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came down governors, and out of Zebulun | fought the kings of Canaan in Taanach they that * handle the pen of the writer. || by the waters of Megiddo: . they took no

i5 And the princes of Issachar were gain of money, with Deborah; even Issachar, and also 20 They fought from heaven, " the i Barak: he was sent on foot into the stars in their * courses fought against valley. For the divisions of Reuben Siscra. there were great thoughts of heart. 21 The river of - Kishon swept them

16 Why abodest thou among the away, that ancient river, the river Kishon. k sheep-folds, to hear the bleatings of the O‘my soul, thou hast trodden down flocks? | For the divisions of Reuben there strength. were great searchings of heart.

22 Then were the 2 horse-hoofs broken 17 Gilead abode beyond Jordan: and by the means of the di prancings, the why did Dan remain in ships? m Asher prancings of their mighty ones. continued on the "sea-shore, and abode 23 - Curse ye Meroz, said the Angel in his breaches.

of the Lord, curse ye bitterly the inhab18 "Zebulun and Naphtali were a people itants thereof; because they came not that ++ jeoparded their lives unto the to the help of the LORD, to the help of death p in the high places of the field. the Lord against the mighty.

19 The 9 kings came and fought; then 24 e Blessed above women shall Jael * Heb. draw with the pen, fc. m Josh. 19:4–31.

r See on 1:27.-- 1 Kings 4:12. Dll Or, tramplings, or, plunge

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b See on 1 Chr. 12:32.
i See on 4:6, 14.
† Heb. his feet. Acts 20:13.
Or, In the, fc. Acts 15 39.

Heb. impressions. Prov. 22:
13. 2 Cor. 11:2.
k Num. 32:1-5,24. Phil. 2:21.

3:19. ! Or, In. 15. marg: i See on Josh. 13:25,91.

1 Or, sea-port.
** Or, creeks.
n See on 4:10.
ft Heb. erposed to reproach.
o Esth. 4:16. Acts 20:24. 1

John 3:16. Rey. 12:11.
p 4:6,10,14
9 Josh. 10:22—27. 11:1,&c. Ps.
48:46. 68:12-14. 118:8-12.
Rev. 17:12-14. 19:19.

$ 30. 4:16.

ings. t Josh. 10:11. 1 Sam. 7:10. Ps. a 1 Sam. 26:19. Jer. 48:10. 1 77:17,18.

Cor. 16:22 0 4.15.

b See on 2:1. 4:6. 6:11. 13:3. 11 Heb. paths.

--Matt. 25:41.
x 4:7,13. 1 Kings 18:40. Ps. 83: c 21.9, 10. Neh. 3:5.

di Sam. 17:47. 18:17. 25:28. y Gen. 49: 18. Is. 25:10. Mic. Rom. 15:18. 1 Cor. 3:9. 2 7:10.

Cor. 6:1. z Ps. 20:7. 33:17. 147:10.11. e 4:17. Gen. 14:19. Prov. 31:31. Is. 5:29. Jer. 47.3. Mic. 4:13. Luke 1:42.

V. 14. Deborah next proceeds to enumerate the first engagement.--It is remarkable that Juthose who assisted on this occasion, beginning dah and Simeon are not mentioned in this poem, with Ephraim. It is probable, that the Amalek: either as deserving censure or commendation: and ites were coming to the assistance of Jabin; and this cannot well be accounted for; unless the inthat a body of men of the tribe of Ephraim, habitants of the southern part of the land were at (sprung from Ephraim as their root,) opposed and that time so circumstanced, that it could not be prevailed against them: yet Benjamin moved first, 1) expected they should help their brethren of the and the Ephraimites assisted him.—The govern-north. (Note, 3:30.) ors of Machir, or Manasseh, came to the assist- V. 19. Some other kings of Canaan had conance of Barak, and formed useful commanders: federated with Jabin, entirely out of hatred against and the Zebulunites were so much in earnest, Israel, without receiving any recompense for that even their students, or artists, came to join their assistance. the army, and to serve the common cause. (Mary. V. 20. The angels are called "morning stars," Ref:)

