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CHAP. XX.

1 3 But God came to Abimelech in a

dream by night, and said to him, Behold, Abraham sojourns in Gerar, and denies his wife; whom Abimelech takes, but is warped in a dream to restore, 1-7. Abime

oman lech expostulates with Abraham, and restores Sarah with presents and a gentle reproof, 8-16. Abimelech and his family are healed, in answer to Abraham's prayer, 17, 18.

I wife. AND Abraham journeyed from a thence 4 But Abimelech had not come near A toward the south-country, and dwell | her: and he said, Lord, ' wilt thou slay ed between Kadesh and Shur, and so-|| also a righteous nation? journed in Gerar.

15 Said he not unto me, She is my sister? 2 And Abraham d said of Sarah his and she, even she herself, said, He is iny wife, She is my sister. And e Abimelech brother: k in the t integrity of my heart, king of Gerar sent, and took Sarah. 1r 28:12. 31:24. 37:5,9. 40:8. 41: 1 h 6,18.

1.&c. Job 4:12,13, 33:15. Matt. i 18:23-25. 19:24. 2 Sam. 4:11. a 13:1. 18:1. 24:62. Id 12:11-13. 26:7. 2 Chr. 32:31. ||

1:20. 2:12,13. 27:19.

k Josh. 22:22, 2 Kings 20:3. 1 b 16:7,14. Deut. 1:19. 1 Sam.15: | Ec. 7:20. Gal. 2:11,12.

g 7. Ps. 105:14. Ez. 33:14. Jon. Chr. 29:17. 2 Cor. 1:12.1 7. Je 26:1,16.

3:4.

Thes. 2:10. : 10:19. 26:1,6,26.

*Heb. married to an husband. | | Or, simplicity, or sincerity.

11

and

ing children, of which they seemed to have no and manifest the counsels of all hearts;" and other prospect, was one powerful inducement: | when the wicked shall “suffer the vengeance but there is little reason to think that they had of eternal fire:” we shall see that the Lord hath any expectations of being the ancestors of the not without cause denounced the dreadful senpromised Seed, for that distinction was ex- || tence, but shall wonder at his patience pressly limited to the seed of Abraham. The long-suffering towards them.-In attempting to truth seems to be, that, though preserved from do good, or prevent evil, we must take care gross crimes, they had been accustomed in that the methods which we adopt are justifiaSodom to hear and witness wickedness, till ||ble: nor must we commit a less sin to prevent their consciences were become unfeeling, and others from perpetrating a greater.--Nothing their sense of shame blunted. No sufficient marks sinners more ripe for destruction, than excuse can be made either for them or for Lot; I when, being mad upon their lusts, they resent and indeed, scarcely any account can be given the least check, and will bear no control: for of the transaction, but this, that “the heart || "he, that being often reproved, hardeneth his is deceitful above all things, and desperately neck, shall suddenly be destroyed, and tbat wicked; who can know it?"-After this well without remedy.” And they who treat the read no more, in the history, of Lot, or of his friendly warnings of God's servants and minis. daughters. Peter's testimony satisfies us, that ters as idle tales and groundless fears, will he lived to repent; yet there is no proof that be awfully convinced of their mistake by the his daughters did. But he died under a dark | event. cloud; all his substance and part of his family

V. 16–38. perished in Sodom: his wife in looking back |. “The salvation of the righteous is of the lost her life; and it might almost have been wish Lord.” Being merciful to them, he warns ed, that his daughters had been taken away them, and neither suffers them to neglect the too, that his and their sin and shame migbt warning, nor leaves them to the effect of their have been prevented: for, though he was not procrastinating folly: but, by the mixed influ“written childless," his posterity were the mon

ence of hopes and fears, he disposes them to uments of his reproach, and their very names | leave all for the salvation of their souls; and he perpetuated the memory of their disgraceful even condescends compassionately to accomoriginal.

modate himself to their infirmities. Let us,

however, at the same time remark his awful sePRACTICAL OBSERVATIONS.

verity on apostates: let us "remember Lot's

wife, and not allow one hankering wish after V. 1-15.

