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Macaco—The Aye-Ayo-The Galeopithecus—The Flying Lemur
Ferruginea-The Tupaia Murina—The Bangxring-Low's Ptilocercus—Raffles's Gymnure—The Cape
Elephant-Shrew—The Macroscelides Typicus—The Petrodrome—The Rhynchocyon—The Rhynchocyon
Cernei-The Shrew Mouse The Water Shrew-The Oared Shrew—The Musk Rat-The Sorex Etruscus-
Hermann's Shrew—The Madagascar Shrew-Perrottet's Shrew—The Solenodon Paradoxus---The Rat-tailed
Shrew—The Urotrichus Talpoïdes—The Musk Rat of the Pyrenees—The Golden Chrysochloro—The Thick-
tailed Condylure - The Common Mole—The Mole of Japan
p. 184 to 213
The Common Hare-The Irish Hare- The Changing Hare—The Alpine Hare-The Calling Hare-The Kaffrarian
Hare—The Rabbit-The Rock Rabbit—The Alpine Rabbit--The Red or Common Squirrel — The Northern
Myoxus Glis—The Common Dormouse–The Greater Dor.
The Bear_The Brown Bear—The Syrian Bear-The Malayan Sun-Bear—The Labiated Bear-The Ours
Gulaire - The Spectacled Bear—The Black Bear-The Barren-Ground Bear—The Grizzly Bear, The White,
- Bennett's Cynogale—The Suricate-The Civet—The Viverra Rasse—The Zibet-The Genets—The
HE Quadrumana, or Four-handed order
of Mammals, derive their name from the thumb being opposed to the other fingers
and toes, in the feet as well as in the hands, so that, for purposes of grasping, thoy
can use their feet with the same dexterity as their hands. They are broadly divided into two families—the Simiæ, or Monkeys; and the Lemuride.
The first of these families may again be subdivided into two groups—the Monkeys of the Old World and the Monkeys of the New. Those of the Old World have been popularly described under the various names of Monkeys, Baboons, and Apes, according to the length, shortness, or absence of tail; but these distinctions have been of late years
abandoned, as merely external characteristics,
four additional molar
which they can use, almost like a fifth hand, for purposes of climbing. We begin with those known as A pes, which form a descending scale, beginning with the Chimpanzee, and ending with the Dog-faced Baboon. Before, however, we enter upon this extensive subject, we must make some preliminary remarks upon Monkeys and their habits in general.
“ To ape," is a verb which has long been in use as descriptive of conduct full of tricks, and especially of that which is imitative, mimicking, and mocking; while ape, as a noun, has a corresponding signification. Of one fair dame Chaucer says :
“ So loveth she this hardy Nicholas,
In an old comedy we meet with the question and the reply :
“ Stand by there. Who are you ? "
“My lady's ape, that imitated all her fashions." The fox, in one of Dryden's fables, says :
I with pleasure see
Nor is Gay's description of "the monkey who had seen the world," likely to be forgotten :
"At length the treacherous snare was laid;
Poor Pug was caught, to town conveyed,
Like any other gentleman.” Of the imitative power of monkeys there are many amusing stories ; and so remarkable, indeed, are some of the facts that have been observed, that there has often been a hesitation as to telling the whole truth. Thus, Drinkwater, in his highly interesting account of “the Siege of Gibraltar," alludes to a fact, and yet Mr. Stewart Rose remarks, it is done “so obscurely, as to be scarcely intelligible to one not present at the occurrence.” “There is something shabby," he adds, " in concealing what you know to be true, because you imagine that others will not believe it. Turpin was actuated by a higher feeling ; of him Ariosto says :
"Good Turpin, knowing that he says what's true,
Who leaves men to believe what they think right,
Hearing related, would for falsehoods slight.'”
In the spirit of Turpin, then, which Mr. Rose follows, we intend to act throughout this Natural History.
A mạn, who had been a muleteer at Cadiz, and who afterwards established himself as a barber at Gibraltar, in a restless spirit shifted to Ceuta, and, having invested a very small capital, of which he was possessed, in the purchase of those woven red caps, which form the crown of the turban throughout Turkey and Africa, set out alone to seek his fortune in the interior of the country.
Long before sunrise he was off, and reached a wood before the noontide heat became insufferable. In hot countries this period of the day is, as is well-known, appropriated to repose. He accordingly opened the valise, which contained the treasure of red caps, put on one of them instead of his hat, and stretched himself under a tree. He slept comfortably till the sun was somewhat low in the horizon, when imagine his horror at waking, to perceive the boughs of the tree under which he. was sleeping, covered with monkeys in red caps !
