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mons, who before were adored for their divinity, became the subjects of contempt and execration. It is very remarkable that Constantine himself and the Christians of his time, describe his conquest under the same image, as if they had understood that this prophesy had received its accomplishment in him. Constantine himself, in his epistle to Eusebius and other bishops concerning the re-edifying and repairing of churches, saith, that • liberty being now restored, and that dragon being removed from the administration of public affairs, by the providence of the great God; and by my ministry, 1 esteem the great power of God to have been made manifest even to all.'
Such are his remarks on the first of these passages. On the second he says, “ After the destruction of the beast and of the false prophet, there still remains *the dragon, who had delegated his power to them,
that old serpent, which is the devil and satan :' but he is bound by : an angel,' an especial minister of providence; and the famous millennium commences, or the reign of the saints upon earth for a thousand years, ver. 1-6.
• Binding him with a great chain, casting him into the bottomless pit, shutting him up, and sealing a seal upon him,' are strong figures to show the strict and severe restraint which he should be laid under, that he might deceive the nations no more.' during this whole period. Wickedness being restrained, the reign of righteousness succeeds, and the administration of justice and judgment is given to the saints of the Most High.” p. 205.
He adds, page 215. “ At the expiration of the thousand years, ver. 7–10. the restraint shall be taken off from wickedness, and for a little season as it was said before, ver. 3. Satan shall be loosed out of his prison," and make one effort more to re-establish his kingdom. As he deceived our first parents
in the paradisaical state, so he shall have the artifice
to deceive the nations' in this millennial kingdom, to show that no state or condition upon earth is exempted and secured from sinning."
We have now finished our investigation, of all the texts in the Bible, where the terms devil and satan are used. Having expressed our own views of the different passages, we leave the candid reader to form his own opinions, and make his own reflections on the subject.
ALL THE TEXTS CONSIDERED, WHERE THE DEVIL IS SUP
POSED TO BE CALLED, THE EVIL ONE, THE TEMPTER, THE GREAT DRAGON, THE SERPENT, AND OLD SERPENT, THE PRINCE OF THIS WORLD, THE PRINCE OF THE POWER OF THE AIR, AND THE GOD OF THIS WORLD.
These names and titles, given to the devil, a supposed fallen angel, will require but a brief consideration, for some of them have been introduced in the preceding sections. Indeed, if devil and satan designate no such being in the Bible, it will be allowed by most people, that he is not to be found in the Bible. But we shall not take this for granted. The devil is then
1st. Supposed to be called, o' poneros, the evil one, or, the wicked one. This word is rendered in the common version, evil, wicked, wickedness, harm, &c. The sacred writers use it to express evil or wickedness in a variety of ways. Such as evil or unclean spirits, Matth. xii. 45. Acts xix. 12, 13, 15, 16. Luke vii. 21. viii. 2. and xi. 26. An evil or unclean spirit is
the same as an evil or unclean demon, and have no connexion with our present subject. This word is used to express moral evil, Matth. v. 37. 1 Thess. v. 22. 2 Thess. iii. 3. John xvii. 15. Physical evil, Acts xxviii. 21. Rev. xvi. 2. Matth. v. 39. The day of persecution is called the evil day, Eph. vi. 13. The heart of man, from whence all evil proceeds, is called “an evil heart of unbelief," Heb. iii. 12. Out of this source, proceed evil thoughts, Matth. ix. 4. Luke xi. 29. James ii. 4. Matth. xii. 35. Luke vi. 45. Also, wicked and malicious words, 3 John X. Matth. v. 11. Luke vi. 22. Also, evil works or deeds, Matth. xii. 35. Mark vii. 23. Matth. xy. 19. Luke vi. 45. John iii. 19. and vii. 7. James iv. 16. Col. i. 21. 2 John xi. Acts xxviii. 14. Rom. xii. 9. 2 Tim. iv. 18. Luke iii. 19. Mattb. vii. 17, 18. Men practising wickedness, are hence called evil, or wicked persons, Matth. xii. 39. xvi. 4. vii. 11. and xii. 34. Luke xi. 13. 2 Tim. iii. 13. Luke vi. 45. 1 Cor. v. 13. Matth. V. 45. xiii. 49. and xxii. 10. Luke vi. 35. Acts xvii. 5. 2 Thess. iii. 2. Such wicked persons have an evil conscience, Heb. 8. 22. An evil eye, Matth. vi. 23. and xx. 15. Mark vii. 22. Luke xi. 34. Become evil servants, in various conditions of life, Matth. xviii. 32. and xxv. 26. Luke xix. 22. And as evil or wickedness prevails, the world or age is said to be evil, Gal. i. 4. Such is a brief review of all the places where the word poneros occurs, except the following, and are the only passages, where any one can suppose this word designates an evil being or fallen angel.
