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liying, demanded our attention, for the sea;: but we do not find any we came to the grave of one of the mention of experiments being made natives, by which lay a bow, a pad. to determine whether the water, on dle, and a spear."
which they navigated, was in any The wliole party were unwilling degree fall or brackich. The spot that, having gone fo far, they should whence the whales were feen was be obliged to return without ascer- named, by the author, Whale-iland, taining whether or not they had and is nearly in the fame latitude reached the fea; and, in hopes that (but 20 degrees inore to the weti) the ice would break up and disperle, as the part of the north coast whence they prolonged their stay on the Mr. Hearne, in 1771, faw the sea. island. In this ftation, the latitude - The return to the south by the was oblerved 690 14 N. The lon- lame river (Mackenzie's River) was gitude, by reckoning, was 1310 W, a business of much more labour and from Greenwich. [In the narrative fatigue than the voyage to the sea, it is said, 1340 W. which must be fince they had to mount againgi a, an error of the prels; the longitude strong stream, which required con in the chart being !34. W.) The stant exertion of paddling, or of Variations of the compa's was 36 tracking with a line on shore. In degrees easterly. -" Fish were
one part of the river, where the caught, among which were fome breadth from shore to fhoce did not about the size of a herring, which exceed 300 yards, the depth of wao none of us had ever seen before, ex- ter was 50 fatbonis. cept the Englid chief, who recog- Most of the Indians seen by Ms. nited it as being of a kind that M. to the rorthward were ai vaabounds in Hudson's Bay.”_"Tuel. riance with the Esquimaux, wbom day 144h. Having sat up till three, they represented as being cruel and in the morning, I Dept longer than treacherous: but from these Esqui: ufual; but, about eight, one of my maux the autbor learned that, eight men saw a great many animals in or ten winters, ago, they had leen the water, which he at first supposed large canoes to the weltward, fuil
. to be pieces of ice. About nine, of white men, from whoin they had bowever, I was awakened to resolve obtained iron in exchange for the doubts which had taken place leather.' From other information, relpecting this extraordinary appear imperlealy understood, he had reas ance. I immediately perceived that lon for conjecturing that the body they were whales; and, having or- of water or lea, into which Maes dered the canoe to be prepared, we kenzie's river discharges itself at embarked in pursuit of them. It Whale-island, communicates with was, indeed, a very wild avd un- Norton-found. reflecting enterprise, and it was a It will eatly be credited (bat hard very fortunate circumstance that we travelling in a cald climate is an ex: failed in our attempt to overtake cellent stimulant 10 the appetite; them, as a stroke from the tail of and the following instance is here one of these enormous fish would related : “ We had consumed two bave dalhed the canoe, to pieces." sein, deer, four (waus, forty-five The fight of the whales fufficiently geese, and a confiderable quantity demonftrated the neighbourhood of of hith, in fix days, but it is to be
confidered we were ten men and Forks, at a spot to which people
boufes, &c. and the settlement of In the return, a serious dispute various matters with the Indians, took place between the author and furnished Mr. M. with employthe Indians of his party; and, in ment. Accidents likewise obliged order to prevent it from growing to him to make trial of his skill in phya quarrel, he says, " I fent for the fic and surgery; and he had the faEnglish chief to sup with me; and tisfaction of being fortunate in his a dram or two dispelled all his practice The following is related heart-burning and dilcontent. He among other cales: « Öne of the informed me that it was a custom young Indians had lost the use of with the Chepewyan chiefs to go his right hand by the bursting of a to war after they had shed tears, to gun, and his thumb had been maima wipe away the disgrace attached to ed in fuch a manner as to hang only such a feminine weakness.” by a fmall strip of fleth. Indeed,
