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which, he seemed to be in no doubt. that he proposed doubt, hesitation, This question, he said, was, whe- and inquiry. He was really amather we were to permit the navy of zed, when he reflected on the oriour enemy to be supplied and re- gin and progress of those doubts, cruited! whether we were to suffer which now seemed to exist, respectblockaded forts to be furnished with ing the question in dispute between stores and provisions? whether we this country and the nations of the were to fuffer neutral nations, by north. Before the confederacy rehoisting a flag on a Noop or a filli- cently concluded between Russia, ing-boat, to convey the treasures of Sweden, and Denmark, was acSouth America to Spain, or the na- tually executed, no man in that val stores of the Baltic to Brest or house, he was fully certain, had the Toulon? Were these the propofi- fubjeét been brought into discussion, tions that gentlemen meant to con- would have uttered a doubt upon it. tend for? They talked of the de- The doubts of Mr. Grey, he apprestruction of the naval power of hended, were not the effect of inFrance; but could it really be be- veftigation or calm inquiry. They lieved, that her marine would have were offered merely as an argument been decreased to the degree that it against the address, and suggested now was reduced, if, during the by his fears; a species of reasoning whole of the war, the principle that was calculated to produce innow contended for had not been decifion, to throw a damp on the acted cn! If her commerce had spirit of the country, and to encounot been destroyed, if the frau- rage the hopes of our enemies dulent fyftem of neutrals had not The hesitation he recommended, been prevented, would not her would be a victory to the coalefced Travy have been in a very diffe- powers, as it would give them time rent situation from that in which and opportunity to collect and inviit now was?
gorate the means necessary to mainAs to what had been said on other tain their unjust and extraordinary topics, of the censures which ought pretensions. His learned friend to be cast on ministers for the coun- (Dr. Lawrence) seemed to him to fel they had any Jhare in giving for have much mistaken the tenor and the prosecution of the war, he had purport of the addrefs. We must the consolation of knowing what not, said the learned doctor, pledge these were likely to be, from a re- ourselves to lupport his najelty in a collection of what they had repeat- fystem of warfare, into which there edly been. They would most pro. is, perhaps, no absolute neceflity to hably be put in the same way, and enter; but the address requiredno would admit of being answered in fuch pledge: it merely stated the the same way as they had already readiness of the house to co-operate been anfwered, as often as they had with his majesty in defending our been brought forward.
claims, should the northern powers The Solicitor-general observed, perfist in their plans of aggreffion. that the honourable mover of the His honourable frier.d would not amendment had told the houle that recommend a pufillanimous furrenthey were in a situation of difficulty der of a righi, so essential to our and danger, which required vigoar, existence as a maritime ftate, from exertion, and promptitude; yet, any confideration of circumstances,
Never had a case occurred, in which, any thing hut the aggregate of the by act or treaty, we had abandoned people.” We atlack their property, the claim of searching neutral bot- in order to reduce the resources of toms for enemies property. By the the fiate, which derives from them existing treaties between this coun- all its vigour. And if it was allow, try and the states of Denmark and ed that we have a right to capture Sweden, it would he fraud in them the enemy's property at all, why to convey enemies goods; but the should that right be done
away, convention which Denmark avowed the property be protected, because to have signed, asserted that right: it was enclosed in a piece of wood? this, therefore, was a departure On the interpretation of that prin: from treaty, and an act of hostility. ciple, Grotius did not conceive it pofThe convention allowed, indeel, fible that there should ariseany doubt. the right of search, and confiscation Dr. Lawrence had said, that, if the of what was called contraband goods, northern powers had entered into a though the advocates of that con- confederacy against England, they vention contended against any search had received much provocation. If whatever; but the Tolicitor.general such cases of grievance had been incontended, that if we Mhould con- troduced into the inferior courts, sent to any modification of our the parties could have been redressed rights, the next