to turn them to blood, and to smite the earth with all plagues, as often as they will. And when they shall have finished their testimony, the beast that ascendeth out of the bottomless pit shall make war against them, and shall overcome them, and kill them. And their dead bodies shall lie in the street of the great city, which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified. And they of the people and kindreds and tongues and nations shall see their dead bodies three days and an half, and shall not suffer their dead bodies to be put in graves. And they that
dwell upon the earth shall rejoice over them, and make merry, and shall send gifts one to another; because these two prophets tormented them that dwelt on the earth. And after three days and an half the Spirit of life from God entered into them, and they stood on their feet; and great fear fell upon them which saw them. And they heard a great voice from heaven, saying unto them, Come up hither. And they ascended up to heaven in a cloud; and their enemies beheld them.” (Rev. xi. 1–12.)
The importance of this vision is alike evidenced by its being accompanied by an angelic interpreter, as was that exhibited to the prophet Zechariah, and with which it forms almost a precise parallel. In the vision of Zechariah the two olivetrees are said to be the two anointed ones that stand by the Lord of the whole earth; in the vision of St. John the two olive-trees are said to be the two witnesses standing before the God of the whole earth. In the vision of Zechariah the olive-trees are described as branching from the golden candlestick, which signified the Lord of the whole earth; in the vision of St. John the olive-trees themselves are called candlesticks, standing before the God of the whole earth. And should the comment we have presumed to offer be esteemed just, the symbol of candlesticks is as aptly appropriate to those bright luminaries who are conjoined in eternal union with the Father of all lights, and who ever live and reign with him, one God, blessed for evermore, as to the parent source from whence all lights proceed. And that these visions are considered one and the same
vision, must be well known to all who have examined our most able commentators on this subject; and cannot, we think, admit of any doubt. Some portions of Bishop Newton's Dissertations on the 11th chapter of the Apocalypse will be here transcribed.
“ By treading under foot the holy city,” he conceives " is meant an era when the church of Christ should in the most indignant manner be trampled upon, and tyrannized over. ‘And I will give power to my two witnesses ;'-at the same time God should raise up some true and faithful witnesses (ver. 3) to preach and protest against those innovations and corruptions of religion. Of these witnesses there should be, though but a small, yet a competent, number; and it was a sufficient reason for making them two witnesses, because that is the number required by the law and approved by the gospel :- In the mouth of two witnesses shall every word be established.' (Deut. xix. 15. Matt. xviii. 16.) And upon former occasions two have often been joined in commission, as Moses and Aaron in Egypt, Elijah and Elisha in the apostacy of the ten tribes, and Zerubbabel and Jeshua after the Babylonish captivity; to whom these witnesses are particularly compared. Our Saviour himself sent forth his disciples two and two, (Luke x. 1,) and it hath been observed also that the principal Reformers have usually appeared as it were in pairs—as the Waldenses and Albigenses, John Huss and Jerome of Prague, Luther and Calvin, Cranmer and Ridley, and their followers. Not that I conceive that