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a 46:2. Num. 12:6. Ez. 1:1. 8:4. c Deut. 33:29. Ps. 3:3. 5:12. 18: 11:24. Dan. 10:1-16. Acts 10. 2. 84:9,11. 91:4. 119:114. Prov.
Is. 41:10.14. 43:1.51:12. Dan. Ps. 10:5,6. 142:5. 1 Cor. 3:22.
Abram, Give me the persons, and take
CHAP. XV. the goods to thyself.
The Lord encourages Abram; who complains that he continues 22 And Abram said to the king of
childless, but is assured of a numerous posterity, 1-5. He is
justified by faith, o. He requests a pledge to confirm his faith; Sodom, I have y lifted up mine hand and being directed to prepare a sacrifice, obeys, 7–11. He is
favored with a vision, prophetic of the condition of his posterity 2 unto the LORD, the most high God, the uill brought out of Egypt: and Canaan is ensured by covenant
to them, 12-21. possessor of heaven and earth:
23 That b._will not take from a thread A LeB these things the word of the take any thing that is thine, " lest thou ion, saying; Fear not, Abram; I am shouldest say, I have made Abram rich: thy Shield, and thy d'exceeding great 24 Save only that which the young
Reward. men have eaten, and the portion of the
2 And Abram said, Lord God, what men which went with me, "Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre; let them take their portion. 10-17 # Heb. souls.
Esth. 9:15, 16. 2 Cor. 11:9-11. y Deut. 32:40. Dao. 12:7. Rev. 12:14. 10:5,6.
c 2 Cor. 11:12, 2 21:23–31. Judg. 11:35. d 13. a 20. 17:1. Ps. 24:1. Hag. 2:8. e 1 Cor. 19:14,15. bi Kings 13:8. 2 Kings 5:16. rials of his body and blood, which are “meat | degree rational, but that which springs from a indeed and drink indeed.” Melchizedek is the believing dependence upon God, and a firm only person expressly spoken of, as the priest of persuasion that we are prepared for life and the true God, before the institution of the death, and are in the place, and doing the Aaronic priesthood. In this he had no prede- || work, which he hath assigned us. It is a great cessor, or successor, but was appointed_for advantage to stand related to those who are special purposes by God himself. (Marg. Ref:)the friends and followers of God: for by their
V. 21. Give me, &c.] "Release the prison- means, and in answer to their prayers, such ‘ers and take the spoil, not only of the kings, | persons will often be preserved. but of Sodom too, as the reward of thy victory:'
V. 17-24. V. 22—24. Probably Abram solemnly vowed, The Lord is “the most high God, the Posses. before he set out on this expedition, that he would sor of heaven and earth;” and all our possespot take any thing which had belonged to the sions belong to him: we ought then to acknowlvanquished kings. The credit of his religious edge his right, and seek his blessing, by conseprofession required, that if he engaged in war, crating a portion to his immediate service: and it should evidently be on the most liberal and the tenth was early deemed, and long continue disinterested principles. This would best an
ed to be considered, a very moderate proporswer the question “What do ye more than tion.-Oaths on important occasions are lawful. others.”—Listing up the hand to the Lord, was a but they should be taken with great solemnity, customary token of taking an oath, or making as an act of sacred worship, and observed with a vow to the Lord.
great punctuality:--Nothing better becomes a PRACTICAL OBSERVATIONS.
profession of godliness, than a noble spirit of V. 1-16.
