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e felves by rash speeches ; dare you, and that in the pre« fence of this august assembly, affert, that we must « bestow a crown, at your interceffion, on the person w who has occafioned all the publick calamities? And * if this man shall presume so far, will you suffer it, « gentlemen, and shall the memory of those great men e who died in the field for their country, die with a them? I beg you for a few moments, to convey « yourselves in imagination from the Roftra to the 6 theatre, and imagine you fee the herald advancing « and proclaiming the crown decreed to Demosthenes. « On which occafion do you think, that the relations

of those citizens, who spilt their blood for you, ought • tò fhed most tears; either for the tragical fate of U those heroes which I shall represent to you by and « by, or for the enormous ingratitude of the Atheni6 ans? Do not lay open again the deep and incurable Gc wounds of the unhappy Thebans, who through De« mosthenes are become fugitives, and have been 're6 'ceiv'd by you into this city. But since you were « not present at their catastrophe, endeavour, at least, " to form some image of it, and represent to yourselves « a city taken, walls levelled, houses reduced to albes, « mothers and children dragged into slavery ; old men « and women forced to be fervants at the end of their “ days; drowned in tears, imploring your justice, « breaking out into reproaches, not against the actors, " but against the authors of the cruel vengeance, which « they felt; earnestly pressing you to be fo far from « conferring any kind of reward upon the destroyer of 6 Greece, that you would preserve yourselves from the « curse, the fatality inseparable from his person.

“ Imagine then, gentlemen, when he shall invite « the confidents and accomplices of his abject perfidy “ to range themselves around him, towards the close C of his harangue, imagine then, gentlemen, on your c fide, that you see the ancient benefactors of this comc monwealth drawn up in battle array, round this Roftra where I am now speaking, in order to re

“ pulse « pulse that audacious band. Imagine you hear Solon, « who strengthened the popular government by such ex

cellent laws; that philosopher, that incomparable " legiflator, conjuring you with a gentleness and mo© desty becoming his character, not to set a higher “ value upon Demosthenes's oratorial Aourishes than " upon your oaths and your laws. Imagine you hear

Aristides, who made fo exact and just a division of the contributions imposed upon the Greeks for the com

mon cause; that fage dispenser, who left no other " inheritance to his daughters, but the publick grati

tude, which was their portion ; imagine, I say, you

hear him bitterly bewailing the outragious manner “ in which we trample upon justice, and speaking to

you in these words : What because Arthmius of Zelia, that Asiatick, who passed through Athens, where he even enjoyed the rights of hospitality, had brought gold from the Medes into Greece; your ancestors were going to send him to the place of execution, and banished him, not only from their city, but from all the countries dependent on them ; and will not you blush to decree Demosthenes, who has not indeed brought gold from the Medes, but has received such sums of money from all parts to betray you, and now enjoys the fruit of his treasures ; will not you, I say, blush to decree a crown of gold

to Demofthenes? Do you think that Themistocles, " and the heroes who were killed in the battles of " Marathon and Platea ; do you think, the very tombs “ of your ancestors will not send forth groans, if

you crown a man who, by his own confeffion, has been for ever conspiring with Barbarians to ruin Greece?

" As to myself, O Earth! O Sun! O Virtue! and “ you, who are the springs of true discernment, lights “ both natural and acquired, by which we distinguish cs good from evil, I call you to witness, that I have u“ fed all my endeavours to relieve the state, and to 5 plead her cause, I could have wished my speech

" had

" had been equal to the greatness and importance of the « subject; at least, I can flatter myself with having “ discharged my duty according to my abilities, if I

have not done it according to my wishes. Do you,

gentlemen, from the reasons you have heard, and " those which your wisdom will suggest ; do you pro

nounce such a judgment, as is conformable to strict " justice, and the common good demands from you.

EXTRACTS OF DEMOSTHENES's HARANGUE

FOR CTESIPHON.