Matth. vi. 13. - Deliver us from the evil." See also Luke xi. 4. where the same language is used. Some have said, this expression means, deliver us from the evil one," thereby meaning the devil, a fallen angel. But the word one does not occur in the original, is not even in the common version, nor does
the scope of the passage require it. Such a mode of establishing this doctrine, does not require a serious refutation. In Matth. xiii. 19. the phrase" wicked one occurs, but the word one is in italic, which might be omitted, or the word person substituted in its place. But as it has been shown in the last section, that this phrase is synonimous to devil and satan, and has no reference to a fallen angel, it requires no further notice here. The same remarks apply to Matth. xiii. 38. which has been sufficiently considered already. The expressions “the tares are the children of the wicked,” and “the good seed are the children of the kingdom," are explained by the quotation from professor Stuart on John viji. 44. above. “Children of the wicked one," simply means “ wicked children” or, “Children of wickedness.” The Improved Version in a note on this passage says,
sons of the evil one," are wicked men. Such in the Old Testament are called sons of Belial, or worthlessness, i. e. worthless men, 1 Sam. ii. 12. 1 Kings xxi. 10. See 2 Cor. vi. 15.
In 1 John ii. 13, 14. the phrase "wicked one,” is used twice. The word one is not put in italic type, but ought to have been, for there is no reason for this alteration. See also Eph. vi. 16. 1 John jii. 12. and v. 18, 19. where the wicked, or evil one, or thing, is also mentioned. The context of these passages show, that the word thing, might be substituted for the word
Take the last passage for an example. The wicked one or thing, which toucheth or rather hurteth not those who are born of God, is that from which they keep themselves, and this is sin, for it is said, " whosoever is born of God sinneth not,” verse 18. This is confirmed from verse 19. for John adds, 6 we know that we are of God, and the whole world lieth in wickedness, or sin; or, simply evil. See on all these passages, our remarks on the passages,
where the devil and satan are mentioned, and which are synonimous terms with evil or wicked one. I shall only add from Wakefield on Matth. v. 37. “The
So I render again, verse 39, and in other places ; as our translators rightly render below. Nearly in the same manner, xiii
. 19. and elsewhere, the wicked one.
Whatever is calculated to seduce men to sin, is represented by the sacred writers, under the figure of a living agent, called the evil one--the adversary--the enemy-the devil, and satan.”
žd. The devil, a fallen angel, is also supposed to be called “ o peiradzon, the tempter. This word is rendered to tempt, to try, to prove.' The following are all the places where it occurs in the New Testament. James i. 13, 14. Gal. vi. 1. Rev. ii. 10. Acts xv. 10. 2 Cor. xiii. 5. 1 Cor. vii. 5. Heb. xi. 17. John vi. 6. i Thess. iii. 5. Acts v. 9. Rev. iii. 10. 1 Cor. x. 13. Matth. xxii. 18. Mark xii. 15. Luke xx. 23. Heb. ii. 18. Mark i. 13. Luke iv. 2. Matth. xvi. 1. and xix. 3. Mark viii. 11. and x. 2. Luke xi. 16. John viii. 6. Matth. iv. 1. and xxii. 35. Heb. iv. 15. We have given book, chapter and verse, that the reader may consult the passages and see, if in any one of them, the tempter mentioned, refers to such a being. The following are the only places from which such a thing could be supposed.
Matth. iv. 3. Mark i. 13. and Luke iv. 2, 13. have already been noticed in considering our Lord's temptation and require no further attention. If the devil and satan, do not refer to a fallen angel, the tempter cannot, for it is allowed these terms are used as names for the same thing. In 1 Thess. iii. 5. it is said " For this cause when
I could no longer forbear, I sent to know your faith, lest by some means the tempter have tempted you and our labor be in vain." What tempter did the apostle refer to? Answer, we have seen from various passages, that the principle