(Job 38:7.) and their assistance may be here V.' 15, 16. Both the princes and people of Is- meant: or in poetical language, a violent tempest, sachar came, of their own accord, to attend on raised at that time, which greatly facilitated the Deborah, and to accompany Barak, when he was destruction of the Canaanites, might be ascribed sent down into the valley, with his small number to the influences of the stars in their courses; of foot-soldiers poorly armed, to meet the army which thus, without any such miraculous alteraand war-chariots of Sisera. (8. Note, 4:14.)-Yet tion in the heavens, as took place in the days of Reuben kept at a distance, as disaffected to the Joshua, fought effectually against Sisera and his common cause, or unconcerned about it; which army. (Note, Josh. 10:12–14.)-Some think the excited much uneasiness and resentment, and battle continued during part of the night; and that occasioned many thoughts in the minds of his the bright shining of the stars enabled Israel more brethren. But he made the care of his flocks the successfully to pursue and more effectually to pretence for remaining at home on this conjunc- destroy their enemies. ture.

V. 21. The river of Kishon. Marg. Ref.The V. 17. The tribe of Gad, and the half tribe of stream of this rivulet seems to have been so swellManasseh, inhabited mount Gilead: and Machired by the rains which had fallen, that numbers of before-mentioned seems to have been that half of the Canaanites, attempting to cross it, were swept Manasseh which dwelt west of Jordan. (14) It is away by it.-Deborah, by exciting Barak and the probable, that all the Israelites, who dwelt east of Israelites against their powerful enemies, and by Jordan, abode at home and refused their concur- || their strong faith and fervent prayers, had troddea rence. The tribes of Dan and Asher did the same; || down their strength in the very dust. (Note, Muc. the one being occupied in merchandise, or fishery; 7:8—10.) and the other, as some think, in repairing the V. 22. Marg. Ref:--Note, Is. 5:26–30. breaches, or stopping the incursions, which the V. 23. It is probable that Meroz was some town sea had made upon their inheritance. (Marg. or city, near to the field of battle, and that the

inhabitants were more inexcusable in not afford. V.'18. From these two tribes Barak had raised ing their assistance, than those who lived at a dishis army; and they had boldly ventured and even tance: and perhaps their refusal arose from a sedespised their lives, in meeting the enemy, with cret favor borne to the Canaanites. The Lord their iron-chariots, in the open field of battle: did not want their help against the mightiest of (Notes, 4:6,7,14.) 'But some of the others were his enemies; but their conduct proved their unFeady to follow the blow, though not present in belief and degeneracy.--Deborah did not curse


the wife of Heber the Kenite bez blessed || Why is his chariot so long in coming! shall she be above women in the tent. why tarry the wheels of his chariots!

25 He asked water, and she gave him 29 Her wise ladies answered her, yea, milk: she brought forth butter in a lordly she returned & answer to herself, dish.

30 · Have they not sped? have they 26 She put her hand to the nail, and not divided the prey; to || every man á her right hand to the workman's hammer: |damsel or two? to Sisera a prey of divers and with the hammer she smote Sisera; colors, a prey of divers colors of needle& she smote off his head, when she had work, of divers colors of needle-work on pierced and stricken through his tem- both sides, meet for the necks of them that ples.

take the spoil? 27 + At her feet he bowed, he fell, he 31 So let all thine enemies perish, O lay down; at her feet he bowed, he fell: Lord: but let them that love him be as

where he bowed, there he fell down the sun when he goeth forth in his might. | dead.

9 And the land had rest forty years. 28 The mother of Sisera looked out at li4:15. Cant. 8:14. Jam. 5:7. a window, and cried through the lattice, || Ex. 15:0. Job 20:5.

|| Heb. the head of a man.

p 2 Sam. 23:4. I s. 184,5. 326.

o E.. 20:6. Deut. 6:5. Ps. 91:

14. 97:10. Rom. 8:28. 1 Cet. 8:3. Eph. 6:24 Jam. 1-12. 2 5. 1 Pet. 1:8. 1 John 4:19-21. 5:2,3.

