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try, and let à price on the heads of in fome measure, to eclipse the fplenthose who were against him. The doar of the throne, opens a way to (picit of infurrection in those quar. the intrigues of the courtiers. Cera. ters was not broken, until the pacifi- tain. it is, that neither the virtue, cation between France and Eng- nor military fuccess and glory of
recognised and confirmed prince Charles, the Hellor,* as the an established order of affairs in baron Thugut was the Pill, of Aul Italy.
tria, and whole plan it was to call It is astonishing, and might well back the French from Germany and appear ineredible, if it were not Italy, by penetrating into the heart placed beyond 'all doubt by expe- of France, were able to screen bim, rience, that priests, women, and from a milignant and too fuccellother domeftics, in palaces, called fal influence and oppoGtion at courtiers, Aould have been able fo court. often, through their influence with The great object of the empress kings, to thwart the measures, and was, to save Naples through an dimine the respect due to the high- amicable compromise: many of the eit degree of honour and military beft officers were neglected, and, courage, skill, and success. The in fome instances, even dismissed fapreme rulers of states do not give from the army, because they were way to the influence and infinua- attached to the archduke Charles. tions of those around their persons, The council of war, at the seat of under tbe idea, that, in doing this, government, whose measures had they hazard either the security or uniformly, and with very little exthe honour of their crowns : bat ception, been followed by defcat they are artfully led to believe, that and disaster, was generally detested both these are equally safe in the and ridiculed by the army. On the kaads of certain favourites; and the whole, the nerves of the Austrian whual jealoul that disposes fovereign army were relaxed; the sentiments proces, rather to check and pull and wishes of the officers were dif. down, than to honour and exalt cordant; and almost the only point such transcendent merit, as fecms, on which there was a general una
• As instances of many that might be mentioned of the humare and generous disposio Lion of prince CEASLES, what follows is worthy of being recorded. When he was on his way from Bohemia to take the command of the army of Germany, as he approached the fode fa&ion, he fell in with numbers of wounded and dying, abandoned by their companions, on the road, for want of horses to draw the carriages in their retreat. The prince immediately ordered the hors:s to he unyoked from several pieces of cannon Dal were likewise retreating, saying, that the relief oi these poor men was an object far Deare his heart shan the preserva ion of a few pieces of cannon. When general Mo. Eau leard of this benevolent trait, he ordered the cannon that had fallen into his hands to be restored to the Auftrians, saying, that he would take no cannon that had been abandored from such humane nr rives.
At Paffaw ther was a repository of clothes and provisions defined for the pont of sbat city. This magazine, on the retreat of the Austrians to the Trafen, fell into the hands of the Fr nich. The archduke immediately wrote to general Moreau, to acquaint him witt its destination, and entreated him to sparc it. The clothes and the provisions wire distributed among the poor; and general Mortau wrote back to the prince, that he would never appropriate to his own use what had been destined for the relief of in. diger.ce.
nimity in all ranks, was a desire that contribute to the general quiet and the war might be brought to a speedy fecurity of nations. The passage from conclufion. Such being the state of Fletcher, to which we allude, may be the Austrian army, and the Austrian quoted without much in propriety in people, the audacity of Moreau in this ftage of the history of the Neadvancing into the very heart of the therlands and the Austrian domiAuftrian dominions, inttead of being nions and authority in Italy.-" The charged with folly, may be thought violation of the ancient privileges of 10 have been a conduct as well the Netherlands, by attempting to judged as it was daring.