forbidden or forsaken objects; and let us be When angels entered Sodom, they found out much afraid, lest, “after having escaped the the only righteous man residing there. Thus | corruption which is in the world, through the they still invisibly encamp round them that knowledge of Christ, we should be again enfear the Lord: and thus we ought to associate tangled and overcome thereby.” For, though with the righteous in every place to which we “the Lord will not forsake his people," the sego. Nor is it in general very difficult to distin- |verity of his multiplied chastisements may well guish them; for by their fruits we may know || fill our souls with holy awe: and if he pursue them,” and by the hatred which the wicked his children with the rod, even unto the grave, bear them: and hospitality prudently shewn for what will be the dreadful doom of his enemies? the Lord's sake will engage his protection and |--It is grievous to observe, that chastisement a gracious recompense.-But to what a pitch | seems in some cases to lose its effect; that, for of wickedness do some sinners arrive! Who a time, they who are corrected sin more and does not allow the justice of God in the destruc- l more! and that those who have escaped contion of abandoned Sodom? and could our eyes | tamination amongst bad examples, are overat once behold all those abominations, which come in solitude; and remain unimpressed by the Lord every moment witnesses in other the awful judgments which they have witnesscities and countries, we should probably ex- | ed! These may expect to suffer more and more, pect that they would share Sodom's doom. In- || and to die in uncertainty and dishonor; and it deed, "except the Lord of Hosts had left unto is an evident fact, that children do suffer for us a very small remnant, even we should” ere their parents' sin. Let us then watch and pray, this, "have been like unto Sodom and Gomor- | that we enter not into temptation; and esrah.” The good Lord increase that remnant! | pecially let us guard against covetousness and -But when, at the day of judgment, God shall drunkenness, which are inlets to all other “bring to light the hidden things of darkness, Il crimes.

and innocency of my hands, have done || my kingdom, ' a great sin? thou hast done this.

deeds unto me that 'ought not to be done. 6 And God said unto him in a dream, I 10 And Abimelech said unto Abraham, Yea, I know that thou didst this in the What sawest thou, that thou hast done integrity of thy heart; for I also with-|| this thing? held thee from sinning against me: 11 And Abraham said, Because I therefore suffered I thee not o to touch her. I thought, y Surely the fear of God is not in

7 Now therefore restore the man his this place; and they will ? slay me for my wife; for he is a P prophet, and he shall | wife's sake. 9 pray for thee, and thou shalt live: and 1 12 And & yet indeed she is my sister; if thou restore her not, know thou that she is the daughter of my father, but not thou shalt 'surely die, thou, and s all that the daughter of my mother: and she beare thine.

came my wife. 8 Therefore Abimelech rose early in 13 And it came to pass, when God the morning, and called all his servants, caused me to wander from my father's and told all these things in their ears: and house, that I said unto her, This is thy jhe men were sore afraid.

kindness which thou shalt shew unto me; 9 | Then Abimelech called Abraham, at every place whither we shall come, say and said unto him, What hast thou done of me, He is my brother. unto us? and what have I offended thee, ll 14 And Abimelech d took sheep, and that thou hast brought on me, and on oxen, and men-servants, and women-ser1 Job 33:9. Ps. 26:6. 73:13. Dan. 24:17. 1 Kings 13:6, 2 Kings 5: || vants, and gave them unto Abraham, e and

11. 19:2–4. Job 42:8. Jer. 14:

restored him Sarah his wife. m 18. 31:7. 35:5. 1 Sam. 25:26, 11, 15:1. 27:18. Jam. 6:14-16.

1 John 6:16.

u Lev. 20:10. 2 Sam. 12:10,11. 1 a 11:29. 1 Thes. 5:22.
r 2:17. Ez. 3:18. 33:8,14-16.
Heb. 13:4.

b 12:1. Acts 7:3-5. Heb. 11:8. o 3:3. 26:11. 1 Cor. 7:1. 2 Cor. Num. 16:32,33.