See on 4:19-21.

h Ps. 52:7. Matt. 7:2. Jam. 2: Heb. she hammered.

13. f 1 Sam. 17:49–31. 2 Sam. 20:1 Heb. destroyed. 22

i 2 Kings 1:2. Cant. 2:9. | Heb. Between.

m Gen. 37:3. 2 Sam. 13:18. Ps.

n Ps. 48:4,5. 58:10,11. 68:1-3.
83:9_18. 97:8. Rev. 6:10.
18:20. 19:2,3.

Proy. 4:18. Dan. 123. Has 6:3. Matt. 13:43. 9 3:11,30.

them out of personal resentment, but “the Angel Israelitish virgins divided among the conquerors, of the LORD” commanded her to pronounce a as their property, to be exposed to their unbridled, curse upon them; that Angel of the Lord, who || domineering lust! And that nothing more excel. was the “Captain of the LORD's host.” (Note, lent could be conceived by her trifling mind, than Josh. 5:13—-15.)-Perhaps Meroz had before been to see her son, and his attendants and concubines, a Aourishing city; but in consequence of this arrayed in fine garments, wrought by the singu. curse, it became so obscure that its situation is at lar skill and industry of their vanquished enemies! present unknown. (Note, Josh. 6:26.)

V. 31. The mother of Sisera is left to enjoy ber V. 24. The inhabitants of Meroz, though Is- || imaginary triumph, and meet her bitter disapraelites, feared the power or valued the friendship || pointment; while the hymn of praise concludes of the Canaanites, more than they dreaded the with praying for similar destruction to all the enpower and desired the favor of God; and they | emies of the Lord, and prosperity to those wh were therefore joined with the accursed Canaan- | love bim; that their characters may be honorable ites. Jael, though not a native Israelite, from their endeavors successful, their course increas faith, and love to the cause of God, preferred the ingly useful, and their path shining more and friendship of his oppressed people to that of their | more; till they resemble the noon-day, when the enemies; and she was joined with them in the sun by his full strength has dispelled the mists and blessing, yea, had a special and superior blessing. clouds which his rising draws up, and which at (Noles, Matt. 25:31-46. Gal. 3:6--14.) And in- first obscure his way, but afterwards increase his deed, “in the tent,” she jeoparded her life as much | splendor. (Notes, Ps. 68:1—3. Rev. 19:1–6.). as the soldiers did “in the high places of the field.” Had rest forty years.] It is not agreed whether (.Notes, 4:21. Josh. 2:8–16.).

these years are to be coinputed from the time that V. 26, 27. When Jael 'had driven the nail Deborah was raised up to be judge; or from the through the head of Sisera, she perhaps cut it off beginning of the oppression by Jabin. The forwith his own sword: though indeed no intimation || mer is the more obvious interpretation. (Notes, is given of it in the history; and the words may || 3:11,30.) merely be a poetical repetition of the same idea by a variety of terms. (Note, 1 Sam. 17:50--53.)

PRACTICAL OBSERVATIONS. - When he felt the anguish of the nail penetrat

V. 1-11. ing his head, perhaps he struggled to arise, but No delay should be made in returning thanks fell down again, and bowed, and died at her feet; | to God for his mercies: for our praises are most finding death where he had sought life, and a ter- | acceptable, pleasant, and profitable, when they rible enemy where he expected a kind friend. flow from a full heart: nor should we be back

V. 28. The mother of Sisera, with impatient ward to celebrate his praises, and declare our expectation, looked for his return, and wondered obligations to him, before his most determined what so long delayed him; not in the least fearing enemies, or in the presence of the mightiest and his success in a contest with so unequal an enemy, haughtiest of the princes of the earth. Let them as Barak and his forces appeared to her. In an be reminded, that the Lord is above them; and ordinary poem we shonld say, this was finely im- | against them, so long as they seek their own glory agined:" but we may here conclude it was actually and oppose his cause: let them be warned to rethe case.

