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by the furface; that the regular efcape of this matter depends upon fuch various circumftances, that it must be liable to occa fional interruptions, and that in confequence of thefe interruptions, the furface of the fkin must be fometimes overcharged with heat.

• The effect of this accumulation of heat from within, if we may be allowed to confider the fact fimply, must be precifely the fame as if an extraordinary quantity of heat were to be applied to the skin from without; and which is well known to be as follows: a fmall degree of heat, and which is not long con tinued, excites only an increafed fenfibility in the part; if a larger quantity, or if longer continued, it occafions a fenfe of burning, the part becomes red, is inflamed, and tumefied, perhaps, by the fimple expanfive power of heat; and if fill more be applied, the circulation in the cutis is obftructed, and a decompofition takes place, which is attended either with the vefication or exulceration of the part.'

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In this instance, which we may confider as a fpesimen of our author's reafoning, we fufpect a confiderable miftake; it is very doubtful whether the heat produced on the furface is a primary or a fecondary effect; or more strictly, whether it is a mere evacuation of a fuperabundant principle, or the confequence of a very different evacuation. We fufpect it to be fecondary, because we can excite it by raising inflammation, without primarily increafing the heat of the fyftem; by the milky juice, for inftance, of fome very acrid plants applied in a quantity, which fo far from confining the heat of the part, contributes to leffen it by evaporation. We can leffen it by caufes which, according to the author's fyftem, ought to increase it; because they do confine the heat, viz. by the application of dry powders in eryfipelas, by using flannel linings to breeches worn in riding. The one prevents the fpreading, by really absorbing the cause of the eruption, viz. the acrid ferum; the other prevents excoriation, by absorbing the perfpirable matter. In most of the eruptions, from attrition, the inflammation feems to be firft excited; and Mr. Rigby knows that the fecretion from inflamed glands is always viated, and very generally rendered highly acrid. There is one fatt which, on this fyftem, we are unable to explain, viz. the eruptions which arife on applying a cold cabbage leaf behind a child's ear.

But though Mr. Rigby feems, in our opinion, to have erred in the explanation of fome phænomena, yet, in the more effential refpects, his work is highly valuable and important. By diminishing the heat of the part, if the fuperabundant heat be really the caufe of the eruption, we directly removeit; if it be only a concomitant fymptom, all our powers em

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101 ployed in leffening heat are also fedatives, and oppose inflammation. It is a pleafing reflection, therefore, that we can ultimately agree; and we think his condemnation of poultices, ointments, and other bad conductors of heat, perfectly just ; for coolers are not only fedatives, but to prevent the diffipation of heat, if we do not by the fame means obviate its other effects, increases the inflammation.

Yet, in fome of the cutaneous eruptions of children, which have been preceded by fickness, head-ach, &c. coolers are certainly precarious remedies; and we wish that ou: intelligent author had added fome cautions refpecting them. With regard to the fmall-pox, and miliary fevers, we fully agree with him. Free cold air, in the meazles, is of more doubtful authority, and our author feems to hefitate in recommending it; but we fully agree with him in the propriety of using a tepid bath, the heat of which is fomewhat below the heat of the fkin: we fuppofe about ninety-two or ninety-four degrees of Fahrenheit.

In eryfipelas and scarlatina, we believe cold to be highly ufeful; but when either disease is violent, and attended with putrid fever, we should fufpect the propriety of cold applications in any very great extent, left we bring on gangrene. In fmaller degrees, cold will be one of the most powerful means of preventing it; and we prefume it will be always neceffary to ufe free cold air.

In the elephantiafis, the application of cold is probably more doubtful, because it is never attended with any very great heat, and its caufe feems to lie beyond the power of external medicine. Of its ufe in the fcald-head, we think more favourably, and fhall infert a cafe in which it fucceeded completely. After defcribing the disease, Mr. Rigby obferves,

The fubject of heat, at this time, particularly engaging my attention, it occurred to me, that this complaint might, poffibly, be in fome measure produced by an accumulation of it; at leaft, whatever was the caufe of it, it appeared very probable that the large and increasing fcab which covered the difeafed furface, retarded the cure, on the principle of its preventing the natural efcape of heat, it being, evidently, of fuch a loose texture, as to be a very flow conductor of it. I refolved, therefore, immediately to try whether keeping the part conftantly moift with wet rags would not relieve it, by favouring the escape of heat from it; but as whilft the thick cruft was interpofed between the furface of the head and the wet rag, its influence could but be felt in a very fmall degree; 1 previously removed the scab, by an ointment flightly impregnated with a decoction of cantharides, it being compofed of the unguentum epifpalticum of the Edinburgh difpenfatory, and two H 3

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parts of axungia; and the furface being now perfectly expofed, and in a state of digeftion, I immediately applied a piece of linen cloth, foaked in water, not quite fo cold as the air was: the difagreeable fmell was immediately removed by this, and the child appeared more comfortable. I recommended the rags to be conftantly wetted as they became dry, but to be removed very feldom, that the air might not be brought too often in contact with it. For a while the part looked much better, and feemed difpofed to heal, but it not being kept fo conftantly wet as I could have wifhed, from an apprehenfion that the plan was attended with fome danger of giving the child cold, the fcabs again formed, and I was a fecond time under the neceffity of removing them by means of the ftimulating ointment; after which I prevailed upon the mother to confent to its being more frequently wetted, and which being accordingly done, the good effects of it became manifeft in a few days, as the discharge of matter was totally fuppreffed; and though there was fomething like a cruft formed by the thickening of that which exuded the first two or three days after the ointment was ufed, yet it was perfectly dry, and fcaled off by degrees, though flowly, leav ing the furface of the head, in the course of fome weeks, perfectly cicatrized; after which I fill thought it right to continue the wet rags; and when the skin appeared to be whole, I even made the water, in which the linen was moiftened, more volatile, by the addition of a little rectified spirit of wine.'