introduce an absolute form of
goBy the treaty of Luneville, the vernment, and the inquisition, was feelings of the house of Austria were, an extremely foolinh measure, which, no doubt, feverely wounded. De together with the cruelty of the prived of the rich and noble inhe- duke of Alva, rendered the inharitance of their Burgundian ances- bitants of them most obftinate enetors, and almost excluded from their mies; but the troops of Spain were long-loved Italy, they were isolated, at that time so excellent, that they in a great measure, from those points would have easily surmounted this of contact, where they had so long difficulty, notwithftanding the very and to often measured their strength strong fituation of some of these prowith other powers, and on which vinces, and though the king had they aflorted their power, influence, done nothing to redress their grieand right to interfere, and be re- vances, had it not been that Flangarded with the highest degree of ders lay at such a distance from confideration in the great affairs of Spain, that, as armies could not the finest part of Europe. Yet the be transported thither without the wifest politicians were of opinion, greatest difficulty and expense, fo that, in the compactness of empire, that not only they, but frequently acquired by the accession of so much the advices by which they were to territory on the side of the Adriatic, aci, came not in time to anlwer the in exchange for wider domains, but sudden emergencies that are always these disjointed,' the Austrian fa- falling out in the course of a war, mily had gainer!, in fiability and real which the English and French, as ftrength, an ample compensation being in the neighbourhood of these for what they had lost in extent of people, were able to foment with dominion. This opinion coincides the utmost eafe and expedition ; with that of a great politician and and so blinded was this prince, that, profound scholar, who flouritned in as if Flanders had become the seat the end of the 17th, and beginning of his empire, he would needs from of the last century: the celebrated thence, and that, too, before the Fletcher of Saloun. If his realining Flemings were reduced, make war be just, it ought to be a confolation, upon France and England, as biş not only to the friends of the house of successors have ince done against Austria, but to all Europe, whose in the Palatinate. So gross an error tereft it is, that a government should not only occafioned a loss of seven be establihed in the vicinity of of thete provinces, and ruined his France, fitied to make a stand against great designs in France and Engits capricious fallies, and thereby io land, but reduced hiin to the greatest
ftraits in all his other affairs : which carry on her wars in these disjointed the French, in these latter times, being states, till Spain hersell, when utaware of, have never failed to direct terly exhausted by their ruin, and the chief weight of their wars against incapable of making a desence, be these provinces, which lie so near attacked in the last place. It was a their capital, and to employ the most fagacious saying of a happy bulk of their forces, on that fide, to genius, that, by the addition of their own great advantage, and the Flanders, and the Spanish states of perpetual loss of the Spaniards: Italy, the weight of Spain and the nor at this day have they any other Indies became lighter. In ur age, view in leaving a remnant of these these states have almost totally deprovinces to the crown of Spain, ftroyed this weight. And it had bat to keep their arms weak' and been for the interest of Spain, that unable to operate elsewhere, and Charles V. had alienated the proto to increase the glory of the arms of vinces of Flanders, by either anFrance. Thus the French having nexing them to the empire, or been defeated by the Germans, in - making a present of them to any the battles of Treves and Alten- power wiw had been able to de. heim, we saw their monarch, early fend them against the French; in the succeeding spring, march in- that Philip, instead of retaining, by to Flanders, there to regain his lost a most contuming war, the domireputation. And, at present, to nion of a part of thete provinces, render this province more expen- had granted them all their liberty; five and pernicious to Spain, after or that the present king had vided having fiript her of the more va- the remnant of them to France, luable part of the country, they rather than ftill have retait': them, leare her in poffeffion of a number to the greater advantage of the of large fortified towns, that require latter. So little da men see in their great garrisons to keep them. But own affairs; and so great and inthough the French Mould conquer numerable miseries do nalions furo all the rest of Flanders, they will fer, merely fiom the want of folid have the like advantages in the reflection." It would seem that state of Milan, where France can the ambitious policy of the French make war with much more ease monarchs, respecting the provinces than Spain; the passage for fuc- of Flanders and Milan, was very cours, both by land and sea, being different from that of Buonaparte. nearer from Provence and Dau- Which of the oppofile systems was piny than from that kingdom. the most judicious and solid, it reAnd so France, finding her account mains for time to determine. fo greatly in it, will never fail to
* See a Discourse concerning the affairs of Spain--Political Works of Andrew Fletcher, fq. of Saitoun.
CH A P.
Political Views of Buonapa;te, after a Pacification with Auftria. - The Cha
racter no asumed ny France. -Buonaparte cajoles Paull. --and revives the Armed Neutrality of 1780, against Great Britain.--Convention on the Principles of that Confederation between Frunce and America.- Ambassador fent to the United American Slates from Denmark.---Disputes between Sueden and Great Britain.-Capture and Condemnation of a Swedish Convoy.-- A Swedish Veljel pressed into the Naval Service of Englund. Complaints of this made by Spain and Ilollund. Dignified Condud on that Occasion of the King of Sweden. ----Refik Aions on the Question concerning the Liberty of the Seas. -Iliftory of this Queflion.-Sweden and Denmark hoflile to England.