joice with trembling” in their dangerous preV. 29. Wise.) This seems to be spoken ironi-Jeminence: let them lower their diadems to the cally. Her ladies, in their great wisdom, suggest-crown of "the King of kings;" and learn to emed that Sisera only waited to divide the immense brace his salvation, and become his servants, or spoil which had been taken; and she as wisely they will ere long perish like Jabin and Sisera. pleased her vain mind with the soothing imagina-|| (Pš. 83:9,10. Note, Ps. 2:10—12.)– Those princes tion!

who desire to serve God, must trust in him, and V. 30. (Marg. Ref.MA damsel or two.] What not in chariots and horses, fleets, or armies; they a picture does this give of an ungodly and sensual must use their authority in advancing truth and heart! How shameful are these wishes of an aged | righteousness, and account his worship to be their mother for a beloved son, and his officers and sol- || most honorable and delightful privilege and em. diers: that a woman of honor and virtue, as weployment.--Every recent mercy calls upon us to say, could delight her fancy, with conceiving the renew our gratitude for former benefits: the works



LORD delivered them into the hand of Israel, relapsing into sin, is oppressed by Midian, and reproved


seven years. by a prophet, 1-10. The Angel of the Lord appoints Gideon

2 And the hand of Midian * prevailed to deliver them, and confirms his commission by consuming his and is alarmed; but when encouraged, he builds an altar, and against Israel: and because of the Midiancalls it JEHOVAH SHALOM, 222. By divine commandites the children of Israel made them the he destroys Baal's altar and grove, and offers a sacrifice to JEHOVAH, 25-27. His citizens purpose to put him to

d dens which are in the mountains, and death; but his father defends him, and calls him Jerubbaal, He raises an arıny, and is encouraged by a twofold caves, and strong-holds.

3 And so it was, e when Israel had

sign, 33—40

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Indeed power

of the Most High can consistently be compared | bles of the earth.—They who would do good, only with each other; and all combine in pro- I must shake off sloth, renounce indulgence, and claiming, that nothing is too hard for his power, || learn to be active and endure hardship. On some or too large for his love. Our praises in prosperity occasions they may be called to "jeopardy their will be heightened and purified, by the remem-lives in the high places of the field;" at all times, brance of preceding troubles, and by humiliation to sacrifice many personal interests for the pubfor those sins which occasioned them: for nothing | lic good; and by so doing, to incur the reproach but sin gives birth to misery, whether personal or and censure of a misjudging world. Most men public, teinporal or eternal.--When men rebel will therefore excuse themselves: and while they against God, he withdraws his protection, and are averse to the cross, and disaffected to the sets his face against them: then their weakest foes cause of God, they will find apologies for their prevail, and his curse infuses bitterness into all conduct, from the variety of their secular entheir comforts; nor can any thing but repentance gagements and avocations. But they who temstop the speedy progress of advancing judgments. || porize in a matter which admits not of neutrality, But if faithful and zealous persons are raised up, are numbered among his enemies; and whilst they as magist rates or ministers, to attempt reforma- grieve and discourage the hearts of others, bring tion; if others willingly offer themselves to con-heavy wrath upon themselves. cur in their pious designs; and if the people are and pre-eminence at prcsent seem to be on their suitably influenced by these endeavors; the affairs | side, and the servants of God are poor, despised, of nations and churches then begin to wear a and afflicted: but the tables will soon be turnmore favorable aspect. And when in our personal Jed; and the feeblest believer shall “tread down afflictions we are brought to humble ourselves strength," and exercise dominion over the mightibefore God, to repent, to pray and seek forgive- | est of the wicked.-When the Almighty "arises ness, deliverance and comfort are not far off

