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of my dispatch of the seventh of publish, in the usual form, all ediêts, January last, only holds good so regulations, &c. proceeding from long as every order of my citizens the sovereign, which are not directly observe the implicit respect that is in opposition to the Joycuse Entréc*. due to me; and if there fhould still - To this final determination of the be found refractory persons, who emperor, the states refused their afshould be guilty of the least act of fent; alleging, that the innovationsit fedition, injurious to my authority, tended to establifh, would be such as I have given positive orders to my by their oaths they were bound to government-general to act against refift. The government-general, those culprits without observing the therefore, proceeded, in pursuance usual forms of law, which, in all such of the emperor's orders, to issue a circumstances, are to be rendered sub- proclamation, by which the council servient to the necessity of the case.of Brabant was diffolved, and the

Thus (pake the despot; and never Joyeuse Entrée (the magna charta surely was the tyrant's plea of neceffi- of Brabant) revoked ! Matters were ty urged in a more tyrannical manner! now brought to an issue between the To this peremptory declaration there contending parties; the emperor was no reply; the only alternative claimed the right of exercising arbiwas passive obedience, or determined trary power; and the people resolved resistance. The former was according- to defend their privileges, as men and ly adopted in appearance, while pre- citizens. The heads of the patriotic parations for the latter were fecretly party withdrew themselves from a making. An extraordinary meeting country, where every engine of deof the states was held, in the mean spotism was now employed to quench time, by the emperor's command, the generous flame of liberty, which on the eighteenth of June; at which began to burst forth with astonishhis ultimatum was made known to ing effulgence. In the month of the two first orders of the state, by September, all the members of the the following propofitions.-1. That état noble, the archbishop of Mechthe usual subsidy should be continued lin, as head of the clergy, and several for ever in regard to the ordinary deputies of the tiers état, repaired to imposts.-2. That the tiers état, or Breda, where the duke d’Aremberg, third estate, should be re-established, and M. Vander Noot (the Washing. and enjoy its ancient privileges, so ton of the Netherlands!) were waitthat fifteen provincial towns. Thould ing to receive them; and, having fit and vote in the afsembly, instead constituted a regular assembly of the of the three chief cities, as at pre- ftates, they had recourfe to a more sent.-3. That in all deliberations decisive measure than they had hion public affairs, each order should therto ventured to adopt. They have a separate voice, so that two voted a remonstrance to the empeorders, forming a majority, should ror, in which they lamented the fad be able to act without the con- neceßlity of assembling as a banished sent of the third.—And, lastly, legislature; stated the rights and That to prevent the council of privileges which the province of Brabant from acting hereafter in Brabant had enjoyed from the most opposition to the royal authority, remote times, confirmed and extendthey should be obliged to seal and ed by a long succession of fovereigns;

* The Joyeuse Entrée, or Joyful. Entry, by the prince on the occasion of his making is a charter of liberty confirmed to the a public entry into his capital, to the great subjects of Brabant, by one of their sove- joy of his people. The charter began with reigns; and it is distinguished by that ap- the words, " The Joyful Entry." pellation, because the charter was granted

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reminded him of the solemn oaths, gress. This detachment, consisting
by which he himself was bound to of about four thousand chosen troops,
maintain and defend thein; described came in light of a small body of
the wanton and oppressive infractions, patriots, on the twenty-seventh of
the illegal and Mhameless fubverfion October, whom they pursued to the
of their conftirution; and concluded gates of Turnhout, a small town,
with a declaration, thai, inberiting about eight miles to the north of
the loyalty and the spirit of their the Scheld. After some retiitance,
ancestors, though thicy were ready the gates were forced, but the Bra.
to facrifice their lives and fortunes banters maintained a running fight,
for the glory of their monarch, they in order to draw Schroeder to the
were not prepared for a dattardly market-place; where a dreadful fire
and perfidious surrender of rights of artilery and mulquetry, froin the
which they exercised in trust tor tops and windows of the houics,
their fellow-citizens and their potle- was immediately opened upon him,
rity. They therefore earnestly ad- and produced a terrible carnage.
jured his majesty, by an immediate The Imperialists, unable to main-
revocation of his illegal edičts, and tain this dangerous post, very speedily
re-instatement of the province in its retreated, though not till they had
rights, to absolve thiem from the sustained a conliderable loss, which
cruel necessity, which the most fa- they attempted to retaliate by a cruel
cred duty mult impose, of an appeal attack on defenceless old men, wo«
to God and their swords. This re- men, and children. This import-
monttrance was forwarded to Vienna, ant advantage was attended with
where it experienced that reception the most happy confequences ; it
which the known pertinacity of the animated the patriots to farther ex-
emperor gave but too just reason to crtions, by affording the well-founded
expect. At Brussels, in the mean hopcot future success. The extenlive
time, the fevereit inquisition was city of Ghent, with its strong cita-
eitablished by general Dalton—who del, were taken, after a desperate
proved himself truly worthy of the and bloody resistance; Bruges sur-
confidence reposed in him by his rendered next, and at length general
tyrannical matter-aided by count Dalton was compelled to evacuate
Trauttmandorff; the peaceful ha- Brutiels, in a manner highly dif-
bitations of quiet citizens were vin. graceful both to his courage and
lated ; all letters were opened; and conduct.
the prisons were speedily filled with The emperor, at length conscious
those who were either proved, or of his error, when too late to correct
suspected, to favour the cause of it, descended, from the threatening
Freedom. This conduct convinced despot, to the hunible supplicant :
the patriots, that they must now ac- more liberal terms were now offered
complish by force, what remonttrance than had, at first, been required ;
had failed to effect; they accordingly but the patriots, deriving wisdom
took up arms, and commenced hoiti- from experience, were sensible of
liries, by the attack of Lillo and the madness of trusting to the pro-
Lifenshock, two small forts on the mises of a man, whom the more fa-
frontiers of Dutch Brabant, which cred obligations of an oath had
they furprised, but were obliged to proved inadequate to restrain from
abandon on the approach of a de- the gratification of a restless ambie
tachment of the Imperial army, une tion, and the exertion of unprinci-
der the command of count Schroeder, pled rapacity. The die was cast ;
Sent by Daiton to impede their pro. and the Brabançons proceeded to a
VOL. II.