I x 34:7. 2 Sam. 13.12. Tit. 1:11. 1 c 1 Sam. 23:21. Ps. 64:5. Acts t 12:18. 26:10. Ex. 32:21,35.

y 22:12. 42:18. Neh. 5:15. Job | 5:9. P 12:1–3. 18:17. Ex. 7:1. Ps. Josh. 7:26. 1 Sam. 26:18,19. Prov. 28:10.

2:5. 8:13, 16:6. Rom. 3:18. e 2,7. 12:19,20. q 1 Sam. 7:5,8. 12:19,23. 2 Sam.

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d 11. 12:16.

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NOTES.

among them; and thus were comparatively “a Chap. XX. V. 1-6. Gerar was inhabited righteous nation."-_The Lord had “withheld by the Philistines, and seems to have been their Abimelech from sinning against him;" probably capital cit;.-Abimelech signifies My father the by some uncommon disease, with which his king. He took Sarah with intent to espouse | subjects also were visited (18). This was in her, though he had already at least one wife fact a merciful dispensation, to keep him from (17). She still retained her beauty; which ap- | bringing guilt, and heavier condemnation, on pears wonderful to us, but might not be so very himself and his people. If all adulterers were remarkable at that time. Probably Sarah was dead men, in this Christian land, how would it then pregnant, which circumstance would in- decrease our numbers, and especially how crease her anxiety and that of Abraham; and would it thin the ranks of the superior orders it was also an aggravation of their sin, which in the community!-Against me (6). Note, Ps. was indeed in every respect much more hein- | 51:4. ous than before. (Note, 12:11—16.) Before V.7. Prophet.] Abraham is the first person revelation by the written word was afforded called a prophet in the scripture. The title and completed, the Lord was pleased more fre- || seems to denote one who is favored with a pequently to make known his will, in ordinary || culiar intercourse with God, who receives comcases, by dreams, as distinct from prophetical ||munications from him in his own personal con. discoveries to be communicated to others: butcerns, or is employed to deliver his mind and every impression of that kind, and indeed all will to others; whether he utter predictions of supposed discoveries of the divine will, must future events or not. Various external circumnow be tried by the infallible and perfect || stances attended these communications; and standard of the holy Scriptures; and no farther || some prophets had more intimate access to regarded than they are warranted by them.-| God, and explicit discoveries of his will, than As Sarah was another man's wife, Abimelech others: but this general definition will apply was warned that he should inevitably die, un-ll almost to every place in the sacred oracles, less he restored her: and he was alarmed lest where the word is used; except when false his people also should be visited with over prophets are meant, who pretended to that whelming judgments on her account. Yet he special intercourse with God which the true was conscious, that he had not intended to coni- prophets actually enjoyed. The intercession mit adultery, but had been misled by the ex- of prophets was deemed peculiarly effectuai. press declarations of both Abraham and Sarah; || (Marg. Ref. p, q.) nor could he suppose that the Lord would “slay v. 8. His council were all of the same also a righteous nation.” He evidently referred mind, that this was a divine admonition, which to the late destruction of Sodom and the cities it was not safe to disobey' Bp. Patrick. of the plain, which doubtless had caused great v. 9_13. Abimelech's expostulation and consternation, and probably a degree of refor- | remonstrance were weighty, convincing, and mation in that neighborhood. As the Lord ad mild: but Abraham's answer implied criminal mitted Abimelech's plea, we may suppose that I distrust of God, groundless suspicion of the Geboth he and his subjects were free from the l rarites, and a settled plan of misconduct; and abominations of Sodom; and were not generally lhis excuse was tinctured with equivocation.-. idolaters, but had some remains of true religion || (Note, 11:28–32.) VOL. I. 12

189 15 And Abimelech said, Behold, 'my || the wombs of the house of Abimelech, beland is before thee: dwell * where it pleas-|| cause of Sarah, Abraham's wife. eth thee.

