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fince their vaft extent of territory, its various foils and productions, will fecure to them all their wants. Dr. Price is not aware of a powerful and jealous neighbour, on the fouthern part of the continent; he does not reflect on the temptations to an illicit trade; on the habits of fome of the inhabitants of North America in this way, and their probable confequences.
It is a liberal and juft maxim, that reafon, properly regulated, will not mislead; and, on this foundation, Dr. Price allows the free liberty of difcuffion. But this is a dangerous topic. Reafon is feldom well regulated; we know that improper propenfities will often influence our opinions, and human wit is fo fubtle, that it can eafily give the impofing appearance of demonstration to the most dangerous tenets. We will allow, that the delufive mask may be drawn afide by a judicious reafoner; but the conteft is very unequal between reason and paffion, between the cool philofopher and the eager libertine. At the fame time, we are equally averse with Dr. Price, to any controuling power; and can only determine, that this liberty of difcuffion, though tacitly allowed, fhould not be encouraged it fhould not be reftrained by a civil magiftrate; but those should not be urged to an examination who are un' able properly to decide.
The will of Mr. Ricard was lately published in France, and conveyed by Dr. Franklin to Dr. Price, who justly obferves, that the turn of humour in it undoubtedly renders it a compofition not perfectly suitable to the other parts of this pamphlet.'-His grandfather gave him twenty-four livres, and, at the death of the grandfon, it amounted to five hundred. This fum is directed to be divided into five parts. The firft, with the accumulated compound intereft, to be applied at the end of one century; the fecond at the end of two ; and the last at the end of five hundred years. The applica tion is particularly directed to useful and benevolent purposes. Among the deftinations of the laft fum, the teftator has ordered the public debts of France and England to be paid. There is one devise that, for its benevolence and humanity, we must transcribe.
I intreat the managers of these public work-houses to give the greatest encouragement to fuch trades as can be performed by women. This fex, fo dear to all fenfible minds, has been neglected or oppreffed by all our inftitutions.-Seductions of all kinds feem to confpire against their virtue.-Neceffity precipitates them involuntarily into an abyfs of infamy and mifery.
The low price which is fet upon the labour of women is out of all proportion to the inferiority of their bodily ftrength. Let the public work-houses fet the example of paying them better. • There
There are in France many houfes of correction where the misconduct of women is feverely punished, but where in reality it is only fufpended, mere confinement having no tendency to eradicate vice. Why fhould there not be one establishment where a young woman, conquered by temptation, and on the brink of defpair, might prefent herfelf, and fay-" Vice offers me gold: I only ask for labour and bread. In compaffion to my remorfe affift and ftrengthen me. Open an afylum for me where I may weep without being feen, expiate those faults which purfue and overwhelm me, and recover a fhadow of peace."-Such an inftitution exists no where-I appoint, there fore, a thousand millions towards establishing one.
• The fnares which are laid by vice for women without fortunes, would make fewer victims if more affiftance was given them. We have an infinity of establishments for perfons in the higher ranks of life which do honour to the generofity of our forefathers. Why have we none for this purpofe?-1 defire, therefore, that two thousand millions be employed in establishing in the kingdom a hundred hofpitals, which fhall be called Hofpitals of Angels. There fhall be admitted into each a hundred females of the age of feven or eight years, and of the moft engaging forms. They fhall receive the most perfect education in regard to morals, ufeful knowledge, and agreeable accomplishments. At the age of eighteen they may quit the hofpital in order to be married; at which period they fhall each be paid a portion of 40,000 livres. I mention this moderate fum because it is my wish that they be neither reproached for want of fortune, nor efpoufed from intereft. An annual income of 2000 livres fhall be given alfo to their parents. **** Except once in the year at a folemn and fplendid proceffion, they fhail rarely appear in public, but fhall be conftantly employed in their afylum in learning all that can render them one day excellent wives and mothers.
• In order to fit them, in particular, for domeftic economy, I defire that after they have been taught the most accurate ideas of expences of all kinds, queftions be propofed to them from time to time, to which they fhall be obliged to give answers by word of mouth, and alfo in writing; as for example—“ If you had fuch or fuch an income, under fuch or fuch circumftances, how much would you appropriate to your table, your houfe-rent, your maintenance, and the education of your children? How many fervants would you keep? How much would you referve for fickness and unforeseen expences? How much would you confecrate to the relief of the unfortunate and the public good?-If your income depended either entirely or in part upon a tranfient advantage or a place which was not affured to you, how much would you expend annually? What fum would you referve for forming a capital ?" &c. &c. Prizes publicly given to the best answers to questions of this kind would conftitute, in my opinion, an exercise equally engaging and more useful
than the little comedies and novels with which young perfons in the higher stations are generally entertained.'
The whole will is extremely curious and entertaining. Need we add, that the author was a teacher of arithmetic? He endeavours to fecure the performance of the different devifes; but the whole is rather a lecture on the great power of compound intereft, than a plan likely to be executed,
Confidérations fur l'Ordre de Cincinnatus, ou Imitation d'un Pamphlet Anglo-Américain. Par le Compte De Mirabeau. 8vo. 5s. in Boards. Johnson.
