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will give of the pardon I grant them. I know they are still grieved and afraid. Go then, and carry the pardon of their crime for the feast of Easter. Pray that God may bless my arms, and be assured, that after this war I will go in person and comfort the city of Antioch.

The holy prelate set out immediately; and to haften the joy of the citizens, he dispatched a more expeditious courier than himself, who freed the city from it's uneasiness and alarms.

I once more beg pardon for the length of this kind of digression. I imagined, that the extract of this eloquent homily might be as useful to youth, as any passage in profane authors. There would be room for many reflections, especially on two characters, which though seemingly incompatible are united, however, in Flavian's oration ; the humility and prostrate submission of a suppliant, with the magnificence and greatness of a bishop, but which are so modified, that they mutually support each other. We at first behold the bishop trembling, intreating, and, as it were, lying down at the Emperor's feet. But afterwards, towards the end of the discourse, he appears invested with all the splendor and majesty of the Lord, whose minister he is. He commands, he threatens, he intimidates; but still humble in his elevation. But I will content myself with the reflection which arises naturally from the subject that gave me occasion to relate this story. In my opinion these two discourses of Flavian and Theodofius may be proposed as an excellent model in this species of mild and tender passions. I do not pretend thereby to exclude the strong and violent ones with which they are sometimes blended ; but, if I am not mistaken, the former ars predominant.



SECTION III. OF THE ELOQUENCE OF THE BAR. THE rules I have hitherto given upon eloquence,

1 being for the most part borrowed from Cicero and Quintilian, who applied themselves chiefly in forming orators for the bar, might be sufficient for such young gentlemen as are designed for that honourable profeffion. I thought however that I was obliged to add some more particular reflections, which may serve them as guides, to point out to them the paths they are to follow. I shall first examine what models must be proposed to form the stile fuitable to the bar, and will afterwards speak of the means which youth may employ, to prepare themselves for pleading. And I shall conclude with collecting fome of Quintilian's finest observations upon the manners and character of pleaders. ※※然法※※※宗亲张永来来去定决染发法步法亲密法

ARTICLE FIRST. Of the model of Eloquence proper for the Bar. U AD we the harangue and pleadings of the great 11 number of able orators, who for some years have made the French bar so famous, and of those who still appear at it with so much lustre, we should be able to find in them certain rules and perfect models of eloquence. But the few performances we have of this kind oblige us to have recourse to the source itself; and to search in Athens and Rome for those things which the modesty of our orators (perhaps excessive in this respect) does not permit us to find at home.

Demosthenes and Cicero, by the consent of all ages and of all the learned, have been the most distinguished for the eloquence of the bar ; and consequently their stile may be proposed to youth, as a model they may safely imitate. It would be necessary, for that purpose, to make them well acquainted with it, to be careful in observing the character, and to make them sensible of the differences in it ; but this

cannot faci Julciperent, profiterentur, i. de Orat. n. 153. agerent ... nonad mo

cannot be done without reading and examining their works. Those of Cicero are in every one's hands, and therefore well enough known.! But 'tis not To with Demofthenes's orations; and in an age fo learned and polite as ours, it must seem astonishing, that fince Greece has been always considered as the first and most perfect fchool of eloquence and good taste, we thould be so careless, especially with regard to the bar, in consulting the great masters she has given us in that kind; and Y that in case it was not thought necessary to bestow much time upon their excellent lessons, that we should not, at least, have the curiosity to take but a cursory view of them; and hear them, as it were, at a distance, in order to examine ourfelves if it be true, that the eloquence of those famous orators is as admirable as it is declared to be; and if it fully answers the reputation they have acquired. :

In order to enable young people, and those who have not studied Greek, to form fome idea of Demosthenes's Itile, I shall here transcribe several passages from his orations, which indeed will not be sufficient to exhibit that great orator in the glorious light he ought to be shewn, nor perhaps to give models of his eloquence in all its kinds ; but they will contribute at least to display some part of him, and his principal characteristicks. . I thall add to this, fome passages from the barangue which Æschines, his competitor and rival,

pronounced against him, and borrow M. Tourreil's - translation ; I mean the last, which is much more

Jaboured, and more correct than the former ones. I Thall however sometimes take the liberty to make a few small alterations, because on one hand, there are a great number of low and trivial ? expressions in it, i

K2 Ego idem exiftimavi pecudis tamen excipere voces eorum, & Ele, non hominis, cùm tantas res procul quid narrarent, atcerdere.