They had seen the Spaniard put on his, and, as soon as he was asleep, had, one and all, followed his example. The poor Spaniard, with all the gesticulation of his country, bitterly deplored his hard fate, stamped with vexation, and cast his red cap on the ground, when-happy and unexpected result -all the monkeys did the same, and the Spaniard, with indescribable delight, quickly gathered up his treasure.
In countries where apes and monkeys abound, the natives take advantage of this propensity, and thereby entrap them. Washing their faces and hands in a pitcher of water in situations where these animals are, they substitute for the water a solution of glue; they then leave the spot, when the apes are sure to descend from the trees, and wash themselves as they had observed the men do ; their eyelashes are consequently glued together, they are rendered unable to escape from their enemies, and are thus easily captured.
When some men of science were engaged in South America making observations on the figure of the earth, they were greatly annoyed by the domesticated apes, which were very numerous, looking through their telescopes, planting signals, running to the pendulum they used, taking their pens and trying to write : in a word, imitating every action as soon as they could after it was observed.
The smallpox having spread fearfully amongst the monkeys of South America, Dr. Pinckard, Secretary to the Bloomsbury-street Vaccination Society, was struck by the idea of arresting its further progress. Vaccination was, of course, to be the means of staying the plague, and his scheme for its introduction was singularly ingenious. He bound two or three boys hand and foot, and then vaccinated them, in the presence of an old monkey, who was observed to be closely attentive to his proceedings. He then left him alone with a young monkey, with some of the matter on the table, and beside it a lancet guarded that it might not cut too deep, by a projecting piece of steel, on the same principle as ivory cucumber slices are made, and on the principle also adopted in what are called “ hunting razors.” The doctor witnessed the result from a neighbouring room : the old monkey threw the young one down, bound him without delay, and vaccinated him with all the skill of a professor.
“ The usual effects,” says Mr. Rose, “ followed. Other steady monkeys were thus instructed in the art, after having been themselves previously inoculated ; and several are, it is said, now being sent out to South America, provided with all necessary means for the beneficial infection. May the attempt succeed, and inen and inonkeys, throughout that extensive continent, have cause to bless the name of England !”
Such an aspiration was far more reasonable than many would imagine. Harris relates that the ancient Indiaus found a way of making such creatures, by nature so active, not merely quiet but useful. In such places as produced pepper and cocoa trees, they were accustomed, in sight of the monkeys, to cut the highest branches within their reach, and lay them regularly on the ground. This they did in the morning, and then leaving the place, these natural mimics pulled all the fruit that was out of man's reach and laid it in the same order on the ground, when the Indians, coming in the night, found their harvest gathered to their hands and carried it away.
Stedman, in his very entertaining account of Surinam, tells us, that, being placed in command of a flotilla of barges in an inland part of a river, he was accustomed, at rising, to wash himself, and clean his teeth upon deck, dipping his sponge and tooth-brush for this purpose in water. He had pursued this practice for a few days, when he perceived, to his surprise, a monkey engaged in the same manæuvre, and, after a little longer period, he found that the fashion had been universally adopted, and that hundreds of monkeys every morning lined the shore, who were to be seen washing or cleaning their teeth with small sticks of willow, which they used up and down, or right and left, as the position of the teeth required. Other four-handed creatures have the same power, and we shall give, when speaking of them, many amusing stories.
There have been, unhappily, both writers and travellers too much disposed to credulity, so fascinated by the marvellous, or designedly propagating falsehoods, who have described “men with long tails, and covered with yellowish hair, navigating the ocean in boats, and bartering parrots in exchange for iron;" and "long-armed, hairy men," who played the part of bandits, and whose language was a hissing sound. “The province of Fohier,” says Nieuhoff,“ hath an animal perfectly resembling man, but longer armed, and hairy all over, called Fesse; most swift and greedy after human flesh, who, that he may better take his prey, feigneth laughter, and while the person stands listening, seizeth upon him.” Nor have there been wanting men gravely to affirm that the human race belong to the same species as the monkey tribes; and that the distinction between them has arisen only from the different physical or moral agencies to which they have been subjected. Such was the opinion of Lord Monboddo, one of the Judges of the Court of Session in Scotland. Estimable in the various relations of life, and also for his high judicial character, he was at the same time strangely credulous, while he manifested a strong preference for the virtues and happiness, imaginary as they are, of the savage state.
Men of very different order have been betrayed into great errors, when speculating on the powers