disinterestedness: and in our whole conduct we Sinners may for a season prosper, though should study to avoid, not only evil, but the "the wrath of God abides upon them.” but res very appearance of it; especially in those things pites are not pardons, and prosperity often which at first glance seem unsuitable to our hardens and ripens men for destruction. After profession. As the earth is the Lord's and four bundred years the curse denounced on
the fulness thereof,” they who belong to him Canaan began to take effect: let us hear and have no occasion to grasp at temporal advanfear, and fee from the wrath to come.-Avarice, tages; for if riches are good for them, he will ambition, and the thirst of dominion are insa- surely confer them. We should however, withtiable, render men savage and brutal, and in out censure, allow many things to others, which all ages have filled the earth with misery and our profession and character may render it ex. destruction: yet God executes his righteous pedient for us to deny ourselves.--But what purposes even by means of the unrighteousness is become of Lot? Alas! he is gone back to of men.-Some calamity might have been ex- Sodom; for indulged corruptions are not mortipected to befal Lot for his misconduct; and we
fied except through severe discipline.-Finally, mag expect similar consequences if we imitate let us remember "our King of righteousness his example, and prefer the prospect of gain, to and King of peace,” our Priest upon his
the means of grace, and the communion of throne:” let us rejoice in his equitable and "the saints. But the Lord, though he rebuke peaceful administration; and declare war against and chasten, will not forsake his offending his and our enemics, sin, the world, and Satan, children; and we also must be ready to forgive Invisibly he will assist us in every conflict, and our offending brethren, and hasten to their re
manifest himself to us after every victory, relief.—War can never be desirable: but in the fresh us with his gracious provisions, and bless present state of things it may be lawful, and
us with the earnests of his love. And shortly, even advisable; and never more so, than in when the final victory is won, and he hath made order to relieve the oppressed. They who us more than conquerors, he will applaud our serve God, whatever means they employ, will achievements, accept and reward our poor sernot depend on an “arm of flesh:” and when they vices, and place us with himself upon his throne; trust in him, and have a righteous cause and a
while we rejoice in his love, and give him all good conscience, it becomes them to be bold | the glory. as a lion," and not to shrink from ditficulties
NOTES. in the path of duty. Nor is any courage wor- CHAP. XV. V. 1. This is the first time the thy of admiration or imitation, or in the least || expression, “The word of the LORD,” is used in VOL. I. 10
wilt thou give me, seeing I go 'childless, || he counted it to him for righteousness. and the steward of my house is this Elie- 7 And he said unto him, I am the zer of Damascus?
LORD that brought thee out of Ur of 3 And Abram said, Behold, to me the Chaldees, to give thee this land to thou hast given no seed: and lo, one ' born inherit it. in my house is mine heir.
8 And he said, Lord God, 4 whereby 4 And behold the word of the LORD shall I know that I shall inherit it? came unto him, saying, This shall not be 9 And he said unto him, Take me 'an thine heir, but he that * shall come forth heifer of three years old, and a she-goat out of thine own bowels shall be thine of three years old, and a ram of three heir.
years old, and a turtle dove, and a young 5 And he brought him forth abroad, pigeon. and said, Look now toward heaven, and 10 And he took unto him all these, and I tell the stars, if thou be able to number || divided them in the midst, and laid each them: and he said unto him, "So shall piece one against another: but the birds thy seed be.
divided he not. 6 And he believed in the Lord; and 11 And when the fowls came down
o Ps. 106:31. Rom. 4:11,22. Gal.
1 25:21. 30:1,2. Ps. 127:3. Prov.
13:12. Acts 7:5. 824:2,10.39:4—6,9. 4 :19. 44:1.
Prov. 17:2. h 12:2. 13:16. Jer. 12:1. i 14:14. Ec.2:7. k 17:16. 2 Sam. 7:12. 16:11. 2
Chr. 32:21. Philem. 12.
18. Heh, 11:12.
Luke 1:18,34. 3:6.
r 22:13. Lev. 1:3,10,14. 3:1.6. 9. p 11:28-31. 12:1. Neh. 9:7. 2,4. 12:8. 14:22,30. Luke 2:24. Acts 7:2-4.
s Is. 15:5.