CHAP. XXI. 16 And unto Sarah he said, Behold,

Isaac is born and circumcised, and Abraham and Sarah rejoice I have given & thy brother a thousand

1-7. Isaac is weaned, 8. Ishmael mocks, and, at Sarah's

instance and by God's direction, is sent away with Hagar, 9– pieces of silver: behold, he is to thee ia|| 14. They are distressed, but delivered; and Ishmael prospers

and marries an Egyptian, 16-21. Abraham covenants with covering of the eyes, unto all that are Abimelech, and worships God at Beersheba, 22-34. with thee, and with all other: thus she A ND the LORD à visited Sarah as he was reproved.

had said; and the LORD did unto 17 So Abraham'prayed unto God: and Sarah as he had spoken. God healed Abimelech, and his wife, ll 2 For Sarah conceived and bare and his maid-servants; and they bare | Abraham a son in his old age, d at the children.

set time of which God had spoken to 18 For the LORD had m fast closed up all him. f 13:9. 34:10. 47:6.

Ik i Chr. 21:3—6. Prov. 9:8,9. • Heb. as is good in thine eyes. 25:12. Jon. 1:6. Rev. 3:19.

| 3 And Abraham called the name of 5 5. Prov. 27:5. I See on 7.-Matt. 7:7.

a 1,24. Ex. 3:16. 4:31. 20:5. / 36. Gal. 4:22. Heb. 11:11. 6 26:11, m 12:17.

Ruth 1:6. 1 Sam. 2:21. Ps. 106: d 17:19.21. 18:10.14. Rom. 9:9. i 24:65.

4. Luke 1:68. 19:44.

e 17:19, 22:2. Josh. 24:3. Mati. b Ps. 12:6. Matt. 24:35.

| 1:2. Acts 7:8. Heb. 11:18. c 2 Kings 4:16,17. Luke 1:24,

V. 16. Abimelech either gave Abraham a for their case is unspeakably perilous: and let thousand pieces of silver, (probably shekels,) in all men abhor the thoughts of “sinning on, money, besides the presents before-mentioned; that grace may abound."-It should also be or this was the value of the whole. In stating noted, that artifice, of whatever kind, is more this to Sarah, he calls him her brother, which certainly unsuccessful, and more speedily deimplied a rebuke of her misconduct.-Some ex- ||tected, when used by religious characters, than Dound the following words of the money given toll in the case of others. The irreligious may for Abraham;This is a covering of the eyes, | a season practise it and prosper; but the ser&c." "I have given him this money to buy thee vants of God must for their good be soon put 'a veil, that all who converse with thee here, | to shame.-On the other hand, though some 'or in any other country where thou shalt come, things in Abimelech must be blamed; and it 'may know thee to be a married woman.'-A || should be observed that indulgence gives force veil was worn as a token of subjection to her || to all our passions; yet we must commend, and husband.-Others refer them to Abraham: “He should imitate, the calmness and mildness of is to thee a covering of the eyes, &c.” “Thou his reproof, his ready return of good for evil, 'shouldst have avowed thy relation to him, and the salutary counsel which he gave to Sawhich would have sufficiently protected thee, ei- || rah: and it is pleasing to find that he mentions "ther here or elsewhere.'-Instead of, “And with || adultery as a horrible sin against God, and all other, &c.;" the Septuagint read, 'And in all || temptation to it as a great injury; and that he

things speak truth.'—Thus she was reproved, so seriously expostulates with Abraham about or instructed.

his misconduct in that respect.-To appeal to V. 17, 18. The disorders inflicted on Abim-| God in particular instances, concerning our elech and his family, not only withheld him integrity, is not at all inconsistent with a humfrom sin, but tended to shew the efficacy of ble consciousness, that we cannot stand before fervent prayer, and to put honor upon Abra him in judgment, but continually need his parham, and so to promote the knowledge of God doning mercy. He will indeed graciously adamong the Philistines. (1 Sam. 5:6:)-Man's mit such appeals, when well grounded; but it is “wisdom leads him into a pit; but God's wisdom difficult to vindicate ourselves, without seem'must draw him out.' Fuller.

ing to reflect upon his righteousness.-We of

ten disquiet ourselves, and even are led into PRACTICAL OBSERVATIONS.

