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or its Self-competency for a Reward; nor yet CHAP exhorted them to Repentance from the Baseness and Turpitude of Vice; but from the folid Topicks of Religion, the Confideration of God as Maker, Benefactor, and Judge of the World in Righteousness; acquainting them with the particular Perfon, Jefus, ordain'd to be the final Punisher, and Rewarder of Mens Actions; and therefore were commanded, in his Name, to Repent; upon the Affurance given of that Appointment, from God's raifing him from the Dead. This was adding the Knowledge of the Saviour of the World to the true Creed of Natural Religion, viz. That God is, and that he is a Rewarder of thofe that diligently feek him.

A CREED undoubtedly derived down upon the World, from the Original Promife of the Mediator. And they, before the Flood, who diligently came to God, and worshipp'd him in Virtue of the Second Article of it, worshipp'd, in effect, in Virtue of the Mediator, through whom God made himself, according to the Intent of Promife, a Rewarder of those who walk'd in his ways; and confequently a Punisher of those who did not and to convince the Ante-diluvian World, that be, the Lover of Virtue, and not Virtue itself, was the Rewarder of its Servants, tranflated Enoch to himfelf; a Demonftration that another World, not this, was, from the Beginning, intended to be the Reward of that Faith in God, and that Righteousness which flowed from it. And Job after the Flood, without any exprefs Prophecy to revive and support the Faith of that Promije (which was the Intent of Prophecy in virtue of the Tradition of it, As the prefent Bishop of Salisbury/has excellently made




CHA P. was accepted of God, and had that Confidence
XVI. in his Redeemer as to expect † the Refurrection
of his Body from him. So that as Prophecy
went out from the Beginning, to one Lineage,
wherein it was to have its Accomplishment in the
actual Appearance of the Mediator; fo the Tra-
dition of it went out alfo from the Beginning to
all the rest of the World; and God is no Re-
Specter of Perfons, but in every Nation he that
feareth him, and worketh Righteousness in con-
fequence of that Faith, is accepted of him.

IN the first Covenant God is exprefly men-
tion'd as a Punisher, which implies a Rewarder;
in the fecond exprefly mention'd as a Rewarder:
The Wages of Sin is Death, but the Gift of God
eternal Life through Jefus Christ. Man being for
the Tranfgreffions of the firft Covenant under a
State of temporal Punishment, the mention and
Belief of God as a Rewarder was most wanting,
and agreeable to human Nature, to recover the
Balance of the Paffions to their primitive Sub-
miffion to Reason. That Speciality of Belief,
as neceffary to Religion, as the general Perfua-
fion that God is, directly leads to, and implies
Rewards in a future Life. For, if God does
not in Fact, always reward his Servants in this,
it demonftrably follows that he will as affuredly
do it in another World, as that he exifts. Many
of the better Philofophers, as Socrates, Epicte-
tus, who joined Profit and Self-advantage to Vir-
tue, and made them infeparable in the Iffue,
and in the Care of the Gods, feem to have been
Retainers to this very Faith. Arian upon the
latter argues,
"That if Piety and Profit did

See this clearly made out in the fame Book, by the fame


not go together, Piety would be preferv'd in CHAP none; the Reason is, because nothing is fo na- XVI. "tural to us, as to affect and pursue our own "Advantage; fo that if you place what is holy "and just in that which profits, you preferve "them; but if you feparate what is honeft from "what is advantageous, you deftroy what is juft "and honeft, as being weighed down by Pro"fit*" Socrates is reprefented by Cicero de Leg. 1. as openly detefting those who firft divided the Profitable from the Honeft, and thought that Gain was not confined to the Bounds of Virtue, because he held that Doctrine to be the Source of all Crimes.