Scripture; and some persons suppose, that ployed in preparing for the commanded sacri Christ, “The Word of God," is ineant.-The fice and other events; we shall be induced to prophets, when they received revelations of conclude, that Abram was led forth early in the divine will in a vision, seem generally to the morning, before the stars disappeared, and have had the exercise of their senses on out- that he spent the whole day till after sun-set in ward objects suspended, though they were not religious duties, and in receiving divine reveasleep. Yet the circumstances of the vision lations and assurances.-An innumerable poshere recorded, do not indicate that this was the terity having been again promised him, his case with Abram; for the whole is related as faith was strengthened; and, depending on the a real transaction. It is however probable, divine power and faithfulness, he rose superior that this was in some way distinguished from to discouragement on account of delays and other appearances of the Lord, and more re- difficulties. Thus he gave glory to God by sembled the prophetic visions, than the conde- ! firmly believing, that “what he had promised scending intercourse to which Abram was on he was able also to perform; and therefore it was other occasions admitted.—He might be tempt. || imputed to him for righteousness.”—It is evied to fear, lest the potent enemies whom he || dent from the apostle's reasoning, that Abram's had exasperated, should return with larger | faith had a special respect to the promised forces and take vengeance on him. The Lord | Seed and to salvation by him: and therefore, therefore assured him that he was his “Shield,'' || though in himself a sinner, and his very faith to defend him from all assailants; as well as his itself not free from defect, he was accounted “exceeding great Reward,” to compensate his righteous, and dealt with as if he had personally generous behavior to Lot, and disinterested performed a perfect righteousness; being “made contempt of wealth, in his conduct towards the the righteousness of God in Christ.” This had king of Sodom.(Marg. Ref:),
no doubt been the case from the time when he V. 2, 3. In this answer of 'Abram, the striv- first believed, that in “his Seed all nations ing of unbelief and impatience, against his bet- should be blessed;" but it was now more exter judgment, is very discernible. Outward pressly attested for his encouragement: and prosperity and security seemed of little im- the sacred historian records this circumstance, portance, as he still continued childless; and a as a remarkable instance and example of that stranger born in his house, and entrusted by faith, which was counted to Abram for right. him, was likely to be his heir. The numerous eousness. (.Notes, Rom. 4: Gal. 3: Marg. Ref. posterity before mentioned, and the blessings n. o.)— Christians may believe in God, with comprised in the promised Seed, lay near his respect of the common concerns of this life; heart: nothing else could satisfy him; and per- and such faith may ascertain, that they are in haps the long delay almost induced him to con- 'a justified state: yet this is not, strictly speakclude, that he had misunderstood the divine “ing, the faith by which they are justified, which revelation.
'invariably has respect to the person and work of V. 5, 6. Some expositors think, that the sev- | Christ. Abram believed in God as promising eral particulars which follow were only pre- Christ; they believe in him as having raised sented in a vision to Abram; and they urge in him from the dead.' Fuller. support of this opinion, that "the sun was not V. 7,8. The favors already shewn to Abram, gone down”, (12), and yet he was called on to were earnests of the fulfilment of all the prom"look toward heaven and tell the stars.” But it ises of God, whose unchangeable perfections is most unreasonable to interpret one part, as were engaged to perform them: yet Abram, a visionary representation to the mind, and the that his faith might be confirmed, desired an other as a real transaction: or to suppose that external token as an assurance that his posterity the whole narrative of this solemn sacrifice, || should inherit the land; wbich the Lord graand of Abram's deep sleep and propheticalciously vouchsafed him. dream, and of the covenant ratified with him, V. 9, 10. In order to give Abram the desired is merely the relation of a vision. And, if it token, the Lord was pleased to prescribe a be well considered, what time would be em- || solemn sacrifice The heifer, she-goat, and
upon the carcases, * Abram drove them || shall come hither again; for the iniquity away. (Practical Observations.)
of k the Amorites l is not yet full. 12 And when the sun was going down, 17 | And it came to pass, that when F a deep sleep fell upon Abram: and lo, | the sun went down, and it was dark, be? an horror of great darkness fell upon hold a msmoking furnace, and * a burning him.
lamp that passed between those pieces. 13 And he said unto Abram, Know of 18 In that same day the LORD " made a surety, that a thy seed shall be a stran- a covenant with Abram, saying, ° Unto ger in a land that is not theirs, and shall thy seed have I given this land, P from serve them: and they shall afflict them the river of Egypt, unto the great river, four hundred years.
the river Euphrates: 14 And also that nation whom they 19 The Kenites, and the Kenizzites, shall serve, will I judge; and afterward and the Kadmonites, shall they come out with great sub- 20 And the Hittites, and the Perizzites, stance.
and & the Rephaims, 15 And e thou shalt go to thy fathers 21 And the Amorites, and the Cain peace; thou shalt be s buried in banaanites, and u the Girgashites, and the age.
Jebusites. 16 But in the fourth generation they || 1 Kings 21:26.