non ad movere aurem, z Ce que nous demandions cous nec, li palam audis

n audire eus non au- & à cor & à cri...... Le soin

inueres apud tuos cives qu'ils ont devous corner aux oauctoritatem tuam, fubauscultando reilles . . Si vous continuez à fainte

deres, ne minuere




and on the other, the stile is sometimes too swelling and bombastica ; faults directly contrary to the character of Demofthenes, whose eloquence was at the same time very simple and very magnificent. M. de Maucroy has translated fome of his orations. His version, though less correct in some passages, seems to me more agreeable to the genius of the Greek orator. I partly make use of it in the first extract I here give, which is taken from the first Philippic. anter .... Vous vous comportez au ficiles dans vos assemblees : vous rebours de tous les autres hommes voulez y être- flatés, & qu'on ne ... Vous ne cessez de m’affassiner vous cienne que des propos agréa. de clabauderies éternelles ..... bles. Cependant cette delicatesse Ils vous escamoteront les dix ta- vous a conduits sur le bord du prélens ... Vous amuser de fariboles cipice. Ce qui a trompé M. de .... Il le ménagea un prompt Tourreil est le mot spuoer, qui rapatriement... Que si le coeur signifie ordinairement, deliciis a. vous en dit, je vous cede la tris bundare, difflnere, in deliciis vivere. bune . . . Mais tout compté, tout Quand il auroit eu ici ce sens, il rabatu...... Non, en duffiez- n'auroit pas falu l'exprimer par vous creyer à force de l'assurer fauf- ces pompeux: Vous vous endormez sement ..... Vous vomissez des tranquillement entre les bras de la charetés d'injures . . . . Je raporte volupté : qui joints aux précédens, cepeu d'exemples entre beaucoup au bruit flateur d'une adulation d'autres, pour avertir ceux qui continuelle, forment un stile tout liront cette traduction, très elti- oppose à celui ce Démofthene, mabie d'ailleurs, de ne point im dont l'eloquence mâle & auftere puter à l'orateur Grec de pareils ne souffre point de ces fortes défauts d'expression.

d'ornemens. Mais les délices & a Je ne citerai qu'un endroit, la volupté n'étoient point alors le tiré de la troisiéme Ph lippique. caractére des Athéniens : & d'ail. De la il arrive que dans vos as- leurs quel raport pouvoient-elles semblécs, au' bruit Aateur d'une avoir aux assemblées publ ques ? a lulation continuelle, vous vous Au liru qu'il étoit très naturel endormez tranquiilement entre que les Athéniens, enflés par les les bras de la volupté : mais que éloges continuels que les orateurs dans les conjonctures & dans les faisoient de leur grande puissance, évenemens vous courez les der- de leur mérite supérieur, des exo niers périls. Voici le texte de la ploits de leurs arcêires, & ac premiere partie, qui leule fouffre coutumés depuis lon-tems à de quelque difficulié : si vuir ouplin telles Artéries, d'un côté fiflent 1-nev į s toutev v pièv tais éxx?n- les importans dans leurs affemGirls Tpu pãy naixona Telco Jan Torta blées, & y priffent des airs fiers após dovrin exotcugil'. Volfus le & dédaigneux pour un ennemi traduit ainsi: Unde id confequimini, qu'ils méprisoient : & de l'autre azt in concionibus faftidiatis, affen- . fussent venus à ce point de deli. tationibus deliniti, da omnia, qua vo- careffe de ne pouvoir souffrir que Luptati sunt, audiatis. Ce qui est le leurs orateurs leurs differt la verit?. véritable sens, & M. de Maucray Car je croi qu'ici tfupa peut avoir l'a suivi. Vous vous rendez dif- ce double fens.


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M. Tourreil places this barangue at the head of

the rest.

TEMOSTHENES, in this oration, ani

mates the Athenians with hopes of better fuccess hereafter in the war against Philip, in case they will follow his example, by applying themselves feripully to the management of their affairs. .“ If you resolve, says he, to imitate Philip, which " you have not done hitherto; if every one will act " with sincerity for the publick good; the wealthy " by contributing part of their estates, and the young

men by their swords; in a word, if you will de

pend on yourselves only, and suppress that indolent “ disposition which ties up your hands, in expecta“tion of some foreign fuccours; you then will soon, " by the assistance of the Gods, retrieve your losses, " and atone for your faults, and will be revenged of " your enemies. For, do not think, gentlemen,

that Philip is a God who enjoys immutable felicity: “ He is dreaded, hated and envied by those who are " best affected to his interest; and indeed, we must "presume they have like passions with the rest of " mankind. But all these sentiments seem at present "extinguished, and that because your flow and indo" lent conduct gives them no opportunity of exerting " themselves; and it is to this you must apply a remedy.

• For



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