temptation and sin, by groundless suspicions; It is very affecting here again to notice even

and we sometimes find the fear of God where •the father of the faithful manifesting distrust of God, and undue solicitude about life; equivo- ||

|| we least expected it.-Combinations to deceive

ll generally issue in shame and sorrow: and recating with intent to deceive; relapsing into 15

straints from sin, though by suffering, shonld his former sin; drawing in Sarah to share his |

I thankfully be acknowledged. But though the guilt, exposing her honor and chastity, and

| Lord rebukes, yet he will pardon and deliver even endangering a question about the legiti

* his people, and for his own glory put honor macy of his promised Isaac; throwing tempta- |

upon them and their prayers. He will give tion into Abimelech's way; occasioning afflic

them favor in the sight of those with whom tion to him and his family; exposing himself

they sojourn; and will so over-rule even their and Sarah to just rebukes, and yet vainly attempting an excuse. Shall we commend or

infirmities, when they are humbled for them, imitate Abraham in these things? by no means.

that they shall prove an occasion of good to They are written for our warning, that, “while

themselves and others. we think we stand, we may take heed lest we fall.” Even “Abraham hath not whereof to

NOTES. glory,” but must be justified in that righteous- \ Chap. XXI. V. 1, 2. The word visit, when ness of God, which is upon all and unto all them thus used, denotes the visible effects of the that believe."--We must not condemn all as | Lord's presence and power, either in mercy or hypocrites, who relapse into sin, even with l) in judgment. Here' it signifies his gracious aggravation, if they do not continue in it; nor attention to Sarah, and his faithful accomplish need we ourselves despair, if humbly conscious ment of his promise; when in the natural course of having thus relapsed. But let the unhum- ll of things, it could not be expected hat she bled and impenitent take heed to themselves; II should bear a son.

his son that was born unto him, whom || 13 And also t of the son of the bondSarah bare to him, Isaac.

|| woman will I make a nation, because he 4 And Abraham circumcised his son is thy seed. Isaac, ' being eight days old, as God had 14 And Abrahamų rose up early in commanded him.

ll the morning, and * took bread, and a bot5 And Abraham was 8 an hundred | tle of water, and gave it unto Hagar, (putyears old, when his son Isaac was born ting it on her shoulder,) and the child, unto him.

and sent her away: and she departed 6 And Sarah said, God hath made and ș wandered in the wilderness of me to laugh, so that all that hear i will | 2 Beer-sheba. laugh with me.

1 15 And the water was spent in the B.C.1893.7 7 And she said, “Who would bottle, and she cast the child under one

or 1892.) have said unto Abraham, that of the shrubs. Sarah should have given children suck?|| 16 And she went, and sat her down for I have born him a son in his old age. | over against him, a good way off, as it

8 | And the child grew, and was were a bow-shot: for she said, “Let me weaned: and Abraham made a great not see the death of the child. And she feast the same day that Isaac was wean sal over against him and · lifted up her

voice and wept. 9 And Sarah saw the son of Hagar, ll 17 And God heard the voice of the lad: the Egyptian, which she had born unto and e the Angel of God called to Hagar Abraham, o mocking.

out of heaven, and said unto her,' What 10 Wherefore she said unto Abra- || aileth thee, Hagar? / Fear not; for God ham, P Cast out this bond-woman, and hath heard the voice of the lad where he her son: for the son of this bond-woman shall not be heir with my son, even with | 18 Arise, lift up the lad, and hold him Isaac.

in thine hand: for "I will make him a 11 And the thing was very grievous || great nation. in Abraham's sight, 9 because of his son. || 19 And 'God opened her eyes, and

12 And God said unto Abraham, Let | she saw a well of water: and she went, it not be grievous in thy sight, because of and filled the bottle with water, and gave the lad, and because of thy bond-woman: |the lad drink. in all that Sarah hath said unto thee, ll 20 And God was with the lad, and "hearken unto her voice: for sin Isaac

13:36. shall thy seed be called.

u 19:27. 22:3. 24:54. 26:31. d 16:11. Ex. 3:7. 22:27. 2 Kings ( 17:10–12. Lev. 12:3. Luke 16:1.

