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CHAP." are not equally Laws. Befides this, the de"nying Liberty in all moral Things of Manners, in all Things of Obedience to the Laws "of God and Man, and the allowing it in all "Things under no Law, is a Destruction of the "very Nature and Purpofe of Liberty. For the
only End of Liberty is to make us capable "of Laws, of Virtue and Reward, and to di"ftinguifh us from Beafts, by a diftinct Manner "of Approach to God, and a Way of Con"formity to him proper to us; and except in. "the Matter of Virtue and Vice, except in or"der to Reward and Punishment, Liberty and "Choice were good for nothing: For to keep "ourselves from Harm, from Poison, and Ene"mies, a natural Instinct, and lower Appetites, "would ferve our Needs, as well as the Needs "of Birds and Beafts. And therefore to allow "it where it is good for nothing, and to deny "it, where only it can be useful and reasonable, "and fit to be done, and is given by the wife Father of all his Creatures, muft needs be "amifs." **
I SHUT up this Head with the Words of the Apoftle, Heb. xiii. 20, 23. which include the three Offices of our Mediator, King, Prophet, Prieft, and the inward Aids I have been treating of. Now the God of Peace that brought again from the Dead our Lord Jefus, that great Shep berd of the Sheep, thro' the Blood of the everlasting Covenant, make you perfect in every good Work to do his Will, working in you that which is wellpleafing in his Sight.
* Duct. Dub. Book IV. p. 752, 7531
Of EXTERNAL MOTIVES.
NDER this Head might be com-CHA P. prehended Example; which has an XVI. immediate lively Influence upon fuch imitating Creatures as we are, kindling in us any laudable Action that is done before us, fhaming and diffolving all Objection of Slothfulness, or Impracticablenefs. Nor can any Syftem of Religion pretend to a perfect Example of moral Behaviour but the Chriftian.
I MIGHT mention the Wisdom, Decency, Honour, and Reputation of Virtue; and the Folly, Bafenefs, Shame, and Odiousness of Sin, as having the Devil for its Author. And the Author of Christianity as old, &c. fays, "Nothing 66 operates more ftrongly, than the Defire Men "have of being in Efteem, Credit, and Repu
tation with their Fellow-Creatures; nor is it "to be obtain'd without acting upon the Principles of natural Juftice, Equity, Benevo"lence*" If this is the ftrong Principle of Religion with our Author, Christianity inculcates those Virtues far beyond his natural Religion.
I PASS by the Love and Goodness of God in fending his Son into the World; and the reciprocal Love refulting from the common Gra
* P. 16..
CHA P. titude of human Nature; that has been often
I MIGHT inftance the Motive of public Spirit from the Precepts, of not looking every one on bis own Things, but on the Things alfo of others; and the Duty of laying down our Lives for the Brethren.
I MIGHT hint at, what is very little mention'd, the Beauty and Loveliness of Virtute. Seeing the Scripture becomes all things to all Men, that it may fave fome; accommodates itself to all Tempers and Difpofitions; the Slothful and Diligent, Sanguine and Cold, Generous and Difingenuous, Polite and Uneducated; all have Motives and refpective Arguments adapted to them, to excite them feverally to good living.
BUT I felect the EXTERNAL MOTIVES exciting Hope and Fear, as what chiefly moves and affects human Nature, as we are made accountable Creatures to the Author of our Being. The Chriftian Hope is eftablifh'd upon the fure Bafis of glorious Rewards in a future Life; which Faith in God's Promife in the Mediator, in whom all the Promises are yea, and in him Amen, from the Fall of Man, is realized into a Subftance like their own Home, a Pledge of the best Reality and State of Man, a certain Expectation of, and Dependance upon the Things hoped for, and into an Evidence of Things not feen, as operative and convincing, as if they had been seen; overcoming the prefent World, and the worst Thing in it, Death in its worst Appearance; defpifing alfo Crowns, the fineft Thing in it; and living above all its delufive Enjoyments, as Strangers, Sojourners, Pilgrims, fteadily bending their Course to their proper, and that a better Coun
try, which had their Hearts, and influenced CHAP. their Actions; as may be feen in the Catalogue XVI. of those glorious Martyrs and Confeffors of that Recompence of Reward, Heb. xi. And if there were fuch stedfaft lively Efforts of this Hope before the Advent of Chrift, what abundance more must there have been, fince his bringing Life and Immortality to light by his Gofpel? It being matter of perpetual Thanksgiving unto God ever fince, for having, according to his abundant Mercy, begot us to a lively Hope, by the Refurrection Jefus Chrift from the Dead *.
HAPPINESS being the uninterrupted Inclination of our Nature, and Mifery its contrary Averfion; the wife Author of our Being has wrought the Paffions of Hope and Fear in us as Springs of Action, and a Spur to Industry. The Body might be alive, but immoveable like a Tree; the Understanding would grow languid, and the Will unactive, if the other did not bring in the Objects or Things that concern them to be occupied about. Reason could have no concern in Futurity was there neither Hope, nor Fear: And what is hope and fear of Rewards and Punishments but a State of Difcipline of native Self-love and Prefervation, and of its Tendency to Happiness, and Avoidance of Mifery? They are the Wings and Sails of the Soul in her feveral Motions. All the Paffions are therefore given as domeftick, Inftruments in every body's Hand for perfecting and accomplishing, or degrading and injuring his Nature, juft as they are applied, or mifapplied; to the carrying on the Good and Intereft of the inferior Animal, or the fuperior Rational Part of his Constitution;
1 Pet. i. 3.
CHAP. or both jointly together, in Subordination one to the other. Hope and Fear regarding Futurity, with all the other Paffions, fpring out of Love, as will appear a few Pages afterwards; Happiness or Mifery, here and hereafter, depend upon the regular Conduct, or irregular Mifapplication of our Love. If its fupreme Refpect is placed upon God and the Happiness propounded and promised with him in the Life to come, that fupreme Good is infinitely abundant to fill up every Man's Happiness, being commenfurate to all his Defires; and, at one and the fame Time, to fatisfy the Happiness of all Men, all together, without any Envy or the leaft Diffatisfaction at their Share; then all the other Paffions placidly fall under due Government. But if the fame Refpect is misplaced, and for fo long as it is fo, upon worldly Things, which put all together are unable to make any one Man happy, and being limited in their Enjoyment, impoffible to be poffeffed by all together without the Lufts of Covetoufnefs, Ambition, &c. whence Wars and Fighting, and all Disorders in Society; Rebellion of Paffions against Reafon and Religion; and, without Amendment, everlafting Mifery. The Office of Reason then is not to fufpend their Influence, but direct and regulate them to right Objects; and estimate those Objects by the Meafures of Comparison, how much our innate Defire of Happiness and Averfion to Mifery will be affected, and how laftingly involved therein.
AND because he knows our Degeneracy, that as long as we continue in this World we are more affected with natural Good and Evil, or Pleasure and Pain in prefent Senfation, and Belief of that which is future, than we are with moral Good and Evil, i. e. right or wrong, fit