In all inftances of fpreading ulcers with fœtid difcharges, Mr. Rigby advifes the practitioner to prevent frequent expofure to the air. Scalds and burns produce inflammation of the fame kind as eryfipelas, and the ferous difcharge is always highly acrid perhaps the water, befides repreffing inflammation from its coldnefs, may alfo dilute the difcharge. The bladders are directed only to be pun&tured, that the skin may unite by the first intention.

In a fpreading ulcer, attended with extraordinary heat, cold water was highly useful; and Mr. Rigby entertains fanguine expectations of its future utility. He remarks, that it could not act by cleaning the wound, because the fore was covered, and the cloth continually wetted by a fpunge; but, as in scalds, it may have diluted the discharge, and leffened its acrimony. In the hernia humoralis and inteftinalis, the ufe of cold is better eftablished. We fully agree with Mr. Rigby in wishing to make it more general. In the other diseases we are happy to coincide in opinion with our author, viz, the ophthalmia, local eruptions, excoriations and mortifications of the extremities. We have paffed over the anthrax, merely to make fome particular remarks on it. We are perfuaded that it is lefs local than is generally fuppofed; and feems to confift in a general stagnation of the mucus in the mucous follicles of

the

the furface.

Where thefe are more numerous, or where the fluids are fubject to any particular interruption, the swelling and inflammation increases; and, as this obstruction occurs in old people, and those who are fat and have led indolent lives, the inflammation foon proceeds to gangrene. We are well convinced, therefore, that in the early stages, cold must be a powerful remedy; in the later ones, it is doubtful. We shall not at present enlarge on the foundation of our opinion; but would only recommend an examination of the mucous glands, in thofe affected with the true anthrax.

The author concludes with fome remarks on the fcurvy and obefity. The former is, he thinks, owing to a deficiency in the heat, the latter to its excefs. In the fcurvy, he has clearly hown that fome of the caufes are thofe which either prevent the production of heat, or accelerate its efcape; but he has not shown that either is the primary or only effect. The theory of obesity would lead us too far. In the neighbourhood of Blackfriars, we were once prefent at a confiderable contest relating to the width of the bridge; many arguments were ufed by the different opponents, and the difpute might have been long protracted, if one of the company had not stepped out and measured it, We shall not, therefore, extend our article on this fubject, but recommend only the actual application of the thermometer. The highest healthy heat that we have ever obferved was 99°; but the perfon was remark. ably thin. This, however, might have been from a peculiar

conftitution.

Mr. Rigby will excufe our particular and free examination. of his work. It is not always that we proceed fo far ; but it is not always that we meet with works so deserving of our attention.

An Historical and Chronological View of Roman Law. With Notes and Illuftrations. By Alexander C. Schomberg, M. A. 800. 35. 6d. in Boards. Rivington.

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HAT the Roman Law, efcaping from the fury of the Goths, and the commotions which afterwards destroyed the Eastern empire, fhould become the guide of the victors, and the foundation of the jurifprudence of many modern nations, has been attributed to the blind admiration which we ufually entertain for every thing related to that vaft empire. That the Goths, when rule was neceffary, fhould have affumed laws already formed, or altered only in compliance with their most favoured customs, is easily understood: a fierce untutored nation could H 4

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more easily conquer, than govern an empire; and perhaps 2 lefs complete fyflem might have received the fame diftinétions In more modern periods, a blind admiration may have contributed to recommend thefe laws to the nations of Europe; but the examination of fucceffive ages would have removed the veil, and we should have no longer admired, what we had ́ ́ found remarkably defective. The continuance of the regard, therefore, which the Roman Law has enjoyed, must be confidered as a debt due to its intrinfic merit; and, while the cuftoms and polity of Rome continue objects of attention, while its language and its authors contribute to our inftruction and entertainment, fo long its laws will be remembered, were they not the foundation of our civil code.

It

may be reasonably aked, from what fources the Roman law drew its numerous advantages: we must anfwer in the words of our very learned and able author.

What was figuratively faid in praife of the Socratic fchool, that its venerable founder "had brought Philofophy down from heaven and introduced her into human fociety," may perhaps with ftricter truth be pronounced of thofe who first thought of applying the fpeculative wisdom of ancient Greece to political and forenfic purpofes. This was in the happielt manner effected by the Roman lawyers. For by conftantly recurring to this fource for principles of equity, to regulate the morals and direct the actions of their fellow-citizens, they laid the foun dation of that intimate union, which in procefs of time took place between philofophy and legislation. They conducted her from the porch to the forum, delivered into her hands the fword of juftice, and gradually reconciled her to the bufinefs and bustle of public life."

We are well aware that fome fceptics in modern times have endeavoured to fhow, that no formal embaffy was ever fent to Greece for the purpose of obtaining thofe laws, which were afterwards ftyled the laws of the Twelve Tables, Mr. Schomberg has referved this fubject for his notes; and we think enough has been faid to confufe the fubject, not to elucidate it. The author of the three effays in the twelfth volume of Memoirs of the Academy of Infcriptions, Mr. Bonamy, has certainly rendered the embafly doubtful; but there are many authorities which inconteftibly trace the Roman law to its origin in Greece, that country which, in the words of Pliny, did not receive laws from their victors, but granted them, at their requeft.' There are indeed many circumftances in the original hiftory of this event, which may be styled legendary; and the whole feems to have been in a great degree obfcured, by the Conceits of fubfequent civilians.

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