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V. 3, 4. Isaac signifies laughter; and this | malice against Isaac.-Sarah, however, seems child of promise was so named, in remembrance to have been actuated, in some measure, by disof Abraham's believing, and Sarah's unbeliev- ll dain and resentment, in requiring Abrahám to ing, laughter; and as an expression of joy and send away Hagar and Ishmael: yet she was led gratitude. In this, as well as in circumcising to utter words, which were afterwards to be Isaac on the eighth day, Abraham was implicit- || made use of in illustrating a most important ly obedient to the cominandment of God.

part of divine truth. (Note, Gal. 4:21-31.V. 5–7. The joy of Abraham and Sarah, on Abraham was grieved, on account both of Ishthis extraordinary occasion, and the congratu- mael's misconduct, and Sarah's severity; and lations which they would receive from friends he might also be perplexed, how to reconcile and neighbors, were but feeble earnests of the the duty, which he owed to bis son and to Hagar, rejoicing of many millions in Him, who descend-l) with his affection to his wife. But the Lord ed from Isaac, to bless the nations of the earth. I made his duty plain to him, and shewed him that

V. 8–12. It is probable, that Isaac was not Ishmael musi be sent away, in order that the weaned very early; some think not till he was promises might be fulfilled to Isaac and his Seed. five years old: and Abraham made a feast on V. 13. Thy seed.] Ishmael should have that occasion, as thankfully rejoicing that his many blessings, as Abraham's son; though not son was thus far advanced towards maturity. I the special blessing or being the ancestor of the It appears that Ishmael derided Isaac as the promised Seed. child of promise; and that his mocking was a . V. 14–19. “Bread and water” depote nekind of persecution, implying profane contempt|cessaries for the journey of Hagar and Ishof the covenant and promise of God, and oppo-li mael, probably into Egypt to her relations, she sition to his purpose, and some indications of || being now liberated from bondage. Ishmael

he grew, and dwelt in the wilderness, andll 27 And Abraham " took sheep, and became an archer.

Joxen, and gave them unto Abimelech: 21 And he dwelt min the wilderness and both of them * made a covenant. of Paran: and his mother took him "all 28 And Abraham set seven ewe-lambs wife out of the land of Egypt.

of the flock by themselves. Practical Observations.)

29 And Abimelech said unto Abraham, 22 And it came to pass at that time, | y What mean these seven ewe-lambs which that ° Abimelech, and Phichol the chief || |

thou hast set by themselves? captain of his host, spake unto Abraham,

30 And he said, For these seven ewesaying, P God is with thee in all that||

lambs shalt thou take of my hand, a that thou doest.

they may be a witness unto me, that I 23 Now therefore I swear unto me

have digged this well. here by God, *that thou wilt not deal

31 Wherefore he è called that place falsely with me, nor with my son, nor with

It Beer-sheba: because there they swear my son's son; but according to the kind

both of them. ness that I have done unto thee, thou shalt

32 Thus they made a covenant at do unto me, and to the land wherein thou|| Beer-sheba: then Abimelech rose up and hast sojourned. 24 Ånd Abraham said, I will swear.

Phichol the chief captain of his host, and

they returned into the land of the Philis25 And Abraham 'reproved Abime

tines. lech because of a well of water, which

| 33 And Abraham planted a grove in Abimelech's & servants had violently tak

Beer-sheba, and called there on the name en away.

of the LORD, the e everlasting God. 26 And Abimelech said, ' I wot not who

34 And Abraham sojourned in the hath done this thing; neither didst thou

Philistines' land many days. tell me, neither yet heard I of it but to

u 14:22,23. Prov. 18:24. Is. 32: b 27. 1 Sam. 18:3. day. 1 10:9. 16:12. 25:27. 27:3. 49:23, 1 q 24:3. 31:53. Jogh. 2:12. 1 Sam.

x 26:28–31. 1 Sam. 18:3. Ez. i Judg. 13:1. 20:42. 24:21,22. 30:15. Heb. 6: m Num. 10:12. 12:16. 13:3,26. 16. * Heb. if thou shalt lie unto me.