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formal renunciation of the emperor's prerogatives it had lost for more authority, and a declaration of in- than half a century, are sufficientiy dependence, which have been fol- known. But since that time an lowed by an union of the different arittocratic party, equally inimical ftates, and the establishment of a to the liberties of the people and the regular government --- distinguished constitutional rights of the crown, by the appellation of “ The United have been gradually acquiring a Belgic States."

dangerous degree of influence and Such were the cause and progress power; the evil effects of which beof this important revolution ; which came manifest on the commencecannot, however, be deemed com- ment of the war with Ruflia. Sti. plete, fince the strong fortress of mulated by the intrigues, if not Luxemburgh is still in poffeflion of tempted by the bribes of the emthe Imperialists, and since the con- prets, they refused their support to fent of foreign powers to acknow. the monarch, and determined to ledge them as an independent state, with-hold those subsidies, without is ftill wanting. But unanimity of which, they well knew, he would be sentiment, among the individuals of unable to maintain the content. But this new republic, cannot fail to per- a timely exertion of vigour, on the fect what a generous fpirit of free- part of the king, gave a seasonable dom has so happily begun. The check to these seditious efforts; havonly object of lerious apprehension, ing quenched the first sparks of reis the extensive influence of the volt, hy committing the chief of clergy ; who, though hitherto confi- these factious insurgents to prison, dered but as secondary agents in he proceeded to abolish the aristopromoting the general cause, begin craticinfluence, by the publication of to exhibit certain symptoms of a an edict, which gave an equal right fanatic and intolerant spirit, appa- to all orders of the state to serve their rently founded on claims which would country in any situation for which infallibiy pollute the fair fountain they are qualitied by their talents of liberty ; and might, if directed or knowledge. By the adoption of into a different channel, prove finally this prudent meafure, and by the deftructive of that noble fabric which confcquent admiffion of feveral citithey have so effentially contributed zens to the honour of a feat at his to raise,

council, he has effectually conciliated A evolution, of a very different the affections, and secured the supnature, has taken place in the king- port, of ihe commons; thereby efla dom of Sweden, where the people blishing his own power on the most owe their emancipation from a state folid basis. Thus the insidious at. of the most abject fervitude, to an tempts of Ruffia, have experienced important extension of the royal au- a complete disappointment; and the thority. The changes in the go- empress may expect, in the enfuvernment of Sweden, from the death ing campaign, to be attacked with of Charles the Twelfth, when the that accumulation of force, and Itates compelled his sister Ulrica that increase of fpirit, which muft Eleonora to renounce all hereditary ever result from the cordial union right, and to convert an absolute of king and people. into an elective monarchy, to the re- But the most remarkable event of volution of one thousand feven hun- the present year-an event which dred and seventy-two, when the fpi- will alone fuffice to renderit a memorit and address of Gustavus the rable æra in the annals of history—is Third, restored to the crown those the revolution which has taken place

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in the government of France. This which due restrictions are placed on fingular occurrence has overturned the fovereign authority, and the all the best-concerted plans of mo- people poffess that weight in the nanarchical advocates, and destroyed tional scale which nature and reason the long-received maxims of politi- aflign them. The partial and opcal theorists; but on the ruins of pressive dißribution of justice, as those fiinsy structures has this im- being the most sensibly felt, became portant truth been established the first object of complaint. The When the people, by an exertion of law-writings of Elie de Beaumont arbitrary power, are deprived of their and the president du Paty, and natural rights

, without receiving a the inimitable pleadings of Targét, just and adequate return of civil - breathed a spirit of freedom, which liberiy, they will, sooner or later, would have done honour to any fhake off the degrading yoke, which country, but which, in the prefinks the man into the flave. ceding reign, would have proved