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How very false therefore, as being fo very unnatural, is the Religion of modern Deists? Who are so romantick in their Commendations, and pretended Pursuits of the Beauty and Charms of Virtue, as to esteem the Motives of Profit, Self-Advantage, or future Rewards, mean, fordid, and fervile. And as this faulty Notion is fyftematically efpous'd by a much more confiderable Pen, than the Author of Christianity as old, &c. I proceed to confider, and refute his pernicious Sentiments, from the Nature of Things. This very Author acknowledges, "The Sum of "Philofophy is, to learn what is juft in Society, "and beautiful in Nature, and the Order of the "World +."

THEY are chiefly contain'd in the famous Inquiry concerning Virtue." Nor do we fay, that "he is a good Man, when having his Hands tied << up, he is hinder'd from doing the Mischief he defigns, or (which is in a Manner the fame)



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*Lib. I. cap. 27. Lib. II. cap. 22. Lib. III. cap. 3.
+ Chara. Vol. III. pag. 161.



when he abftains from executing his ill Pur "pofe, thro' a Fear of fome impending Punish66 ment, or thro' the Allurements of fome exte"rior Reward. " This noble Author makes the Goodness or Illness of Man to depend upon his Affection; who then only, as it afterwards follows, "is fuppofed Good, when the Good or



Ill of the System to which he has relation, is "the immediate Object of fome Paffion or Affec❝tion moving in him." "Whatsoever there"fore is done which happens to be advantageous "to the Species [or Publick] thro' an Affection merely towards Self-good, does not imply any "more Goodness in the Creature than as the "Affection itself is good. Let him, in any Par"ticular, act ever fo well, if at the Bottom it "be that selfish Affection alone which moves, "he is in himself ftill Vicious. Nor can any "Creature be confider'd otherwife, when the "Paffion towards Self-good, tho' ever fo mode66 rate, is his real Motive in the doing that, to "which a natural Affection for his Kind ought "by right to have inclined him *."

So that Self-Affection or Confideration of private Good or Intereft, tho' ever fo moderate, tho' confiftent with, tho' fubordinate to the Good of others, and the Intereft and Advantage of the Publick, must not be admitted at any rate, as a Motive to serve the Publick; but rejected as vicious, ill, unnatural, depraved. And the good, natural, uncorrupt Motive for ferving others and the Publick, must be drawn from Affection to others and the Publick only, under the Witness and Inspection of the governing Mind, or Deity; that this gives Denomination of Virtue, Worth,

*Pag. 25.1

| Charact. Vol. II.

pag. 21.


Honesty, Integrity, Right, Moral Beauty, Order, CHA P.
Harmony, &c. And confequently that practifing, XVI.
upon the Motive of Self-Advantage, or private
Good, must be the reverse.




"Now, as to the Belief of a Deity, and how "Men are influenced by it; we may confider, "in the first Place, on what Account Men yield "Obedience, and act in Conformity to fuch a fupreme Being. It must be either in the Way of his Power, as prefuppofing fome Difadvantage or Benefit to accrue from him: Or in "the Way of his Excellency and Worth, as think"ing it the Perfection of Nature to imitate and "refemble him. If (as in the firft Cafe) there "be a Belief or Conception of a Deity who is "confider'd only as powerful over his Creatures, "and enforcing Obedience to his abfolute Will "by particular Rewards and Punishments; and "if on this Account thro' Hope merely of Re"ward, or Fear of Punishment, the Creature be "incited to do the Good he hates, or reftrain'd "from doing the Ill to which he is not other"wife in the least Degree averfe; there is in "this Cafe no Virtue, or Goodness whatfo65 ever +."

AGAIN" Nor can this Fear, Hope [of fu"ture Punishment, or Reward] confift in reality "with Virtue, or Goodness; if it either ftands


as effential to any moral Performance, or as a "confiderable Motive to any Act, of which fome "better Affection ought alone to have been a "fufficient Cause. It may be confider'd withal, "that in this religious fort of Difcipline, the

+ Charact. Vol. II. pag. 54, 55. VOL. II.



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