. | to judgment, to help all the meek upon earth," Happy are they who are thus “chastened of the and to avenge the cause of his people, the whole Lord, that they should not be condemned with creation wages war against his enemies; "the the world:” for the prosperity of the wicked stars in their courses,” the elements melting with increases pride, insolence, presumption, and sen- fervent heat, and all the angels in heaven shall suality, till they "suddenly perish, and that with- concur in their destruction: wbile the hosts of out remedy.”_While we can go abroad, or rest at God shall sing with triumpliant acclamations, home, in security; while we can follow our em- || “So let all thine enemies perish, O LORD;” “and ployments, and attend on the ordinances of God, they who love the LORD," shall shine as the sun without any to make us afraid; let us join, to our in the kingdom of their Father.” What will then thanksgivings for such distinguishing mercies, our become of the hopes of the sensual, the vain, the sympathizing prayers for those who are groaning | covetous, and the ambitious? The objects of their under the calamities of war, oppression, or perse-noblest wishes were degrading, and many of their cution.-But, as a craving appetite will urge men | desires base and brutish: yet even these wishes to venture even their lives for its gratification; / and desires will not be gratified, and eternal disdid we thirst aright for the blessings of salvation, | appointment and black despair will complete their neither the persecutor's rage, nor the tempter's final misery. Where will then be their boasted assaults, could keep us from the house of God, or wisdom? where their high-sounding titles and the throne of grace.

glittering distinctions? All, all are vanished, and V. 12–31.

gone for ever! But the righteous may look forWhen we rehearse the righteous, faithful, and ward to that solemn scene with joyful expectamerciful acts of the Lord; we should also bear | tion; may consider death and judgment as the true respect and affection, and give due commen- || coming of their Beloved to complete their felicidation, to those who have been his willing mes- Il ty: and, though willing to wait his time, yet longsengers of kindness to us, and should at least | ing to behold his face, they may well say, “Why recompense them with our fervent prayers for his is his chariot so long in coming? why tarry the blessing on them; and while he needs no human wheels of his chariots?” Though they meet dehelp, he is pleased to employ and accept the ser- || lays, they shall not suffer disappointment; for yet vices of those, who in their several stations im- | a little space, and he will come, and receive thein prove their talents to advance his cause: nay, he | to his glorious and eternal rest. requires every man to do this, and will call those to a severe account who neglect or evade his

NOTES. service.—The higher any man is advanced in CHAP. VI. V. 1. The Israelites had executed Providence, the more forward ought he to be in vengeance on the Midianites, just before the promoting the public good, and in stirring up death of Moses, and had almost extirpated them: others, by his example, influence, and authority (Notes, Num. 31:1–18.) but the remnant had into do the same; not deeming the high praises of creased and acquired power; and, probably instiGod unbecoming the bench, the senate, or the gated by resentment, 'they joined themselves to throne, or unseasonable in the most ordinary con- the Amalekites, the devoted enemies of Israel, in versation with strangers, and even with the no- ' order to retaliate. (3) As the tyranny of these Vol. I. 89


the Amalekites, and 'the children of the lof the Egyptians, and out of the hand of east, even they came up against them; all that oppressed you, and a drave them

4 And they encamped against them, out from before you, and gave you their and destroyed the increase of the earth,|| land: 8 till thou come unto Gaza; and “left no 10 And I said unto you, 'I am the sustenance for Israel, neither * sheep, nor LORD your God; s fear not the gods of ox, nor ass.

the Amorites in whose land ye dwelk 5 For they came up with their cattle, but ' ye have not obeyed my voice. and their tents, and they came kas

(Practical Observations.) grass-hoppers for multitude; for both 11 1 And there came "an Angel of they and their camels were without the LORD, and sat under an oak which number: and they entered into the land was in Ophrah, that pertained unto Joash m to destroy it.

the "Abi-ezrite: and his son Gideon 6 And Israel was greatly impover-threshed wheat by the wine-press, to i hide ished because of the Midianites, and it from the Midianites. the children of Israel cried unto the 12 And the Angel of the LORD appearLORD.