1 Ps. 119:113.
e 25:8. Num. 20:24. 27: 13. Judgy 2:21. 1 Sam. 26:12. Job 4:13, 2:10. Ec. 12:7. Acts 13:36. 14. Dan, 10:8,9.
f2 Chr. 34:28. Ps. 37:37. Is. 57: z Ps. 4:3-5. Acts 9:8,9.
1.2. Dan. 12:13. Matt. 22:32. a Ex. 1: 2: 5: Ps. 105:23-25. Heb. 6:13-19. 11:13-16. Acts 7:6,7.
g 23:4,19. 25:9. 35:29. 49:29, bE.. 12:40,41. Gal. 3:17.
31. 50:13. Ec. 6:3. Jer. 8:1,2. c Ex. 6:5,6. 7:-14: Deut. 6:22. h 25:7,8. i Chr. 23:1. 29:28. Job Ps. 78:43–61. 105:27—37. 135: 5:26. 42:17. 9,14.
i E.. 12:40. d Ex. 3:21,22. 12:35,36.
o 12:7. 13:15. 26:4. 23:13. Deut. I Dan. 8:23. Zech. 6:5-11. 1:7,8. 11:24. 34:4. Josh. 1:3,4. Matt. 23:32-35. 1 Thes. 2:16. 1 Kings 4:21. 2 Chr. 9:26. 2 Pet. 3:8,9.
Neh. 9:8. Ps. 105:11. m Ex. 3:2,3. Deut. 4:20. Judg. p Num. 34:5. Josh. 15:4. Is. 27: 6:21. 13:20, 1 Chr. 21:26. Is. 12. 62:1. Jer. 11:4.
q 2:14. 2 Sam. 8:3. I Chr. 5:9. * Heb. a lamp of fire. 2 Sam. r Num. 24:21,22. 22:29.
s 14:5. Is. 17:5. n 9:8-17. 17: 2 Sam. 23:5. Is. t 10:15-19. Ex. 23:23–28. 33 55:3. Jer. 31:31-34. 32:40. 33: 2. 34:11. Deut. 7:1 20-26. Gal. 3:15--17. Heb. u Matt. 8:28. 13:20.
ram, were supposed to be arrived at maturity, occurred four hundred and five years before when three years old. As the ratification of a that event; but, in so long a term, the five odd covenant between the Lord and his servant || years are not mentioned. Some however think was intended, the animals were divided asunder, || that the term began from the weaning of Isaac, the birds alone excepted: because the form of when Ishmael, the son of an Egyptian, mocked covenanting required, that the persons con- him. (Note, 21:8–12.) — The continuance of cerned should pass between the parts of the Israel in Egypt is calculated to have been two sacrifice; perhaps intimating, that he, who hundred and fifteen years.—Their bondage in broke the covenant, might expect in like man- Egypt being introductory to subsequent honor per to be cut asunder by the avenging sword and prosperity, and attended
with signal judgof justice. The Gentiles, as well as the Jews, | ments on their enemies, differed widely from used a form of this kind in confirming cove- the permanent slavery of the Canaanites. nants and treaties; which custom might per-|| Abram, however, would not witness these haps be derived by tradition from this transac- scenes; but would live to a good old age, and tion; or the Lord saw good, in this instance, then die in peace; and while his body would be to condescend as far as practicable, to a cus- | decently interred, his soul would enter on a tom already established.