step of the powers by an appeal to the proper tribunal, engaged in that convention, in obe- They had the security of the British dience to the advice of their philo- character for a strially upright and fophical advocates, would be to in- fair decision ; but, whatever that de. filt, that all kinds of property on cision might have been, no vation hoard merchant-tips, should be pro- would be justified in arming, in contected from detention, and free from sequence of the decree of an admisearch. The whole of that preten- ralty court, without previous applifion would be most assuredly advan- cation to the state by whom that ced, for the present distinction of court was appointed. As to the contraband was artificial. There policy of our ministry in not directly was no such distinction, correctly refifting, but for a time giving way speaking. All articles designed for, to the combination of 1780, we now and conducive to, the advantage of felt the ill effects of that policy. A our enemy, were inadmissible to be similar compromise of our righis freely conveyed, and therefore con- would, perhaps, expose us to some traband. If preposterous distinc- ftill greater evil on a future day. tions between one kind of goods Had the pretension of the armed and another were once admitled, neutrality been resifted then, we the next step would be, that we fould not now be disturbed by the could not take our enemies goods. repetition of it; but, he admitted, It would be contended, that the in- that the circumfiances of the couns tercourse of merchants ought not, try in 1780 were different from on any account, to be interrupted. what they are now. " Against whom, then," said the fo- With regard to the exemption of licitor, are we to make war? convoys, he considered this as an
Why, against a metaphysical being absurdity. The faith of a state might - called the state, as if the ftate were be pledged that no enemy's goudowere on board ; but that could not tone and tendency of the speech, be pledged. When a state granted by which the amendment was intropatiports, it could only take the af. duced. Among other strictures, he fidavits of the parties. The captor, asked, whether we ought, delibein his fearch, might find many arti- rately, to lay plans for frustrating cles not specified in those affidavits. our own hopes ? To labour lo dil Tbe papers the captain must have hearlen and disunite those on whose on board, describing the goods on union and courage our safety wholly board, and the destination of the depended? What could gentlemen fhip, might enable the captor to propose or promise to themlelves, by come at particulars, feldom commu- holding out to view the moft gloomy nicated to the state which granted and exaggerated pictures of our the passports, therefore a convoy fituation? What could be their aim onght to be no protection. As to in this strange display and applicaplunging into war precipitately, de- tion of their eloquence? Could the precated by his learned friend, ad- reputation of being thought clever miniftration had not been forward outweigh all regard to their stake to take hoftile measures, not until in the state? Supposing that they an application to the northern courts mould completely succeed in per. had produced an explicit avowal of fuading the people to distrust their their purposes. So soon as we un- government, their strength, and their derstood that a convention was fign- resources, and to admire and dread ed, which we had every reason to the enemy with whom we had to think hostile to our rights and in- contend, whal advance would they territs, we had put ourfelves in a have made towards bettering our posture to be prepared against the condition, towards increafing our confequences--consequences which strength, and improving our secuwere pointed at our maritime lupe- rityWere gentlemen afraid that riority and existence (long the la. we thould be led, by a generous envourite and avowed object of French thusiasm, to exert ourselves in the ambition), and, of course, against our public cause, beyond what might national existence: against such con- be perfectly consistent with our infequences we had put ourselves in a dividual interests? Was that fu much poiture to be prepared. We were the bent and temper of mankind, only guarding ourselves against the that prudent philosophers thought determinations we had obferved. it necessary to interpose their falu. The pretenfions of the northern con- tary admonitions, lest a disinterested federacy might not be pushed to the public spirit should acquire too powextent apprehended; if so, hostili- erful an ascendant: Was it for that ties would not ensue: at all events, purpose that honourable gentlemen measures ought to be taken for fe- thought themselves called upon, in curity. CHA P. IV.