ed unto him, and said unto him, The 7 And it came to pass, when the chil- LORD is with thee, thou mighty man of dren of Israel cried unto the Lord because valor. of the Midianites,

13 And Gideon said unto him, O my 8 That the LORD sent ta prophet unto Lord, Yif the LORD be with us, 'why the children of Israel, which said unto then is all this befallen us? and where be them, P Thus saith the LORD God of Isra- | all his miracles which : our fathers told el, I brought you up from Egypt, and us of, saying, Did not the LORD bring us brought you forth out of the house of bon-| up from Egypt? but now the LORD hath dage:

b forsaken


and delivered us into the 9 And I delivered you out of the hand hands of the Midianites. f 33. 7:12. 8:10. 1 Kings 4:30. n Ps. 106:43. Marg. Jer. 5:17. || 9 See on Ps. 44:2.3.

s 2 Kings 17:33,35,38. Jer. 10:2.

9:13. 42:21. 43:4,7. Zeph. 3:2. | Heb. a man, a prophet.

Job 1:3.
Gen. 10:19. 13:10.
Prov. 28:3. Jer, 19:9,10. Ob. 5.

Mal. 1:4.
o See on 3:9,15.-Ps. 50:15. 78:
34. 106:44. Is. 26:16. Hos. 5:

* Or, goat.

i Cant. 1:5. ls. 13:20.
k 7:12. 8:10. Jer. 46:23.
1 8:21. 1 Sam. 30:17. Is. 60:6.

Jer. 49:29,32 m Ps. 83:


1 2:18. Ex. 3.12. Josh 1-59 r See on Ex. 20-2,3.

Roth 2:4. Matt. 1:23. 22.

Luke 1:28. Acts 18:9.10 t 2:2. Prov. 5:13. Jer. 3:13,25. y Gen. 25.12. Ex. 33:14-16.

Num. 14:14,15. Rom. &31. Rom. 10:16. Heb. 5:9.

z Deut. 29:24. 30:17,18. Ps. $ u 14-16. 2:1-5. 5:23. 13:3,18- 49. Is. 59:1,2. 63:15. 20. Gen. 48:16. Is. 63:9.

a Ps. 44:1. 78-3,4. v 8:2. Josh. 17:2.

b Dent. 31:17. 2 Chr. 15.2. Ps w Heb. 11:32. Gedeon.

27:9. Is. 41-17. Jer. 23.33. | Heb. cause it to flee.

p See on 2:1-3.-Neh. 9:9_12.
Ps. 136:10-16. Is. 63:9-14.
Ez. 20:5,&c.

enemies, though exceedingly grievous, was much be useful here to compare the language of this shorter than that of their former oppressors; it is prophet, “Thus saith the LORD, &c. with that probable, that the guilt of Israel bad not been so of the Angel before mentioned, (.Note, 2:1-5.) atrocious.

and with the subsequent part of this chapter. (11 V, 2, 3. These caverns were well known to 1-24) the Israelites, when this history was written: but V. 11. (Marg. Ref.) The people contrived by it was proper that the original intent and use of various means to conceal a scanty portion of their them should be remembered, both to humble harvest, just sufficient to keep them from starving: them, and to excite their gratitude.—The Midi- || In the wine-press Gideon beat out the wheat with anites and their allies seem to have come rather) a staf" (Heb.) unsuspected: for either the vintage as freebooters, than as a disciplined army of was not ripe, or the people could make no use of troops under experienced commanders: yet the their wine-presses. courage of the Israelites was so sunk, that, in- v. 12. Marg: Ref. s.). Perhaps Gideon, stead of manfully resisting them, they dastardly while at his work, was meditating on the misconcealed themselves under ground from their erable state of Israel, and conceiving bold deravages. (Murg. Ref.)

signs against their invaders, which however be V. 4. Gaza.] The country of Midian lay be- saw no possibility of accomplishing, to which yond the most eastern borders of the land, and thoughts these words of the Angel might refer. Gaza was near the Mediterranean sea on the west. V. 13. The Angel had said, “The LORD is So that the invaders went across the country, and with thee:” but Gideon's mind was occupied occupied and desolated the whole of it, leaving about his people, and he therefore answered, "If “no sustenance." (Note, Jer. 49:9–11.) the LORD be with us;" not conceiving that the V. 5. Marg. Ref.