.6 I begin with intreating all the Gods and all the c Goddesses, that they would inspire you, gentlemen, « in this caufe with a benevolence towards me, pro« portionate to my constant zeal for the common" wealth in general, and for every one of you in par« ticular: afterwards, (which is of the utmost conse“quence to your persons, your consciences, and your

honour) I crave of the same Deities, that they would 6 fix you in the resolution of consulting upon the man¢ ner of hearing me, not my accuser, (for you could ¢ not do that without partiality ; ) but your laws and s your oaths, the form of which, among other terms, « (all dictated by justice) is as follows: Hear both par

ties equally; which obliges you to come with an unç biassed mind and heart to the Tribunal, and to alc low each of the parties to draw up his reasons and sc proofs, in whatever manner he shall think fitd.

“ Now, gentlemen, among the many disadvan

tages on my fide in this cause, there are two particular« ly, and two very terrible ones, which make my « condition much worse than his. The first is, that SC we run very unequal risques ; for now I hazard much . more in losing your good will, than he does, should ” he fail to make good the charge; fince I am to ....

• Æschines pretended to point out the order which Demosthenes was to observe in his pleading.

“ But I will not suffer one word to fall from me in the 6 beginning of my discourse, that presages any thing “ finifter. He, on the contrary, attacks me through

wantonness, and without any neceffity for so doing. The other disadvantage I lie under, is, that all men

are naturally inclinable to hear an accuser with plea“ sure; while on the other hand they hear those who

boast or magnify themselves with indignation. He « therefore acts a part that pleases universally; where• as almost every thing which falls to my lot, is what

generally makes every man an enemy. But if on “ one hand, the fear of incurring indignation, which " is inseparable from self applause, should oblige me to « be silent on my own actions; it will be thought that " I can neither refute him who reproaches me with « crimes, nor justify the person who decrees rewards

for me. On the other, if I should discuss the ser« vices I have done during my administration, I shall 6 be forced to speak of myself frequently, I Ihall « therefore endeavour, in this dangerous dilemma, to « behave with all possible moderation; but whatever G the necessity of my own defence may extort from & me, this ought in justice to be imputed only to the

aggreffor, who voluntarily imposed it upon me.'' “ But in spite of those facts, incontestible, and cer

tified, as it were, by the mouth of truth itself, &« scines has so far renounced all shame, that not con :« tent to proclaim me the author of such a peace as he

6 has mentioned, he is so audacious as to tax me like.. « wise with preventing the commonwealth from con“ certing it with the general assembly of the Greeks.

.... But did you, O! .... (what title Shall I give

you? ) did you betray the least shadow of displeasure e against me, when I broke the chords of that har.. « mony in your presence, and dispossessed the com“monwealth of the advantages of that confederacy, 6 which you magnify so much, with the loudest strains of your theatrical voice © ? Did you ascend the Ros• Æscbines had been a comedian.

66 trum?

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Ce trum? Did you denounce, or once explain those “ crimes, with which you are now pleased to charge “ me? Surely then, if I could have forgot my duty “ so far, as to sell myself to Philip, in order to exclude " the Greeks from participating in that peace ; you u ought then to have exclaimed, protested, and dis“ covered my prevarications to those who now hear " me; but you never did any thing of this kind, nor “ did any person living hear you say one fyllable tendC ing this way ....

“ But if Philip was constantly depriving all states, « without exception, of their honour, prerogatives, « liberty, or rather subverting as many common" wealths as he could ; did not you, gentlemen, form " those very arguments which undoubtedly were the « most glorious to you, through your regard for my ce advice? Tell us, Æschines, how Athens should < have behaved in Philip's sight, when he fet all en “ gines at work, to establish his empire and tyranny o« ver the Greeks? Or what counsels and resolutions “ should I, who was the minister, have proposed; e“ specially in Athens; (for the circumstances of place “ require a particular attention: ) I, who was intimate“ ly sensible, that my country had at all times, even " till the day I first ascended the tribunal, perpetual" ly fought for superiority, for honour and glory; and " that it alone had, through a noble emulation, fa“ crificed more men and money for the general good « of the Greeks, than any other of the Grecian states e had ever facrificed for their own private advantage ? « I, who besides saw this same Philip, with whom

we contended for fovereignty and empire; faw him,

though covered with wounds, his eye beat out, his & collar- bone broke, his hand and leg maimed, ftill

resolved to plunge himself amidst dangers, and rea

dy to give up to fortune whatever other part of his " body the should require, provided he could live ho

nourably and gloriously with the remainder? Now, certainly no man dares to say, that a Barbarian e

6 ducated

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