state of blessedness among those of his believ. V. 11. When Abram had prepared the sacri- | ing progenitors.-Afflict them, &c.? Four hun. fices, he spent the rest of the day in watching | dred years would elapse, before the end of their them, no doubt also pouring out his heart in afficied state. fervent prayer: and when the birds of prey at- V. 16. “The fourth generation" may mean tempted to devour them, he drove them away. the completion of the four hundred years be
V. 12–15. Perhaps Abram did not under- ! fore mentioned: but indeed the Israelites of the stand how the transaction would end, but he fourth generation, from those who went down patiently waited on the Lord; and about sun-into Egypt, seem actually to have inherited set, he was cast into a supernatural sleep, in Canaan.-Among other reasons for these de which he received important prophetical infor- lays, this was one; that the inhabitants of the mation concerning the future condition of his || land, (of whom the Amorites seem to have been posterity.--The whorror of great darkness” was the chief,) though wicked, were not yet ripe for doubtless emblematical of their amiction and vengeance. bondage in Egypt, and many of their subse- V. 17. “The smoking furnace and burning quent calamities. From the birth of Isaac to lamp” represented the severe trials of Israel in the deliverance of Israel out of Egypt, Abram's || Egypt, and their joyful deliverance; with the descendants were strangers in a land, in which || hopes and supports in the mean while afforded they possessed no inheritance; for part of the them. (Notes, Ex. 3:). Thus the Lord attested time they were sojourners in Canaan, and the his acceptance of Ábram's sacrifices, by the rest of it they spent in Egypt, where for many || symbols of his presence passing between the years they were enslaved and cruelly oppress- | parts of them, and probably at length consum. ed. Their departure out of Egypt is supposed | ing them; but not, as it may be supposed, till to have been exactly four hundred and thirty | Abram also had passed between them. years from the call of Abram: but the birth of V. 18—21. In this manner God confirmed Isaac was twenty-five years later, and the pre- the promise of Canaan to the seed of Abram, diction especially relates to him and his pos- by a solemn covenant, and more explicitly terily. This is therefore computed to have || stated what was included in it. “The river of
turns to Sarai, 13, 14.
||' had dwelt ten years in the land of Sarai being barren giver Hagar to Abram, 1-3 Hagar de Canaan, and 6 gave her to her husband her, and Hagar, being harshly treated, flees from her, 4–6. | Abram to be h his wife. An Angel commands her to return and submit, promises her a
4 And he went in unto Hagar, and son and a numerous posterity, and shews their character and condition, 7–12. Hagar gives a name to the place, and re-she conceived: and when she saw that
The birth of Ishmael, and the age of Abram, 15, 16.
she had conceived, her mistress was TOW Sarai Abram's wife a bare him despised in her eyes.
no children; and she had an hand- 5 And Sarai said unto Abram, My maid an Egyptian, whose name was wrong be upon thee; I have given my Hagar.
maid into thy bosom; and when she saw 2 And Sarai said unto Abram, Behold that she had conceived, I was despised now, the LORD hath restrained me from in her eyes: 'the LORD judge between bearing: I pray thee go in unto my maid: me and thee. it may be that I may obtain children 6 But m Abram said unto Sarai, Beby her: and Abrame hearkened to the hold, thy maid is in thy hand; do to voice of Sarai.
her tas it pleascth thee. And when 3 And Sarai Abram's wife took Hagar 12:5. her maid the Egyptian, after Abram 28:9. 32:22. 35:22, Judg: 19:1
i 1 Sam. 1:6–8. Prov. 30-23. | Heb. that which is good in c Gal. 4:24. Agar.
e 3:6,12,17. d 17:16. 18:10. 25:21. 30:2,3,22.
1 31:53. Ex. 5:21. 1 Sam. 24.12
-15. 2 Cbr. 24:22.
2 Sam. 5:13.
1 Sam. 1:5. Ps. 127-3.
a 15:2,3. 25:21.
Luke 1:7,36. b 12:16. 21:9,21.
1 Cor. 4:6. 13:4,5. k Luke 10:40,41.
Egypt” is supposed to have been a small cur- there are such chequered scenes and so many rent, just at the entrance of that country; and afflictions, that it is merciful in God to conceal not the river Nile.- In the days of David and from us what will befal us and ours; for, if we Solomon, the Israelites ruled over the whole ex- knew the whole, we should painfully anticipate tent of country here described: and it was the the troubles of life; and even distress ourselves effect of their sins, that they neither got pos- about things, which will not take place till we session of it sooner, nor kept it longer.-Dur- | are in the silent grave, or rather in the eternal ing the course of four hundred years, several world. Yet multitudes far more desire to parof the tribes here mentioned were either ex- | take with Abraham in this kind of information, tinct, or blended with other tribes, or had than in his most holy faith!'-God waits till changed their names. (Marg. Ref.)
iniquity be ripe ere he punishes, and in the
mean time gives space for repentance: let the PRACTICAL OBSERVATIONS. sinner then count his long-suffering to be salV. 1-11.