THE chief conful of France, bodies, on the peace which he had
having made peace with Auf- fo happily accomplined with Aura tria, was now ai liberty to bend his tria. In his answer to the legislaundivided attention to England. tive body, he said, " France with The leading features of his policy, not reap all the blessings of peace, with respect to this country, appear until he mall have a peace with to have been these: to excite a England: but a sort of delirium has confederacy, against this country, seized on that government, which among all the maritime .powers; now holds nothing facred. Its cunto exclude her from all the ports of duct is unjuft, not only towards the Europe; to attack, and, if necessary, French people, but also towards to subdue her only remaining ally, all the powers of the continent : Portugal; and exhaust her finances, and when governments are not and weary out the patience of the just, their authority is but mori. British nation, by the continued lived. All the powers of the conIhreats and alarms of invasion. tinent must force England to fall
France, now in the ninth year of back into the track of moderation, of the war, alluned the character equity, and reason." which England had taken at its Buona parte, ever since the failare commencement. The word, or ac- of his attempt, after his elevation to cording to the new phraseology, the the consulate, to negotiate a peace order of the day, in France, was, with England, continued, with in“ The liberty of the feas, and the creased earnestness, to represent to pacification of Europe.
all maritime nations the overbearThe chiet consul was congratu- ing haughtiness and infolence of lated, of course, by all the conftituted this country. By his ministers and
other ( other agents at the courts of Peterf- more fully to give vent to his passion, burgh, Stockholm, Copenhagen, he gave orders that no answer and Berlin, he infinuated how en- should be given to the notification caraging the prelent poftare of from Francis. As to England, muEarope was for a revival of the tual accusations had taken place armed neatrality of 1780, founded between the Russian and the Eng. on the principle, that free and neu- lish generals, after the unsuccessful tral bottoms make free and neutral and disastrous expedition, in 1799, goods, and how great the advan- to Holland. After the first ebulli
tages of compelling the English to tions of the emperor's rage against - rake peace on reafonable terms. his own officers, his jealouly and
The desultory and frantic mind of resentment was awakened against the emperor, Paul, had been irri- the Englim. The beginning setaled, by rarious accidents, againit sentment of Paul against the British the courts of both Vienna and Lon- nation, as well as the court of St. don, bat especially against the latter. James's, was inflamed by the failure Dilputes hail arifen, even to the of his schemes in the Mediter. height of action, between the Rufo ranean. fians and Auftrians, after the re- The genius of the Russian governduction of the Ex-Venetian ifles, ment, amidst the caprices and finguin 1799, at Ancona, The Austrians larities of individual characters, prehad not duly fupported the Russians, ferves, on the whole, the impulse in the campaign of that year, against and determination that was given France: and it appeared, noi indeed ló it by the Great Peter. li was without reason, that a neighbouring his aim to have a firm footing in the andrival empire, was not actuated by Mediterranean, as well as on the the pripciples which had drawn the Northern ocean and the Baltic. Rufian potentate into the confede. In pursuance of this general aim, sation against the French republic, Paul had been led, by a concurrence but by views of individual aggran- of circumstances, which need not difenient. Whatever was the cause, to be here emumerated, to fix his certain it is, that the emperor of eyes and heart on Malta. Though Rulia had conceived great disgust no absolute promise was made to at the emperor of Germany: in fo that prince by the other allies; yet, much, that when the laiter an- it would appear, that some hopes nounced his intention of sending had been held out to bim, or, at an extraordinary ambassador to Pe- least, that he was allowed, without terfoargh, to offer excuses for 'what being undeceived, to entertain a had happened at Ancona, Paul re- fanguine expectation of being prefused to receive him: and, the sented with it.* A fleet, with
Ceneral fir Charles Stuart, in stating the reasons which induced him to refign the command of the British forces in the Mediterranean, wrote to Mr Dundas, on the 2d of April, 1800, the following: " Although I have freely submitted these pröfeffional Temarks to you on the dittıculty of reducing Valette, by liege, I trust you will do me the jarkice to believe, thar neither the circumstances i bave Rated, the redu&ion of the force fieft proposed, or the inferiority of the objects now in contemplation, compara wirely with cuore originally defigned (among which the chief is known to have been the