ż 31:44,52. Josh. 22:27,23. 24: 1 e Deut. 33:27. Ps. 90:2. Is. 40 n 24:3,4. 26:34,35. 27:46. 28:1,2. r 26:15–22. Prov. 17:10. 25:9.

28. 57:15. Rom. 16:26. 1 Tim. o 20:2. 26:26.

a 26:33. p 26:28. 30:27. 39:3. Is. 8:10. 13:7. Ex. 2:16,17.

| That is, the well of the oath.f 20:1. 1 Chr. 29:15. Ps. 39:12. Zech. 8:23. Matt. 1:23. Rev. t 2 Kings 5:20–24

| Heb. 11:9,13.

8.

c 10:14.

26:8,14. Ex.

13:17

24.

90.5

oh 6.11 17:13. Rom. 1:31. Gal. 3:15. 11 Or, tree.

y 33:8. Ex. 12:26. 1 Sam. 15:14. d 4:26. 12:8.

1 Sam. 25:1.

27.

27:5. Matt. 18:15.

1:17.

14. Josh. 15:28.

3:9.

was more than sixteen, some think he was grace and favor of God. He became, hownineteen, years of age at this time: yet the ever, an archer and a hunter; and thus the provisions were put upon Hagar's shoulder, as prophecy concerning him began to be accommore inured to labor; and the lad was commit- || plished, in his person, as it has been ever since ted to her care. No doubt, these circumstan- in his posterity. (Note, 16:12.)_We have no ces were ordered according to instructions | reason to conclude, that he was never visited given to Abraham; perhaps for Hagar's humil- || by his father, or that he came no more to see iation, and with some view to the future state || him. (Note, 25:9,10.) of Ishmael's posterity. She, however, "wan-Ul. V. 22–24. Abimélech was convinced that dered,” or lost her way, in the desert, which the promises of God would be fulfilled to Abramay account for the distress which ensued; for ham; and he was therefore desirous of securing it does not appear that the provisions were con- || his friendship, and the benefit of it, to himselt, sumed, or that she was sent away without mon. to his posterity, and to his people.-Perhaps he ey. But the water was spent, and the climate | too was a true believer: at least his character was hot; so that Ishmael was overcome with seems not at all inconsistent with that suppofatigue and thirst, and ready to die; and Hagar|| sition. (.Notes, 1 Sam. 20:12—17.)-Phichol.) assisted him in reaching the shade of someNote, 26:26. shrubs, and lying down as his circumstances ! V. 25, 26. Wells of water, being scarce, would admit: and, fully expecting that he would were very valuable in those countries. (Marg. die, she sat down at a distance and wept. In | Ref. r.) this season of deep distress the Lord heard the V. 31. Beer-sheba.) The well of the oath. or, voice of Ishmael's groaning, perhaps of his The well of the seven, alluding to the seven ewe prayer, and addressed Hagar by an angel, say lambs. Perhaps these were given to Abimeing; “What aileth thee, Hagar?” “Fear not:” lech, as the proprietor of the land, in which the intimating that the promise, before made to well was digged, and as the rent of it, that the her, (16:10-13.) was a full security that Ish well might be the more clearly Abraham's propmael should not die at this time, and that there. erty.-The verb rendered to swear," is deriv. fore her anguish was needless, and her feared from the word translated seven; probably groundless. At the same time the Lord direct- with reference to the number of the sacrifices ed her attention to the relief, which was near|| frequently offered on these solemn occasions. at hand, but which she had not before observed. V. 32. Into the land of the Philistines.] That

V. 20, 21. The Lord prospered Ishmael in | is, to Gerar. Beer-sheba seems at that time to his outward circumstances: nor can we posi bave been under the dominion of the king of tively conclude, either from his past miscon | the Philistines: (33.) but it was not generally duct, his general character, or the typical considered as a part of Philistia. meaning of his expulsion from Abraham's fam- || V. 33. Perhaps Abraham planted this grove ily, that he lived and died destitute of the specialll to shelter his tent; and to form a shade for the

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