To investigate the causes, mediate the certain means of immuring those and immediate, of this revolution; friends of mankind in the horrid to trace its rise and progress, and dungeons of the Bastille.--Lettres de mark its probable effects, as well on cachet, those dreadful engines of the French themselves, as on the despotism, were next attacked, and general system of European politics; in investigating the dangers with would inevitably lead us into a train which they were pregnant, the prinof discussions, that would far exceed ciples of arbitrary power were, of the limits prescribed to this article course, exposed-and, of course, of intelligence. Without entering held up to universal deteftation. therefore on those topics, we must Thus the seeds of discontent were content ourselves with observing, spread by degrees, and murmurs bethat it is probable the strict inter- gan to prevail throughout the kingcourse which, for these last twenty dom: but the space between muryears, has sublisted between the Eng- mur and action was vait, and appalish and French, and the extreme rently impassable; being defended partiality evinced by the latter for by an army of two hundred thouthe language and literary works of sand men, whose devotion to the the former, tended to confirm that despot who governed the state was taite for liberty, and to diffuse that proverbially enthufiaftic. This obknowledge of the rights of man, ítruction, however, which indifferent which the writings of Montesquieu, spectators deemed insurmountable, Rousseau, and Voltaire, had origi- was fortunately removed; and as nally imparted. The perfidious part the alliance with America had alwhich the French embraced in the ready inspired the will, so it now American war, supported by the furnished the means, to effect a revoshort-lighted policy of M. de Ver- lution in the eftablished governgennes, (who had no rational claims ment. It is well known, that the to the ample conimendations he has ambition and munificence of Lewis received, either as a man or a mi- the Fourteenth misnamed the nister) introduced a spirit of discul- Great--involved the nation fo deepfion on political topics, the mostly in debt, that the utmost exerdangerous that could possibly be to- tions of his succcffor were inadelerated in an arbitrary state. Hence quate to repair the fatal ravages of they naturally proceeded to a com- his reign; and at the commenceparative view of their own fituation ment of our dispute with our Amewith that of other kingdoms, in rican colonies, the French finances

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were still in a state of derangement. had therefore every motive of justice But this consideration was inade- and reason), to support with energy quate to restrain the count de Ver- the propofals they had made. The gennes from pursuing the dictates great butinefs of the nation being of that pitiful and mistaken policy, thus retarded, the king, on the which seéks the depression of a rival, twenty-eighth of May, write to the at the risk of its own welfare. He president of the commons, recomrushed headlong into the American mending a speedy adjustment of the war, heedless of the consequences; differences lublitting between the and by that means encreated the na- different orders; in confequence of tional'debt lo confiderably, that the which, a deputation waited on his augmentation of impofts, though majelty, to inform bim, that all the great, proved insufficient to dif- impediments to a friendly and effeccharge the interest; nor have all the tual union, originated with, and endeavours of the most skilful finan- were still supported by, the nobility ciers been hitherto able to prevent a and clergy. The king, in answer, gradual encreate of expendicure, repeated the exhortations he had which has constantly exceeded the urged in his letter; and the deputarevenue, from one to between two tion having returned to the commonand three millions Iterling. This hall, the commons sent a fummons inability compelled the king, how- 'to the two first orders to meet them, ever reluctantly, to affemble the for the purpose of proceeding to States of the kingdom, which had a verification of their refpective pot been convened since the last cen- powers. This citation produced a tury, and thereby to afford an op- nieeting of the whole body of the portunity to the people, to assert commons, together with some few those rights which they had so re- individuals of the nobles and clergy, cently learned to appreciate. who were attached to the popular

The first meeting of this import. cause. This meeting they formally ant assembly, destined to decide on pronounced to be the National As. the future fate of twenty-fix mil. sembly of France; and resolved, that lions of people, was productive of the non-attendance of the majority * tumuits and divifions, which seemed of the nobles and clergy should not

likely to defeat the grand object of be suffered to operate as an impeditheir convention. It was strenuoufly ment to public business. They next contended, by the nobility and the proceeded to verify the elections, clergy, that every question should be and then took into confideration the fubmitted to the separate decision of state of the nation, paffing several each of the three orders ; when the resolutions, which they declared to commons, by an union of the two be the voice of the assembly of the first orders, would have been left in fates general of France, and ordered a constant minority, and have con- them to be registered accordingly. fequently remained as mere cyphers These proceedings, however, as in the national assembly; whereas they tended to deítroy that aristothey insisted, on their part, that the cratic influence which formed the three orders should form one con- chief fupport of arbitrary power, junct body, and every question be were highly disagreeable to the king, decided by a majority of voices, who remonttrated with the president

his was a contest of the greateit on their irregularity and improimportance, as the commons were priety. But the commons perfe. equal in numbers to the two orders vered in the fame line of conduct, of the pobles and clergy united, and with that firmness which should

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