LORD could be with him, when there was no eviV. 6–10. (Notes, 3:9,10,14.) The peopledence of his special presence with Israel. He having long suffered under their affliction, at judged right, when he concluded that they could length cried unto the Lord to deliver them from not have been so distressed, if the almighty God, it; but it does not appear, that they were deeply who had brought them out of Egypt, had not for humbled for their síns. (Notes, Is. 1:10–20.) the time forsaken them: but he did not suitably He therefore sent a prophet to call them to re-advert to those crimes which had provoked him pentance, before he raised up a judge to deliver to anger. (Notes, Deul. 32:26–31.) them from their enemies. The message itself Our fathers told us of, &c.] Language of this was very plain and convincing, and probably was kind, frequently occurring in the subsequent hisdelivered from city to city, throughout the land; torical books, shews how fully the conviction and it seems to have had considerable effect, as it prevailed in the minds of the people, that all the prepared the way for their deliverance. It may I wonderful works for Israel recorded in the books 706]

14 And the LORD looked upon him, || ready 1 a kid, " and unleavened cakes of and said, a Go in this thy might, and thou || an ephah of flour: the flesh he put in a shalt save Israel from the hand of the basket, and he put the broth in a pot, and Midianites: have not I sent thee?

brought it out unto him under ihe oak, 15 And he said unto him, O my Lord, and presented il. wherewith shall I save Israel? behold, 20 And the Angel of God said unto e my * family is poor in Manasseh, and him, Take the flesh and the unleavened I am d the least in my father's house. cakes, and 'lay them upon this rock, and 16 And the LORD said unto him, e Sure-im

pour out the broth.

And he did so. ly I will be with thee, and thou shalt smite 21. Then the Angel of the Lord put the Midianites as one man.

forth the end of the staff that was in his 17 And he said unto him, ' If now 1 || hand, and touched the flesh, and the unhave found grace in thy sight, then leavened cakes; and there a rose up fire & shew me a sign that thou talkest with out of the rock, and consumed the flesh

and the unleavened cakes. Then the 18 Depart not hence, I pray thee, until Angel of the Lord departed out of his I come unto thee, and bring forth my sight. + present, and set it before thee.

And 22 And when Gideon operceived that he said, I will tarry until thou come he was an Angel of the LORD, Gideon again.

said, Alas, O Lord God! for P because I 19 And Gideon went in, and 'made have seen an Angel of the Lord face to e See on 12.-Ex. 3:12. Josh. 1: face.

23 And the LORD said unto him, g 36-40. Gen. 15:8—17. Ex. Heb. a kid of the goals.


See on 11. a 4:6. Josh. 1:59. 1 Sam. 12: 5. Is. 41:10,14_16. Matt. 28: 11. 1 Chr. 14:9,10.

20. Mark 16:20. Acts 11:21. b Ex. 3:11. 4:10. Jer. 1:6. Luker See on Ex. 33:13,16.

1:34. ci Sam. 9:21. 18:23.