On Saturday, September 27th, at when he was brought to me, his three in the afternoon, the voyagers wound was in such an offensive arrived in safety at Chepewyan-fort, ftate, and emitted fach a putrid whenee they had commenced their smell, that it required all the resoluprogress; and “here concluded this tion I poflessed to examine it. voyage, which had occupied the friends had done every thing in their considerable space of one hundred power to relieve him; but as it and two days." 34
consisted only in finging about him, The expedition of Mr. Macken- and blowing upon his hand, the zie to the western coast of North wound, as may well be imagined, America, which is now the object had got into the deplorable ftate in of our attention, was an undertaking which I found it." This case, at more arduous and enterprizing than the ritk of his surgical reputation, even his voyage to the north. He Mr. M. undertook; and the patient begins his relation at Fort Chepe received benefit, and was not unwyan, from which place hie depart- gratesal. ed in October 1792; and, proceed- On the 9th of May, 1793, Mr. ing along the Unjigah or Peace-ri- M. departed from the fort of the yer, he arrived on the 1st of No- Forks, in order to prosecute his vember, at a place called the Forks, western discovery. The travelling where the river branched in two party consisted of ten men (includ directions, one running towards the ing himself); of which number, fouth, the other to the west. Keep two had accompanied him in the ing in the western branch, the au+ former expedition, and two were thur landed a few miles beyond the Indians, intended to serve as huntbaru
ers and interpreters. The whole 817 paces diftance, to a fmall-take, were embarked in one canoe, which whence they 'artired at another was twenty-five feet long within, river, the current of which was and four feet nine inches broad: at foon found to take a louthern die the same time it was so light, that reation. Mr. M. has fuppofed this two men could carry it on a good to be the Columbia, or a brar.ch of road three or four miles without that river. In defcending this resting. In this veffel, besides the fiream, the voyagers very narrowly coni pany; were shipped provifons, escaped being wrecked: but, were ammunition, goods for presents,
&c. we to extract the passage, or to the to the weight of 3000lbs. They more particular in the description of began the voyage against a ftrong the ronte, we should too much current, the Unjigah-river discharg- lengthen our account. From ining itlelf into the Slave-lake to the formation which! Mr. M. acquired morth-eastward, and the direction from the Indians with whom he pursued by the party being towards mel, he learned that, at fome dile the S. W. The country through tance to the westward of the rive:, which they had first passed, the which they were navigating, there aythor writes, displayed a succeflion was another which led to the fea; of the most beautiful fcenery which “I called those of my people about he had ever beheld: but the rapidi- me;" he says, “ who had not been ty of the stream rendered the na- present at my confultation with the vigation dangerous, and extremely natives; and after passing a warm laborious. In one part of the river eulogium on their fortitude, patience, they were obliged to unload four and perfeverance, I stated the dif times in the space of two miles, and ficulties that threatened our con to carry everything but the cance. tinuing to navigate the river, the
Againit fuch obstacles, however, length of time it would require, and the perseverance of Mr. Mackenzie the scanty provifion we bad for fuch at length prevailed. In order to a voyage : 'I then proceeded for the lighten the canoe, moft of the party foregoing reasons to propose a fost walked..“ Mr. Mackay informed er route, by trying the over-land me (lays the writer) that, in patling road to the fea.” This propofition over the mountains, he observed was zealously adopted by all.leveral chasms in the earth that They were obliged to remount the emitted heat and smoke, wbich dif- stream, in order to regain a station fused a ftrong fulphurous stench. Imore convenient for depofiting thould hare visited this pheno- fuch things as they could not carmenon, if I had been fufficiently ty with them, than the place at qualified as a naturalist to have which they had formed the resolus offered fcientific observations there. tion; and their canoe had fnffered on."