policy and in prudence, to endeaThe folicitor-general having thus vour to draw off the attention of a established the justice of our claims, large portion of the people from the and the necellity of asserting and dangers that threatened their counmaintaining them, thought it necef- try, to the evils that threatened themfary, before he sat down, to make selves? “ I do not see,” laid the fapie observations on the general folicitor, “how, by dipicting those
evils in the gloomieft colours, we, the principle of the northeru conin any way, contribute to their alle federacy, the great and leading viation. I wish to God that all the question in the counsels and conduct upper classes of life would display of nations at this time, was agitater! the same fober fortitude that has in this fellion, on several occasions, characterized the lower orders of again and again. It was discussed the community. They have real with so much precision, perspicuity, and serious evils to struggle with folidity,and good sense, by Mr.Grant, and to eadure. There are thole on the motion for an amendment to who are obliged to talk their ima. the address, that we have-judged it ginations for Subjects of complaint, proper 10 give more room to his reawhich, if they would confels the loning, than it is permitted by our honest truth, never broke in on one limits to give to most speeches in moment of their repose, or robbed parliament, because it will prevent them of one moment of their enjoy the necessity of onr entering again ments. Yet, not contented with into the subsequent debates on ihat giving vent to their own mock la- subject. On a division of the house, mentations, they are angry that the amendment was rejected by 2-5 those who really fuffered fould new against 63. The original motion any degree of patience under their for an address was carried without a fufferings, and 'hould not be ready division, and having been carried to break out into insurrection againit through the usual stages of bills and that government which was exert- resolutions, was presented to his ing its utmost endeavours for their majekty on the 4th of February, relief."--The important queßion of
Pongreli of the War in Germany and Ilaly and Termination. The French
iarider !! "r"NIL p.?," the Inn--and the Salza --P lige of the Rhetian Alps ty u Dirijam of the French Army of the Grifins under Gereral Macdonald. Operations or the Gallo-Batavian Army under General sugerea.-Poption of the Austrian Army after the French had crolled the Inn and the Salza.The Command of the Auflrian Army taken by the Archduke Charles.The French within fifty Miles of Vienna-Confernation of the Imperalifts,
- Armifice of Steyer.- Affairs of Italy. -Disputes about thic Polefino. Convention of Caftiglione.-- French Invafion of Tuscany.-- Pallage of the Mincio by the French-und of the Adige.- Armistice of Treviso.
THAT event which, to the eve ed in the valley of the Inn, from
of a Briton, appeared the moft Kosteen, as far as the Engadine, prominent at this time, in the Mist- menace the direct roads from Vienna ing scene of European politics and to Italy, and, with the co-operation war, and which, of all that pailed of the army under general Brune, if withoat the Britih empire, was it Biould be victorious, of which no noticed firti in his majeli's speech doubt was entertained, on the Adige from the throne, we should now pro- and the Mincio, drive the Austrians ceed to relate, if it were not necef- into Hungary. In his route to fary, in the first place, to conclude Saltzburgh it was necessary to pals our narratire of the great affairs of two rivers; which enabled the re1200, in the foath of Europe: by treating Auftrians to retard his which the formation and the pro- march, and, in some degree, to gress of the northern confederacy weaken his force, by a vigorous reagainst the maritime claims of Bri- listance. Thele were the Inn and tain were so much influenced. the Salza. The Inn, rising in the
In order to improve the advantage country of the Grisons, and pafling gained by the great victory ai Ho- through Tyrol and Bavaria, falls ins henlinden, on the 3d of December, to the Danube near Pallaw. The 1800, general Moreau, keeping his bed of this river is deep, its current face towards the capital of the Aul: rapid, and its right bank, from the trian dominions, puihel on with the Alps to its junction with the Danube, greateft rapidity to Saltzburgh: by fortified by a chain of rocks. It was the occupancy of which post, he confidered by the marthal Turenne would double in the Tyrol, cut off as one of the strongest military barfrom the main army of the imperi- riers in Europe. The Salza, though alius in Germany the corps employ- neither fo large nor quite so rapid as