4:1–9. 2 Kings 20:8-11. Ps. * Heb. thousand is the mean- 86:17. Ig. 7:11.

est. Ex. 18:21-25. Mic. 5:2. h Gen. 18:5. 19:3.
d Gen. 32:10. Jer. 50:45. 1 Cor. Or, meat-offering:
15:9. Eph. 3:8.

i 13:15-19. Gen. 18:6-8.

k Lev. 2:4.
I 13:19.
m 1 Kings 18:33.34.
n 13:20. Lev. 9:24. 1 Kings 18:

38. 1 Chr. 91:26. 2 Chr. 7:1. 0 13:21. p 13:22. Gen. 16:13. 32:30. Ex. 33.a). Deut. 5:5,24,26. Is. 6:5. John 1:18. 12:41.


of Moses, had assuredly taken place. And this vine power and authority. (Notes, Ex. 3:3—12. conviction could never have been produced and 4:1–9. 33:17--19.) perpetuated, from the days of Moses, to all suc- V. 18. My present.]."Meat-offering.” (Marg.) ceeding generations, had it not been certainly As a kid was part of the meat-offering, (19) the known by Moses's contemporaries, that this was word cannot always be used exclusively for oblaindeed the case.

tions of flour, &c. as some have thought. V. 14. We here learn who this Angel was;

V. 19. This preparation would serve, either even the LORD, JEHOVAH, the only begotten Sor || for a hospitable meal, or for a sacred oblation. of God, who has in all ages declared the Father The quantity was far more than was necessary to mankind.—These repeated evidences contin- for one person at one time: and it shews that, ually remind the attentive reader, that the Scrip-even in his poverty, Gideon was ready to "use tures are calculated to lead us to conceive of the hospitality without grudging,” according to the one living and true God, as subsisting in distinct custom of those times. (Gen. 18:38.). persons. — The LORD looked upon Gideon, with V. 20, 21. This command seems to have been some peculiar expression of inajesty or of favor, intended as a trial of Gideon's faith and obedie giving energy to his words, while he said, “Go ence, by which the Lord gave him the sign in this thy might, and thou shalt save Israel.” | which he required. (17) With the staff in his (Marg. Ref. on 11. p. Notes, Ex. 3:12. 4:1-12 | hand, he touched the flesh, and the unleavened Luke 21:14.)-Thụs he was commissioned to ex-cakes;” and by fire, miraculously kindled, the ecute the bold designs which he was revolving in whole was consumed, as a sacrifice, and not his mind, or to attempt the deliverance of his peo- a hospitable meal; for he was God, and ple, in that strength of faith which he even then not man. (Notes, 1 Kings 18:33–39. 2 Chr. possessed.--If he believed that nothing was want-|| 7:1—3.) ing to deliver them from the Midianites, but the V. 22. The sight of a created angel, though presence of God who redeemed Israel from Egypt; | it might have surprised. Gideon, would not have let him go in this confidence, and he shall find thus terrified him: but it was a current opinion, that same power exerted to render him success- that the vision of the divine glory was fatal; and, fui. “Have not I sent thee?” saith the divine except as seen in Jesus Christ, no doubt it would Speaker.

be so. (Marg. Ref:p.) From such places as this V. 15. Manasseh was not one of the leading the ancient Christians rightly gathered, that the tribes in Israel; the thousand (marg.) to which | Son of God appeared, upon some great occaGideon belonged, was poor in that tribe; and he || 'sions, in old time: which is not incredible, but a was (as he humbly thought) the meanest person || 'matter of easy belief; if we be pursuaded, that in the family, and utterly unfit to undertake such he did really appear in our flesh, which he took service. (Notes, Ex: 4:13,14. Is. 6:5–8. Jer. 'of the virgin Mary, and dwelt among us a long

"time, and then ascended in it to heaven, where V. 16 As one man.]. With great facility, and he lives for ever. For why should we think it to their entire destruction. (Num. 14:15. Note, “strange; if for a short time he appeared some

"times in human shape, as a prelude to what he V. 17. "That thou talkest, &c.] Gideon seems intended in the fulness of time? It was indeed to have desired some assurance, that the Person, a greater thing which he did for us at last: but now speaking with him, was He, who at the bush'he that did the greater, inay well be granted to commissioned Moses to deliver Israel out of Egypt, have done the less, and there is no reason to and who had given him sensible tokens of his di- || doubt of it.' Bp. Patrick.




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