vation, and improve it; and let believers also They who trust in God, and serve him, should wait for their mercies till they are prepared fear no enemies, for they have an omnipresent for them.--Finally, the diligent Christian will and omnipotent Protector. Nor need they hesi- daily obtain fuller assurances and more ex tate to renounce the most valuable temporal plicit knowledge, of the blessings of the cov advantages for his sake; for he will abundantly enant, which God hath ratified with him. recompense them; yea, he himself will be their Shield and Portion, their exceedingly great and
NOTES. everlasting Reward. Yet “hope deferred mak- Chap. XVI. V. 1–3. Ten years had elapsed eth the heart sick:” the strongest faith has its since Abram arrived in Canaan; and a numermisgivings, the most courageous spirit has its ous posterity had repeatedly been promised fears, and the most resigned believer his com- him, from among whom that Šeed was to arise, plaints: these the Lord graciously notes, pities, “in whom all the families of the earth would pardons, and relieves.—He who in one instance, be blessed:” yet Sarai, though amiable and upon the single testimony of God, stedfastly faithful, still continued childless, and was now expects things exceedingly difficult and im- seventy-five years of age. The promise had probable, will be enabled to believe all that not hitherto been expressly restricted to her: God has revealed when he becomes acquainted and though we never before read of a pious with it, and will embrace and expect whatever person having two wives at once; yet such he promises: and this man's “faith is accounted marriages appear to have been common, and to him for righteousness.” Yet he will seek, perhaps in no bad repute in the world: and not and God will grant, further tokens of his love, only the natural desire of children, but the to confirm and strengthen his faith; and he will fulfilment of the promises, seemed to be conbe encouraged to consider former mercies ascerned. Sarai therefore, no longer expecting earnests of future blessings.—The covenant of 1 to be herself the ancestor of the promised God with sinners has always been ratified by Seed, proposed to Abram to take a secondary sacrifice and the shedding of blood: and, in at- wife, and expressed an intention of adopting tendance on his ordinances, we must wait for the his children by her. She indeed acknowledged confirmation of our faith, and guard against all the hand of God in her trial, and acquiesced in intrusion on our devotions: especially those his will: yet her plan resulted from carnal polivain thoughts, which are apt, on the most sol-cy and weakness of faith; and it was too hastiemn occasions, to arise, and interrupt the ex- | lý approved by Abram: it was also a bad ercise of faith, hope, and love.
example, a fatal precedent, and a source of V. 12–21.
manifold uneasiness. The father of manThe knowledge of future events, if attaina- | kind sinned, by hearkening to his wise; and ble, would seldom add to our comfort: in the now the father of the faithful imitates his most favored families and most happy lives, l'example! Fuller.–Probably, Hagar was one
Sarai * dealt hardly with her, she ° fled|| ceedingly, that it shall not be numbered from her face.
for multitude. 7 | And the Angel of the Lord found 11 And the Angel of the Lord said her by a fountain of water in the wilder- unto her, Behold, thou art with child, ness, by P the fountain in the way to and shalt bear a son, and * shalt call his Shur.
name + Ishmael; because the LORD ? hath 8 And he said, Hagar, Sarai's maid; | heard thy affliction. P whence camest thou? and whither wilt 12 And he will be a a wild
b his thou go? And she said, I flee from the hand will be against every man, and face of my mistress Sarai.
every man's hand against him: and che 9 And the Angel of the LORD said shall dwell in the presence of all his unto her, Return to thy mistress, and brethren. submit thyself under her hands.
13 And she d called the name of the 10 And the Angel of the LORD saidLord that spake unto her, Thou God unto her, "I will multiply thy seed ex- /seest me: for she said, Have I also here • Heb. afflicted her.
looked after him that seeth me?
14 Wherefore the well was called 30. 43:15,16. Ex. 3:2–6. Judg.
2:18-25. 5:5,6. o E.. 2:15. Prov. 27:8. Ec. t 22:15-18. 31:11-13. 32:24
10:4. p 25:18. Ec. 15:22. 1 Sam. 16: 2:1-3, 6:11,16,21-24. 13:16
22. Is. 63:9. Hos. 12:3-5. q 1,4. Eph. 6:5-8. 1 Tim. 6: Zech. 2:8,9. Mal. 3:1. John 1,2.
1:18. Acts 7:30–33. 1 Tim. r 3:9. 4:10. Ec. 10:4. Jer. 2: 6:16. 17,18.
u 17:20. 21:13. 25:12-18, Ps. . Eph. 5:21. Tit. 2:9. 1 Pet. 83.6.
