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are supported, is the only method by which we can usually hope to effect the settlement of such differences. It is important-inasmuch as harmony in the practical duties, as well as the doctrines of the gospel, is essential to the purity, the peace, and the strength of the church. Nor should it be supposed, from the multitudinous treatises already published, that further discussion is unnecessary. As error often changes its connection, and assumes new positions, in accommodation to the circumstances of prevailing customs or prejudices, so truth is at different times assailed at different points, and with various weapons, and every repeated assault needs to be met with a method of defence corresponding to the mode of attack. The practice of sprinkling has, by Pedobaptists in our own country, usually been supported on the ground of Scriptural authority. Prof. Stuart defends it principally upon the ground, that literal obedience is not essential in the case of external institutions. Undoubtedly, if we take into view the whole history of this controversy at home and abroad, from the beginning to the present time, this argument has been the most usual and popular one; but with us it is rather novel, and of course has been very little discussed. I should, however, have deemed it a work of supererogation to have attempted a review of Prof. Stuart's treatise, after the able Examination by Prof. Ripley, had it not seemed to me particularly desirable to give more prominence to the obligatory nature of external duties, and to the relation existing between Baptism and the Communion; as well as to take a more complete survey of the whole subject in its philological bearings. They who admit the importance of obedience, require only to be satisfied of the literal import of the command; and the only legitimate method of settling the meaning of the Greek word baptizo, is, by the usage of the language. It is therefore desirable, though not absolutely important, for the reader to have every example of the word that occurs in the language, together with its proper connection, that he may be able to judge of its appropriate meaning in Greek usage. Having access to nearly every Greek author that is extant, I have collected every example of the word I could conveniently find; and though I do not pretend by any means to have detected every instance, yet I am sure that I have a large majority of all that occur in the present remains of the language, those relating to the Christian rite excepted. Those not examined in the body of the Review, are thrown into the Appendix. With these instances of the word before him, together with its proper connection, the un
lettered reader needs no other apparatus, to enable him, equally with the learned, to determine for himself its appropriate signi fication.
The facts I have collected in relation to the manner in which baptizo is rendered by the various versions, ancient and modern, will, I think, form an acceptable and useful appendage to the work. Many of the early versions of the New Testament were made by those who understood and spoke both the Greek and the language into which they translated. And since there existed no motive for mistranslation, the practice of all Christians in those times being uniform, nor any opportunity for doing it without detection, the Greek being generally understood, these versions must be regarded as indubitable authority for the original and proper meaning of
While the philological illustrations and criticisms are designed more especially for the advantage of those who are acquainted with the languages, the whole is nevertheless so constructed as to occasion no loss or embarrassment to the English reader. The references, whether historical or philological, particularly those of a philological character, are in nearly every instance given from actual inspection of the passages; so that the reader may confidently depend upon their general correctness. I have endeavored to embrace all that was essential to a full and fair discussion of the subject, and to exclude whatever did not seem to have an important bearing upon the question; and it is hoped the book will be found to be a convenient Manual on Baptism and Communion, and generally adapted to the capacity of every class of readers.
In the publication of these sheets, I am impelled by no other motive than a regard for the honor of Christ, and the purity of the church. Nor am I conscious of cherishing any other spirit than that of love toward all that love the Lord Jesus, or of betray. ing any 'zeal for immersion,' besides what naturally results from a desire to keep the ordinances as they were delivered; though the author of the treatise under review suggests that this is 'the sectarianism of iny denomination.' I recollect having somewhere met with the remark, that every page of controversy ought to have inscribed in the upper margin, these words: A new commandment give I unto you, that ye love one another;' and at the bottom, ' If any man have not the spirit of Christ, he is none of his.' To this sentiment, which is as just as it is beautiful, the writer accedes ex animo; and should any thing be found in the following pages,
seeming to betray the absence of this spirit, or indicate that the divine admonition was forgotten, he hopes it will be as frankly forgiven, as it will be acknowledged when pointed out.
As it is, the book is commended to the candor of the Christian public, and especially to the favor of HIM, without whose blessing the 'builder labors, and the watchman waketh but in vain,' hoping that this humble effort may contribute in some degree to hasten the period when the watchmen in Zion shall see eye to eye, and the church universal ACKNOWLEDGE ONE LORD, HOLD ONE FAITH,
AND PRACTISE ONE BAPTISM.
NEW-YORK, May, 1836.
MEANING OF THE WORD USED TO DENOTE THE RITE.-Bánrw.
Usage of the Classics-primary meaning-secondary meaning.
Usage of the Septuagint-primary meaning-secondary mean-
ing. Usage of the New Testament - primary meaning-
secondary meaning. Barrisw. Usage of the Classics→
literal sense-metaphorical sense. Usage of the Septuagint
-literal sense-metaphorical sense. Usage of the New Testa-
ment-cases not relating to the Christian rite .......
PRACTICE OF JOHN AND THE APOSTLES.-Circumstances accom-
IMMERSION ESSENTIAL TO OBEDIENCE.-Spirituality does not super
sede external devotion. The Scriptures do not teach us to
think lightly of external duties. No necessity for a particular
injunction respecting the manner of the rite. The significance
of a ceremony no good reason for substituting it in the place
of an appointment of Christ. Washing the saints' feet never
enjoined as a religious institution. The alteration of the rite
not justified from considerations of personal safety or conve-
nience. Literal adherence to the command does not involve
BAPTISM STANDS IN A RELATION OF PRIORITY TO THE COMMUNION.
Order of the apostolic commission. The conduct of the
apostles. The churches enjoined to keep the ordinances as
they were delivered. We cannot extend church fellowship to
pedobaptist churches-nor to those who practise inter-commu-
nion with unbaptized churches. Objections answered......... 120
Simplicity and significance of the Christian rites. Dangerous ten-
dency of error. Harmony of practice among Christians, to be
restored only by promoting correct and enlightened views of
the importance of positive divine institutions
Etymology of βαπτίζω. Examples of βαπτίζω. Ancient and mo-
dern versions of the New Testament. Baptism of John. Bap-
tism of the Holy Spirit. Baptism for the dead. Jewish prose-
lyte baptism. Historical notices of baptism. English liturgy.
Page 30, line 16, for 'Galba,' read Otho.
22, after Siloam,' insert (").
20, for will require,' read may be allayed with.
21, for 'shastanah,' read chustgah.