Uthors have feized with eagerness on the independence of
America, as the scene in which every vifionary scheme, either of finance or government, may be realited. In this new world, the world which the French have aided the Americans to acquire, they have offered their affistance to govern; in this moment of liberty, their enthusiasm was eager to difplay itself; for it was fuppofed that enthufiafm, in favour of American liberty at leaft, might be allowed; but congrefs has looked on them with a cool suspicion, and the ardor of their efforts is found to be displeasing to their own rulers. The fpark of liberty imported from America might be raised into an alarming conflagration at home. The prefent work, which probably on this account was published here, contains several pieces relative to this new kingdom, or rather this imperfect union of different ftates. The principal one relates to the new Order of Cincinnatus, which, under the appearance of a patriotic union of the defenders of their country, in car author's opinion, conceals defigns hoftile to its liberty. The number which compofes this body cannot be less than ten thoufand, as they have adopted the French officers who have ferved in America; and, fince its firft inftitution, have admitted honorary members. The count fuppofes, that this numerous fociety will join in every defign; and, as the honours are hereditary, the flighteft misfortune refulting from the union will be a rifing nobility, a body of patricians, diftinguished by the deserts of their ancestors, if not by their own. Perhaps there were really few more noble acts than Washington's refignation of his command: if it was inferior to that of Sylla, it was because he had borne his faculties more meekly,' and had lefs to fear from the mortifications of disappointed ambition, or the revenge of a mutilated party. The fituations were in many refpects fimilar; yet the fame man is now prefident of this fufpected fociety. The count de Mirabeau's ade drefs to him on this fubject is animated and ftrong.
day on which it was determined to admit honorary members, Washington, fo great when he returned to the station of a fimple individual,-Washington, the first citizen and benefactor of a people whom he had freed from flavery, wished to diftinguish himself from that people! Why did he not fee, that his name was beyond all diftinction? Hero of the revolution which broke the chains of half the world, why did he not depise the dangerous, the guilty, the vulgar, honour of being the hero of a party?'
In this language, the count examines the feveral rules which connect this famous fociety, or rather, if our author is not miftaken, this infamous confederacy; and it must be acknowleged that, in many parts of them, there are fufpicious paffages, either accidentally or defignedly interfpersed. But, though we allow the full force of the count's fufpicions, the guilt may be in fome measure evaded.-A fuccefsful revolution is no longer a rebellion, as an established herefy becomes a reformation; fo that we muft ufe the popular language on this subject, though the event has not in reality changed our former opinions.
Thofe who are moft converfant with the politics of the American continent perceive that, inftead of one empire, thefe new ftates are divided, jealous of each other, and each affuming the fupreme power, with little regard to the authority of that body, which the urgency of impending destruction conftituted, and which was supported during the common calamities. Another body, with fome inherent power of its own, became therefore neceffary, to connect the disjointed limbs, and to make a refpectable whole of feveral infignificant parts. This probably would have been one effect of the new order; and it would have been a falutary one: that it was anticipated by feveral of the ftates, feems probable, from their oppofition to its establishment. In its prefent fituation, America may be a commercial nation; but it will be ever at the mercy of an intriguing or warlike prince. It can never be great, powerful, or even fecure, except it be more perfectly united.
The next tract in this volume is the Letter of Monf. Turgot to Dr. Price. It contains, in our opinion, fome trifling fpeculations on what America may be, and the steps which the ought to purfue; but little of confequence enough to induce us to analyse, or make any extracts from it.
Dr. Price's pamphlet, on the Revolution of America, and the Means of rendering it useful to the World, is next translated, with notes, by count de Mirabeaù. The pamphlet itself we have already reviewed; and the obfervations contain about eighty pages. The first part of thefe is a commentary,
the latter confifts of notes on detached paffages. The chief objects of the commentary are the degree of power to be allowed to congrefs, and the commerce of this new empire. On the neceffary power, the count differs from our countryman; but we apprehend America has already decided the question, by leaving its national affembly very little, and that little difputed. The deftructive effects of commerce have exercised the powers of every fuperficial declaimer; and our author, who deferves a fuperior title, is content to mix with the servile herd. 'Let the merchant, who builds his ware-houfes, conftructs veffels, and fpeculates in different attempts, prefer, if he pleases the gloomy calculations of the counting-house, to the sweet view of nature, the interesting riches of the country. Do not disturb him: let his property be as facred as that of others, let his liberty be inviolable under the protection of the laws. But he is an inhabitant, not a citizen of your empire. He has preferred the world; when he chufes it he fhall have a country. He will, at fome period, convert his money into land; and this change, favourable to your fpirit and your manners, will be the ultimate ambition of all your inhabitants. Confequently, without violence, without reftraint, without laws, prohibitions, or injustice, you will place in the highest estimation, this innocent and fraiernal art of agriculture, which increases population, nourishes the spirit of freedom, fupplies defenders to their country, advice to its affemblies, arbitrators of difference, friends of virtue, and, fince riches must be regarded, real riches which may increase without danger, and whofe contagion is by no means formidable.'—What a pleafing but delufive image, and how inconfiftent with the views of the author's governors, who have kindled the flames of war in every quarter of the world, merely to extend its commerce! Both extremes may be equally fatal; but language as plaufible and animated may be employed in the recommendation of commerce, properly regulated, which connects the most diftant quarters of the globe, and forms one harmonious family of nations, feparated by unfathomable feas, and tracklefs deferts.
The detached notes are on air balloons, for no work now can appear without fome mention of these exhibitions; on the reprefentation of Great Britain in parliament; and on the kind of commerce beft adapted for the Americans. The two laft fubjects are not eafily affected, either by the fpeculations of Dr. Price, his commentator, or reviewer. On the firft, we may perhaps be indulged with a few reflections, fince the count communicates to us the obfervations of a very respectable chemift and philofopher, the duc de Chaulnes.