* 17:19. 29:32-35. Is 7:14. b 27:40.
d 7,9,10. 22:14. 28:17,19. 32:30. That is, God shall hear.
Judg. 6:24. y 41:51,62. 1 Sam. 1:20.
e Ex. 33.18-23. 34:5-7. Ps. z Ex. 2:23,24. 3:7.
139:1-12. Prov. 15:3. a 21:20. Job 11:12. 39:5-8.
of the maid-servants, whom Pharaoh had giv- the following verses shew us who this Angel was. en Abram.
V. 10, 11. The Angel said to Hagar, “I will V. 446. Hagar, forgetful of God who had || multiply thy seed;" not “The Lord will mulspecially favored her, was lifted up with pride tiply thy seed:” and there is not the least intiand sell-preference; flattering herself that she mation that he spake in the name of another. should now secure Abram's affections, and -This confirms the opinion of those, who think probably expecting to be the mother of the the words should be rendered the ANGEL-JEHOpromised Seed. Sarai also, instead of con- VAH: Jehovah himself, yet, the Angel or Mesdemning herself, seemed to claim merit from senger of the Covenant, the eternal Word and her conduct; unreasonably blamed Abram, as Son of God: and the interpretation is estabif he had encouraged Hagar's insolence; im-/ lished by the subsequent narrative. (Marg. properly appealed to the Lord; and betrayed || Ref:) _“Ishmael” signifies God will hear; "he much passion and peevishness, and a very un- hath' heard,” and therefore he will hear “thy easy frame of mind. •Passionate appeals to affliction;" intimating that the relief was not "God, instead of indicating a good cause, are only unmerited, but unsolicited. 'commonly the marks of a bad one.' Fuller. V. 12. The word, rendered “a wild man," In these perplexing circumstances Abram in- | properly signifies a wild-ass man: and perhaps deed acted wisely in relinquishing Hagar, and this emblem was descriptive of Ishmael's charshewed that he had not been influenced by | acter; but his posterity were principally incarnal affection: but he conceded too far intended. The Hagarenes, Saracens, and various leaving one, whom he was bound to protect, other tribes of Arabs, are allowed to have deentirely in the power of Sarai, whose mind was scended in great measure from Ishmael: and too much embittered to act with equity and they have, in all ages to this present day, been impartiality: so that she exacted rigorously || a hardy untamed race of free-booters, unlike from Hagar her former service, which in her every other nation in the world. They have situation was unjustifiable; and she otherwise chiefly subsisted by plundering their neighbors, used her with harshness. And Hagar, not and passengers; as it appears by the united tesbrooking to be treated as a slave, when she timony of all the historians and travellers, who had expected the privilege of a wife, passion-have written of those countries. They have ately and inconsiderately left Abram's house provoked the enmity of the neighboring naand family.
tions, and lived in a state of hostility with all V. 7–9. Probably, Hagar set out with the men; so that there is no travelling in safety design of returning to Egypt, her native coun- through those countries, except in large armed try; but being unable to proceed, she sat down, companies, called Caravans; and these are fatigued and overwhelmed with distress, by a often plundered. Yet have they set at defifountain of water. The Angel addressed her, ance the mightiest conquerors in every age, as Sarai's servant, not as Abram's wife: thus her and stood their ground against them all. The marriage was tacitly censured and disallowed, || Persians, Macedonians, and Romans, succeswhich would tend to humble her for despising | sively attempted to subjugate them; and made and fleeing from her mistress. By inquiring many powerful, but ineffectual, efforts to that of her whence she came, and whither she purpose. At length Mohammed arose, and would go; the Angel implicitly charged her under him and his successors, they subdued a with leaving her proper station, acting incon- large part of the world. After a time indeed, sistently with her duty and interest, forsaking the power of the Mohammedans was transher own mercies, and rushing on destruction: ferred to the Turks, who have repeatedly atand by commanding her to return and submittempted to subdue the Saracens, or Arabs: but, to her mistress, he reminded her, that her trou- instead of succeeding, they have for above ble was the consequence of sin, and that she three hundred years been obliged to pay a must patiently endure it. This is the first time large tribute to them, for the safe passage of the appearance of an angel is mentioned: but their pilgrims to Mecca, the city which is the