fo much damage, that it became On June 12th, they reached the necessary to build a new one. This head of the Unjigah-river, at what however, was a work of only three the author believes to be its most days. The canoe was placed unfouthern fource. They procured a der a covering of small trees and guide in the route; and here they branches, and with it were pot tound a carrying place that led, at many other things; but the pro
visions and gun-powder were left flesh. The guide, having gone bé. in more secure hiding places. fore, hvad prepared for the travellers
On July 4th, they began their a friendly reception. journey by land. The distance to the language of these Indians the western river was, in a straight was totally different from any which shine, above 100 miles : but, by the the author had before heard. After circuitous route which they were having made presents to their hoft, obliged to take, the length of their who had provided for them two camarch was much increased. They noes, the travellers embarkeri
, acprocured guides from among the companied by feven of the natives. natives, and travelled in frequented “. I had imagined,” says Mr. M. paths, but leavy laden, with their " that the Canadians were the moft arms, provisions, and other bag. expert carioe men in the world, but gage. “ Each of the Canadians had they acknowledged themselves infe. a burden of about ninety pounds, rior to thefe people in conducting with a gun and fome ammunition." those vesels." · In this part of the journey, the During the rentainder of the pal, natives were comparatively nume fage towards the fea, the voyagers TOUS.-We insert the following pa were kept in a state of contiant apragraph, which here occurs, becaute prehenfion, and were frequently in it communicates information which situations from which it required the may be of essential service to dif- utmost exertions of their vigilencé trelled travellers:-"We proceeded and resolution to extricate them on our journey accompanied by felves. At a place which Mr. M. the Indian and his two fons. · Así has distinguished by the appellation did not want the younger, and of the Friendly Village, the circumshould be obliged to feed him, I re. stances of their entertainment were quested of his father to leave him, not at first of the most encouraging for the purpofe of thing for the wo: kind, men. He replied, that they were The travellers remained all night accustomed to filh for themselves, at this village; and foon after they and that I need not be apprehenfivé had retired to rest, the chief came of their encroaching upon my prod to Mr. M. and requested him to acvifions, as they were used to fultain cept his bed-companion: but, not: themselves in their journeys on herbs, withfanding repeated intreaties on and the inner tegument of the bark the part of the chief, this offering of trees, for the Itripping of which of hospitality was not accepted. he had a thin piece of bone, then From the Friendly Village, the hanging by his lide. The latter is travellers were furnished with 'anoof a glutinous quality, of a clammy, ther canoe, and proceeded with the fweet tafie, and is generally con- Atream towards the fea. fidered by the more interior Indians houle where they nopperl, fome of as a delicacy; rather than an article the women were employed in beat. of common food."
ing and preparing the inner rind of When the travellers arrived at the cerlar bark, to which they gave the Western river, the first habita- the appearance of flax. Others tions which they law belonged to were (pinning with a distaff and Indians of a tribe which do not'eat fpindle. One of them was weaving
a robe of this fubftanee, intermixed plėting, the evidence that there does with stripes of the sea-otter skin, on not exift a navigable palage by fea a frame of adequate contrivance, to the north of America, and the which was placed again the fide of western, in proving the practicability the house. The men were fishing of commercial intercourse throngh with dragonets between two canoes. the continent between the 'eafter
After this account of their em- and western coasts. ployments, many readers, we ap Mr. M. has drawn up fome brief prehend, will have a more respect- ebfervations concerning the gengra hul opinion of the state of the arts phy, the climate, and the fur-trade of and manufactures among the natives North America ; wisich are inferted of North America, than they have in the latter part of his rolume, and, been accustomed to entertain. ferve as an appendix to the voyages.
On July the 20th, Mr. M. and In his remarks on the geography, his companions arrived at an arm he confiders hoth the political divi of the sea; and on the 21st they fions, and those which have been were near a cape which was seen formed by nature. The climate, it by captain Vancouver, and by him is ftated, is much more fevere on the named Cape Menzies, the arm of eastern than on the western coast; the lea being that which he has which the autbor attributes to the called the Calcade.Canal. This former being exposed to the northwas the fartheft of their progress west winds that blow from the Froto the weft; and at this station, the zen-lea.--The following passage af latitude was 52° 21' N, and the fords matter for reflection : bot we longitude, calculated from the will not undertake to determine mean of two emerfions of Jupiter's whether or not it is founded on a fatellites, 1280 02 W. which is sufficient length of experience. something more weft than cape
" It has been frequently advartMenzies is placed in the chart of ced, that the difference of clearing captain Vancouver.
away the wood has had an astonifiIn the night of the 22d of Judy ing influence in meliorating the clithey began their voyage of return, mate: but I am not dispoted to assent the particnlars of which afford mach to that opinion in the extent which amulement; and they once more it proposes to eftablish, when I con. arrived at fort Chepewyan, on the sider the very trifling proportion of 24th of August.
the country cleared, compared with We have been less circumftantial the whole. The employment of the in our remarks on the relation of axe may have had fome ineunfidensa this voyage, than on the expedition ble effect ; bat I look to other cautes. to the Northern sea : but it may ne. I myself observed in a country, which vertheless be remarked that the ac- was in an absolute fate of nature, count of the voyage to the west that the climate is improving ; and coast is a work of greater entertain- tliis circumstance was confirmed to ment and interest than could have me by the native inhabitants of it. been furnited by that which was Such a change, therefore, muft prodirected to the north. Each has its ceed from fome predominating ope. distinct utilivy: the northern, in cor- ration in the system of the globe roborating, and we may fay in com+ which is beyond my conjecture, and,