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An Ecpbonefis occurs in Scripture in the way of admiration. Psalm 1xxxiv. 1. How amia* ble are thy tabernacles, O Lord of hosts ! ss So Rom. xi. 33. "O the depth of the riches both of 's the wisdom and knowledge of God! How uns searchable are his judgments, and his ways past

finding our!:

An Ecpbonesis is used in holy Writ to ex. press our desire or intreaty. Psalm lv. 6. - 0 w that I had wings like a dove! for then would " I fly away, and be at reft.'s

Sorrows and lainentations are sometiines vented in the sacred Writings by an Ecphonesis. Ifaiab vi. 5. " Then I said, Wo is me, for I am $ undone." So Psalm cxx. 5. » Wo is me that ss. I sojourn in Mesech, that I dwell in the tents os of Kedar! And

Compassion and pity are sometimes expressed in Scripture by an Ecphonesos. Lam. i. 1. w How does the city sit solitary that was full of * people? how is she become a widow ?s

$ 4. We may add by way of remark and direction as to the Ecphonesis, that, while other Figures are confined to fome particular passion, this seems to extend to all, and is the voice of nature under any kind of emotion and concern; that the Ecphonefis is of admirable service, as it gives a pleasing and striking variety to our difcourses, and is not unlike some sudden cascade, or unexpected fall of a river, after the stream has long glided on in a smooth and serene course.

But

Bụt the advice that was given, that we ought to be sparing in the use of Figures in general, may be especially necessary in the Ecphonefis. Never let this Figure become cheap and common. If we are upon every trite occasion making exclamations, our hearers may be in danger of nauseating the excess, or they will be apt to think we mimic, rather than feel a commotion; or we may defeat our design of awakening their passions by a redundancy in this kind of Figure, for he that always accustoms himself to superlatives in Rhetoric can go no higher; and thus when he has a strong demand from the nature, or from the powerful sensation of his subject, for superlatives, he will stand fair to be neglected, as he that showers upon all men the highest praise without any distinction, absolutely puts it out of his power to exalt a character that merits the highest commendations. In short, let us always bear in mind this rule, never to break out in an exclamation but when our subject will warrant it, or our own ardor produces it, left we fall under the rebuke of HORACE,

Such vain exclaimers are the mark of scorn ;
A mountain labours, and a mouse is born *.

Quid dignum tanto feret hic promiffor hiatu?
Parturiunt montes ; nascetur ridiculus mus.

HORAT, Art. Poetic. 1.138.

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CHAPTER III.

The APORIA considered.

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$1. The definition of the Aporia. $ 2. Instances

of it from Terence, Cicero, Virgil, and Livy, $ 3. Examples' of it from Scripture. $ 4. The use of the Aporia.

$1.
APORIA, or doubting t, is a Figure

whereby we express an hesitation where to begin our discourse, or a difficulty what to do in fome arduous affair, or what to refolve upon in some critical emergency.

$ 2. TERÉNCE furnishes us with an instance of this kind :

Wretch that I am, what course shall I pursue ?
Or what thall I attempt? I see th' old man
Returning from the country. Shall I speak,
Or shall I hold my peace

*?

CICERO + From a pogow, I doubt. Quid igitur faciam miser ?

(nem, Quidne incipiam ? Ecce autem video rure redeuntem feDicam huic, annon?

TERENT, in Eunuch, act. 5. sc. 5.

CICERO makes use of this Figure, when he says, “As to what concerns me, I know 'not 66 which way to turn me. Should I deny the “ infamy of a corrupt judgment ? or that the - “ matter has been agitated in our assemblies ? “ or that it has been debated at our tribunals ? “ or that it has been heard in the senate ? Or “ shall I offer to eradicate an opinion of such .“ weight, so deeply rooted, and of such anti

quity, from the minds of men +?” We have an instance of this Figure preserved by CICERO from a speech of GRACCHUS : " Miserable si man that I am ! whither shall I turn myself? “ where can I go? To the capitol? but it swims “ with my brother's blood. '. To my home? “ what to see a mother wretched, bewailing her“« felf, and overwhelmed with sorrow I?”

Dido's speech, in Virgil, may be added, as a very lively and copious example of this Figure :

Thus the proceeds; and thus her lab'ring soul
Vents to herself the fad fufpenfe she feels.
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What + Equidem quod ad me attinet, quò me vertam "nescio. Negem fuisse infamiam judicis corrupti? Negam illam sem agitatam in concionibus? Jactatam in judiciis?. Commemoratam in fenatû ? Evellam ex animis hominum tantam opinionem ? tam penitùs infitam? tam vetuftam ? CLUENTIO, § 10. n. 1.

Quò me miser conferam ? Quò vertam ? In capitoliumne? At fratris fanguine redundat. A ń domum? matremne ut miseram, lamentantemque videam, & abjectam ? CICER. de Orat. lib. iii. 56.

Cicer. pro

What shall I do? What must I then recal
My former lovers, and be made their scorn?
Shall I petition fome Numidian Prince ;
To be my husband; I, who erft so oft
Rejected their addresses with disdain?
Or shall I chace the Trojan fleet, and wait
A duteous vassal on their sovereign will ;
And this becaufe I found such kind returns
For all the hospitality I show'd,

And they so well their sense of favour prov'd?
But yet fuppofe I was inclin'd to go,

Would they not drive me from their haughty ships, 3. And sport with my distress? What, don't I know,

And don't I feel how false the Trojans are?
And could I brook it in a lonely flight,
Meanly to follow their triumphant fleet?
Or fhall I with all Carthage up in arms,
And breathing vengeance, drive them thro' the deep?
But will my Tyrians, who reluctant left
Their native shores, and lanch'd into the sea,
Be willing to embark, and Tail again?
Die then as thou deserv'st; and let the sword,
The friendly sword, for ever end thy pains *

Here

Sic adeo infiftit, fecumque ita corde volutat.
En quid ago? rursusne procos irrisa priores
Expériar? Nomadumque petam connubia fupplex,
Quos ego sum toties jam dedignata maritos ?
Jliacas igitur classes, atque ultima Teucrum
Juffa fequar ? quiane auxilio juvat ante levatos,
Et bene apud memores veteris ftat gratia fa&ti ?
Quis me autein, fac velle, finet? Ratibusque fuperbis
Irrisam accipiet ? Nescis heu, perditas necdum
Laomedonteæ fentis perjuria gentis ?

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